Human Animal Interaction Essay: Human Relationship with Dogs Assessment Answer
The human relationship with dogs can be traced back to as long as 10,000 years, which is often debated to be 30,000 years long. The relationship is not viewed from a single perspective, but from multiple angles. Being the first animal that had been able to develop domestic association with humans closely, these domestic dogs have been researched to be the descendants of wolves. The relationship that began years ago is still persistent (Marshall-Pescini, Virányi, & Range, 2015). Humans and dogs have been observed to be living happily around each other since then globally. Here the domestication is not a single way route. Both the species, i.e. the humans and dogs have domesticated each other from over these years (Serpell, 2016).
After assessing the several cases on the human and dog relations it has been found that since, the beginning dogs have been believed to be the best friends of men. The belief of domestic dogs ascending from wolves is turning old now. The modern dogs are now believed to be not related to the wolves generically rather. A very popular research was conducted over a dog. The research results were mapped for western and eastern parts of the Eurasian continent. The results showed possible domestication of dogs (Wang, et al. 2016).
However, the friendly relationship and domestication of dogs is not from the beginning. Earlier, humans used to pet dogs for their convenience and necessity. The carnivore class of humans used to eat the dogs and used their skins for pelts. This was the case of early human age. With the change in the environmental conditions, diets and other factors surrounding human beings, domestication of dogs began to take a proper shape. This was the time of shifting to Late Stone Age from Middle Stone Age (Leathlobhair, et al. 2018).
The former relationship which was created between dogs and humans was of a mutual need feeding. Human race provided the digs with food, shelter and protection from wild and used to receive guarding, alarming, detecting and hunting services from them. This bond has however grown in the modern era. It is no more just a give and take relationship, but a more complex and full of love bond now. This is also verified in the book, “How Dogs Think: Inside the Canine Mind.” It is even researched that the average spend made by a dog owner on their pet is nearly $2,000 annually (Leary, 2018).
Both the species have largely impacted upon the life of each other. The favourable impacts of humans domestically keeping dogs as pets are huge. People who are owners of dogs are less likely to fall sick. Dogs carry diversity of germs in their skin, which favourably act for human health. A study conducted in 2017 in China has revealed lower rates of cholesterol and heart attack in the owners of dogs. The coronary artery diseases and blood pressure have also been found to be lower in the owners of dogs (Friedmann, Son, & Saleem, 2015).
The chances of depression striking pet owners are likely less as compared in non-dog owners. Often people who are diagnosed with clinical depression are suggested by their doctors to start owning a dog. Interaction of dog-owners is likely observed to be more with others in comparison to the rest. Positivity inside humans is raised when they own dogs. ‘Oxytocin’, the hormone in brain which makes human to feel good is raised in humans even by looking at their dogs. PLOS published a study in 2015 which revealed dogs to be a harbinger of new relationships in their life. The social life of people is found to be exponentially good due to dogs (Hall, Dolling, Bristow, Fuller, & Mills, 2016).
Studies have shown dogs to be the detector of cancers in their owners by smelling it. Even dogs have been initialised to be trained for detecting cancers by many organisations. Dogs do this by licking of sniffing lumps or mules on the bodies of humans which on test might result in cancer detection (Ghosh, Jana, & Mahanti, 2016). The working level stress is also found to be reduced in offices where the employees at work often start interacting with dogs. The frequency of breaks in office working employees is increased as employees at work take breaks to either walk or play with dogs. It increases the level of energy in these employees. The result is a raised job satisfaction and profitability.
The western society is too much developed in this aspect. The positions provided to dogs have evolved largely. Dogs are now kept as therapy dogs, service dogs, police dogs, herding dogs, reading education assistance dogs and etc. These reading education assistance dogs, more than 2300 in number are being used around the Western countries for improving literacy skills of the children. The children who feel discomfort in reading in a crowded place are able to learn effectively by the presence of dogs around. The reading skills of children who practice reading around dogs are found to get improvised by a percentage of 12 in a period of 10 weeks (Lenihan, McCobb, Diurba, Linder, & Freeman, 2016).
There are certain risks too which human health encounter because of dogs. Dogs have a complete ability to cause illness in humans by spreading infections. Almost 59,000 people over the globe are annually killed because of rabies. This disease is largely spread due to the dogs and is dangerous to human health (Brunker, & Mollentze, 2018). Campylobacteriosis, the infection of diarrhoea is also largely found to be spread in US due to the infected dogs’ stool. These are just the illustrative cases.
The impact of human beings on dogs is also profoundly researched and observed. The bond shared between dogs and humans is found to reflect bond between a children and parent closely. Studies have shown evidence of dogs reflecting stressful symptoms at times when their owners are stressed. Tests have revealed almost identical cortisol levels (chemical released as a result of stress) in both dogs and humans at various time periods. It shows the impact of the mood of dog owners on their dogs (Willen, Mutwill, MacDonald, Schiml, & Hennessy, 2017).
Recently “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences” have published a study. The study showed the results of domestication of dogs on their anatomy of face. As per the study results dogs have found to evolve two facial muscles only after humans began to domesticate them. According to the study, these facial muscles are a result of domestication as after the evolution of these muscles it is easier for the dogs to bring a communication with humans (Kaminski, Waller, Diogo, Hartstone-Rose, & Burrows, 2019). Also due to domestication, they have developed an ability to use and read the manner in which humans communicate.
Several new studies being continuously conducted show chances of change in the personality of dogs over the coming decades because of their human owners and domestication. The manner in which the dog owners react and their mood switches, it brings an impact upon the behaviour of their dogs. The dog owners who have extrovert and positive attitude are more likely to raise dogs that are more active and excitable. On the other hand when the owners of dogs have negativity built inside, the dogs are found to be fearful and least responsive when it comes to training.
Both humans and dogs impact each other in several ways. However, the future of human-dog relationships is expected to change for better. Like in western countries, the dogs are no more limited to human domestication. Their roles are versatile and complex. The qualities built inside a dogs mind is harnessed for the betterment of the society. This trend shall flourish globe over the next two decades. The use of dogs as a reading assistance partner is largely endorsed and in a decade several other countries too shall take the lead. Dogs shall be seen used for the purpose of detection, hunting, policing and therapy procedures largely. The fact of mere domestication shall stay, but as a type of dog-human relationship. Its prominence shall fade (Maharaj, Kazanjian, & Haney, 2016). Therefore, it could be inferred that the chances of depression striking pet owners are likely less as compared in non-dog owners. However, there are certain risks too which human health encounter because of dogs and they have complete ability to cause illness in humans by spreading infections. Proper care and treatments should be taken by human to keep away themselves from these illness.