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Human Development and Life Transition Issue: Erikson and Bronfenbrenner Theory Assessment Answer

2.4.2 Formal essay: Human development and life transition issues

Formal essay: Human development and life transition issues

Length:1,200 words

Curriculum Mode:


Assessment details Please submit to the Turnitin link under Assessment 2 on the Human Relationships and Life Transitions vUWS site There is a word limit of 1,200 words (+/- 10%, namely between 1.080 - 1,320 words) for this essay. Use your computer to total the number of words used in your assignment but do not include the reference list at the end of your assignment in the word count. In-text citations will be included in the additional 10%-word count. If you exceed the word limit by more than 10% the marker will stop marking at 1,320 words.

Aim of assessment: One important way that infants and young children learn about their world is through their psychosocial development This assessment item aims to provide you with an opportunity to explore the psychosocial development of children in more detail. Throughout the unit, you will examine psychological, social (psychosocial), cognitive and moral compo-nents of human development and understand the relationship of these to the shaping of an individual's self-concept. Commencing in infancy with attachment to parents and caregivers, psychosocial development, according to Erikson, continues throughout the lifespan and involves interactions with caregivers, peers, educators, and the wider social context. This development may be influenced by a variety of normative (expected) and non-normative (deviation-s from usual) events or circumstances which influence infant and early childhood development (Hoffnung et al., 2019).

Scenario Case Study 1: Bachelor of Midwifery students only Read the following Case Study scenario: Charlotte is 6 weeks old and has been exclusively breastfed since birth. Her mother Meg is 33 years old and is a first time mother. She is currently on 9-months maternity leave, Meg has noticed that Charlotte has some unsettled periods throughout the day and night where she cries periodically, however she enjoys tummy time and is content when being cuddled by herself and her partner Joe. Joe is also on leave from work, but is resuming work in a week's time. Meg is feeding Charlotte every four hours and reports that she is very tired, but that she has taken her midwife's advice, and is resting when the baby is sleeping. The midwife reports that Charlotte is gaining weight, and Meg and Joe are adjusting well to parenthood, playing gently with their infant and interacting with her when she is awake. Essay Topic: Drawing on relevant nursing, midwifery and social science literature, and using two examples from scenario Case Study 1, write an essay on the following topic: —What are some important aspects of psychosocial development and attachment that occur in infants aged between 0 - 6 months, and what may influence this development?

Scenario topic 2: Bachelor of Nursing students only Read the following Case Study scenario: Andrew, aged 2 and a half years, is attending day care three days a week for five hours each day while his mother Maria works part-time. Maria states that Andrew is speaking in four to five word sentences and communicating his needs well. Andrew's father, Tom, is a full-time shift worker and he cares for Andrew regularly on his two days off each week. Maria explains that Andrew enjoys music. dancing and singing "silly" songs with his dad, herself and their large extended family. Andrew is Maria's first child, and she is concerned that her son is not yet toilet trained during the day or night, especially since she has noticed that other children in day care seem to have mastered this skill during the day. Maria also has questions in relation to healthy eating and active play for Andrew, and the benefits of child care and play groups. The Child and Family Health Nurse has reassured Maria that Andrew is meeting all his developmental milestones and will soon gain daytime continence by the time he is three years old, or soon after. The Nurse has also educated Maria on healthy eating patterns and active play. The Nurse has referred Maria to a mothers group in her local area to discuss strategies for toilet- training in a relaxed, informal environment with other parents. 

Essay Topic: Drawing on relevant Nursing and Social Science literature and using at least two scenario from case study 2. Write an essay on following topic:

What are some important aspects of psychological development that occur in children between the ages of two and five years and what influences this development? 


Human Development and Life Transition issues


Child development is the process by which the changes in the physical, lingual and emotional state post-birth until adulthood. The development occurs sequentially when the child begins to depend on their caregivers for life support, and that improves with time. The nurture and care provided to the child during this state will determine their development in behavioural aspects (Black et al., 2017). The influence of genetic factors plays an important role in the development of the child during its postnatal life. The environmental capacity will also influence the child’s growing behaviour. The components of child development are the cognition, which provides the child with the ability to learn and solve problems (Colla et al., 2017). The social and emotional regulation development provides the child with the ability to interact with others and learn self-control. Speech and language development are dependent on the nature of communication to facilitate its utilisation of language for communication. The physical skills include the development of motor skills that help it perform activities. Lastly, the sensory awareness within the child is developing, which provides it with the capacity to register sensitive information and utilise it later to improve their actions. In this report, the consideration of Erikson and Bronfenbrenner theories would be utilised to analyse the child development provided in case study 2. 

Discussion of the Case study 

The child developmental theory put forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner can be utilised to explain the ecological environment, which influences the growth and development of the child. The levels of the child’s ecological environment are present in four levels (Menon & Frongillo, 2018). The microsystem is the first level, which signifies the immediate environment; following, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem are present. In regards to the case study 2, Andrew’s immediate relationships, organisations and interactions will shape the development. The actions and involvements of the immediate family members, caregivers in day-cares would need to be encouraging the training behaviour. It is essential that their involvement is positive, as it will determine the growth of the child (Menon & Frongillo, 2018). It would positively influence the child’s behavioural development when the immediate environment is nurturing and encouraging as well as maintaining homogenous interaction with others (Colla et al., 2017). It is essential to develop the sense within the child that the child's reactions and actions will affect the interactions and activities within the microsystem. The mesosystem describes the entities of the child’s Microsystems and their communications. The mesosystem will determine the role of the parents as well as other caregivers to be positive to ensure the child that effective growth and development is achieved (Colla et al., 2017). Specific regards to the case study 2, Andrew, is getting proper care from her parents as well as the day-care providers. The toilet training might be working when the child is exposed to a positive and encouraging environment for him to become independent. It is important that the immediate members in Andrew's microsystem provide him stimulus that toilet training is important. 

The first stage of the Erikson’s Psychological development is explained in the previous section where the feelings of anxiety, fear and mistrust are associated with the ability of the parents or caregivers to make the baby secure. The toddlers between the ages of 1 to 3 years learn to control their actions, which in turn are resulted in environmental changes. This stage is the Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt phase, where the child shows interest in their preferences in surrounding elements (Dereboy et al., 2018). This could be expressed through the child’s preference in food, clothing or toys. In this stage, the child learns to do things by themselves and provides the virtue of will. It is essential that the child is allowed independence during this stage to facilitate a more confident and secure behaviour in their adult life.  The children understand boundaries as well as understanding the word "no" which makes them understand when certain things are off-limits. This is also the time when the child develops the ability to conceal its mistakes in order to avoid getting in trouble. The child is very observant during this stage of their lives and routines followed by adults will be imitated and followed by the babies (Knight, 2017). The children understand the inclusion of other people in their play. In response to the provided case study 2, the mother is concerned for her two years old who is not yet toilet trained. The training to sit on toilets among toddlers differs between 18 months to approximately three years. The toilet training is a physical, developmental and behavioural milestone, which is no associated with the age of the child. It is essential that the mother of the toddlers understands that the baby needs to be ready physically to sit on the toilet. Male toddlers, as seen it the provided case study take longer than female toddlers to toilet train normally. In the case of the child, Andrew, the primary caregiver needs to develop their confidence for successful toilet training. Encouragement and praising the child regularly on small acts of independent will encourage their confidence (Dehghani et al., 2014). It is important that the parents of the child avoid the same or doubt during the process of training. Reassuring the child for a positive attitude and confidence gathering is important to train the child for a toilet and help them show their first sign of independence (Dereboy et al., 2018). The child would need to be repeatedly practising the habit of toilet training mistakes need to be overlooked. The parents would need to refrain from shaming as most accidents are unavoidable in the age of the child. The provocation to tray every day will grow the will power of the child and differentiate their emotional expression for letting go and holding on. It is fundamentally important that the patience, encouragement and guidance are showed towards the toddler to develop its future success. The mother f the child in the provided case study can consult with the day time caregiver in the facility centre to help her child toilet training like other kids.


Certain issues like genetic components, medical factors, lack of opportunity, exposure to the environment, prenatal circumstances and parental care impact the development of children. It is important that immediate caregivers provide ample care to nurture the development of the child. In order to determine the best-fit approach for child development, it is essential that the parental figures or immediate caregivers consider expert advice from health and social care providers. The child in case study 2, Andrew, it is essential to provide a supportive environment for him in order to facilitate toilet training. However, it is also essential to remember that each child takes their own time to develop behaviour during their learning years. The communication between the immediate caregivers and the day-care providers need to be simultaneous to constantly remind and create an environment to facilitate the training for Andrew. The involvement of the child's parents even if they are separated need to be positive to ensure that the child is not detached from the nurturing environment. There cannot be any shameful stimulus, which would discourage the child's autonomy. The development of poor self-confidence would affect the child in future.  

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