This unit provides an introduction to the concepts and practices of human resource management within the United Kingdom and focuses on the management of recruitment, retention and employment cessation.
Recruiting and retaining staff of the right calibre contributes to the achievement of organisational purposes. Staff must make a valued contribution to the work of the organisation. Eventually they will leave, more often than not because they find alternative employment or retire. Occasionally, however, employment has to be terminated.
This unit considers how human resource management deals with these aspects of working. However, the focus of human resource management has moved beyond personnel management towards a more proactive approach that, in addition to the traditional roles associated with staff management, also considers how to get the best people and the best out of people so that they work in roles and ways that are closely aligned to organisational objectives. This often leads to the assertion by many senior managers that ‘Our employees are our most valuable resource’.
Human resource management takes place against a background of organisational needs, policies and procedures that are themselves shaped by legal and regulatory requirements. The unit therefore gives consideration to the national and European legislation that has, for example, seen the introduction of a range of anti-discriminatory legislation, the significance of which can be seen regularly in high profile and often very expensive court cases. Organisations with effective human resource management policies, processes and practices will have committed, skilled employees who contribute effectively to the organisation. In competitive business contexts this is a significant contribution to maintaining a competitive advantage
Part 2 Assignment Brief
Write a report of 5000 words showing that you understand all of the learning outcomes.
The questions require that you consider the instruction verb when writing. Some questions require that you write about organizations. When writing about organizations ensure that you use companies recognized in the UK.
On Successful completion of this module, students will be able to:
1 Understand the difference between personnel management and HRM
2 Understand how to recruit employees
3 Understand how to reward employees in order to motivate and retain them
4 Know the mechanisms for the cessation of employment.
Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
LO1 Understand the difference between personnel management and human resource management
1.1 distinguish between personnel management and human resource management
1.2 assess the function of the human resource management in contributing to organisational purposes
1.3 evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in human resource management
1.4 analyse the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on human resource management
LO2 Understand how to recruit employees
2.1 analyse the reasons for human resource planning in organisations
2.2 outline the stages involved in planning human resource requirements
2.3 compare the recruitment and selection process in two organisations
2.4 evaluate the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection techniques in two organisations
LO3 Understand how to reward employees in order to motivate and retain them
3.1 assess the link between motivational theory and reward
3.2 evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay
3.3 assess the effectiveness of reward systems in different contexts
3.4 examine the methods organisations use to monitor employee performance
LO4 Know the mechanisms for the cessation of employment
4.1 identify the reasons for cessation of employment with an organisation
4.2 describe the employment exit procedures used by two organisations
4.3 consider the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on employment cessation arrangements.
Employee retention and recruitment in the right competence can help any organization to achieve the goal of the organization. Human resource management generally takes place against the background of the needs, procedures, and policy of any organization. According to Brand and Croonen (2010), human resource management can be described as the function of organization by which performance of the organization can be maximized for gaining the strategic objective of organization. There are several tasks associated with the human resource management that is selection, recruitment, training and development of the employees along with the performance measurements of the employee so organization can provide those appropriate remunerations, welfare and motivation for their work. These assignments intended to describe several aspects of the human resource management that are generally shaped by different regulatory requirements. Here the selected organization is Marriott hotel and Airtours. Marriott hotel is one of the best hospitality based organization, on the other hand, Airtours is one of the tours operating organization.
There are several differences between the personnel management and human resource managements as follows:
|1) Personnel management does not focus on the strategic management and Marriott hotel follows personnel management in order to make a good employer- employee relationship.|
2) In case of personnel management, the role of the management of Marriott hotel is transactional
3) Through effective personnel management, Marriott hotel governed the relationship between the management and employees by employment contract and the collective bargaining process
4) The key people in the personnel management of the Marriott hotel are the PN or IR specialists and the acquisition of the skills are development and training (Brand and Croonen, 2010).
5) Personnel management is generally built on the collective agreement of both the employer and employees
|1) On the contrary, a proper HRM is followed by Marriott hotel so they can maximize the productivity of their company by optimizing the effectiveness of their employees (Balet al. 2013).|
2) In the case of HRM, the role of the management is transformational.
3) HRM is the open-ended contracts that the management of the Marriott hotel linked with the business demand
4) In the case of HRM of Marriott hotel, the key peoples are the general manager and line manager and skill acquisition technique is the learning organization.
5) On the contrary, HRM developed the competencies of the employees for achieving benefits from the development.
Table 1: Difference between personnel management and human resource management
(Source: Brand and Croonen, 2010, p.620)
As opined by Van De Voorde et al. (2012), the organizational goal of the function of the human resource management is to increase the sales and enter into the expansion of their business. Human resource management is very much helpful for the Marriott hotel for achieving the organizational goal because appropriate human resource helps the organization to increase the motivation among the employees so they can provide their fullest possible effort to increase the productivity of the organization. Different functional areas of the human resource management are the planning, development of employees, staffing, and employee maintenance.
Effective management of the human resource management helps Marriott hotel to achieve the objective and goals. Planning which is one of the functions of the HRM helps Marriott hotel to set clear goals, objective and aims by assigning the right number of people in their right job and in the right place so organization can pursue in the right path (Ball et al. 2011). Through effective planning, HR manager of Marriott hotel can forecast the personnel required for the particular tasks, help employees to cope with the changed, promote employees in a systematic way and utilize the existing workforce in more productively so they can increase their productivity and gain huge profit. Organizing is another function of HRM that support the effective management of the human resource for the development of the health and safety of the Marriott hotel. Maintenance of effective health and security in the hotel increases the quality of the services that the organization provided to their customers so it is very important. Ensuring effective communication is another function of the HRM that helps Marriott hotel by facilitating knowledge transfer and quick performance. For any hospitality-based organization, better communication is important because it helps employees of different departments like food and beverages department, accommodation department to understand the actual need of the customers. Budgeting support helps the organization to maintain their finance along with the objective and requirements of the organization.
Roles and responsibility of the line manager in the Marriott hotel are as follows:
Employee recruitment and selection:
Recruitment and selection are one of the main roles of the line manager in Marriott hotel. The line managers of Marriott hotel supply the organization competent and experience skilled and semi-skilled staff with effective customer serving capabilities.
Line manager of Marriott hotel engages their employee in an effective manner and they engage their employee by evaluating their specialization. After analyzing the specialization, they allocate the job to their skilled and semi-skilled staff like they allocate administrative based job to the people with administrative skill (Inyang and Akaegbu, 2014). Along with that, they also focus on the negative aspects of the employee and provide them proper consultation so they can remove that and ensure a high level of involvement with their organization.
Line manager of Marriott hotel develops an appropriate performance appraisal technique to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of their employee. This helps them to evaluate the appropriate remuneration, incentive, and reward for their employee. Along with that, it also evaluates the necessity of the training for their employee.
Checking quality of the services:
Line manager of the Marriott hotel is also associated with the checking of the service quality that is provided by their employees to the customers (Abdul‐Halim et al. 2016).
Managing operational costs:
Different operational procedures require different operational costs. The main tasks of the line manager are to evaluate the costs so chances of the overhead costs can be minimized.
Monitoring work process:
Another main roles and responsibility of the line manager of the Marriott hotel are to monitor the overall work process of the organization so they can maintain the service quality and minimize organizational conflict.
There are several laws that protect employees from any kind of discrimination are as follows:
Sex discrimination act 1975:
The main impact of this act is to eliminate the discrimination and providing equal opportunities to both the male and female in Marriott hotel.
Race relation act 1992:
According to Gooderham and Nordhaug (2011), there are several discrimination on the grounds of the nationality race, ethnicity, colour Electra that any organization faces. The main impact of this act is promoting race equality in the organization and demonstrating different procedures to prevent the race discrimination in the organization.
Equal pay act 1970:
Equal pay act prohibits any kind of less favourable treatment between men and women in terms of the conditions of the employment and pays (Katou et al. 2010).
Employment act 2002:
Employment act 2002 includes a new set of the rule regarding the paternity, maternity, changes in the tribunal system and adoption of the leave Electra. Therefore, this act creates a more flexible environment in the Marriott hotel.
Work and families act 2006:
In the Marriott hotel, this act can help the employees of the organization to make an effective balance between their family life and work life.
As stated by Armstrong and Taylor (2014), human resource planning helps any organization to ensure that appropriate number of the workforce is working in the right place and right job so organizational goals can be effectively achieved by them. Recently Marriott hotel opens different new branch in emerging market that creates a need to implement a plan to reorganize their human resource. This need can be assessed by conducting a SWOT analysis:
Table 2: SWOT analysis
(Source: Armstrong and Taylor, 2014, p.147)
Several stages that are involved in the human resource planning of the Marriott hotel are as follows:
Analyzing organizational objectives:
The main objective of the human resource planning of the Marriott hotel is developing a competent workforce for their new branch that they have recently opened.
Inventory of present human resource:
From the updated human resource information storage system it is seen that the organization currently have more than 199929 number of employees for serving in more than 5700 properties. However, in order to recruit employees for their new branch, Marriott hotel can hire some experienced employee from their existing branch and fill the gap in both their new and old branch by hiring some additional employees.
Forecasting demand and supply:
As stated by Flamholtz (2012), in order to run any hospitality based organization successfully huge numbers of employees are required. It is seen that they have hired some competent employee in the new branch who hold the managerial position in another branch so they can train the new employee. However, they cannot relocate a huge number of employees, especially those that are involved in room servicing and cleaning. Therefore, they can hire a supervisor from another branch but they have to hire semi-skilled person to form the market in which they are currently operating.
Estimating workforce gaps:
After comparing between the demand and supply, it is seen that there are some workforce gaps for mainly in the semi-skilled posts in the new branch and skilled posts in the other branch. Therefore, they must develop an appropriate plan to hire people and they must train their new employee (Purce, 2014).
Formulating final human resource action plan:
After analyzing the entire previous described factor, they must make an extensive plan to recruit people by mentioning the media to use.
Monitoring, control, and feedback:
After the completion of planning, the plan must be implemented and should be monitored regularly to identify any disparity.
Here the two-organization Marriott hotel and Airtours follow two distinct processes of the recruitment and selection because they are belonging from two distinct industries.
In order to recruit their employees, Marriott hotel first identifies their vacancy in a different branch of their company. After they write the description of the job that clearly mentions all of the roles and responsibility regarding job and along with that, they mention the qualification required for this job. After that, they mention the specification of the person where they clearly mention the qualification, experience and characteristics required for that job. For example, if they hire employees for room servicing, then it is not required for the person to be highly qualified but the requirement is that they must be well mannered and they should have some experience to serve customers. After they advertise their job, for advertising their job they mainly select the online media where a competent candidate can see the job responsibility, person specification and apply for the job if it is matched with the capability of them. After receiving an application from the candidates, they shortlist the applicants based on their experience and capabilities. Then they arrange the interview process. The HR staffs mainly conduct interviews and in the interview board, they involve at least 5 interviewee that is dependent on the position. If the interview is conducted for the managers, then more interviewee are involved and interview for room service boy involve less number of the interviewee. However, if they want to hire managers, then they conduct a written test before employee and there are no tests for the semi-skilled person. After that, they select best candidates and then offer the job after checking their references.
Figure 1: Recruitment and selection process of Marriott hotel
(Source: Marriott.com, 2016)
On the other hand, In order to hire employees in the Airtours, they identify vacancy and write job description by mentioning the job description. Along with that, they also mention the person specification. They mainly required hiring the customer relationship officer, guide and administrative staff. After mentioning all the job-related specification, they post it on both the online and offline media to attract huge customers. After that, they request an application from the candidates. When they receive an application from both the media then they shortlist the candidates based on their knowledge regarding different places. Then they conduct a first round interview for them to evaluate their knowledge regarding different places, and their customer convincing power along with their manners. This process is applicable only for the customer relationship officer. However, for administrative staff they conduct a written test also. The candidates who succeed the first round, they send them to the send round interview that is managerial round. After the entire interview, they select the best candidates and offer them a job by sending offer letter through online media.
Figure 2: Recruitment and selection process of Airtours
(Source: Airtours.co.uk, 2016)
First, few steps of both the organization is same. Before advertising, the job both the organization creates written a document on the job specification and person specification. Then Marriott hotel advertises the job in the online media and Airtours advertise the job in both offline and online media so it can be said that the candidate attraction strategy of the Airtours is better than the organization. After short listing the candidates, Marriott hotel conducts wrote test for the managerial candidates that provide them an added advantage. It helps them to evaluate the reasoning capabilities of the candidates that are very important to have among managers. On the other hand, Airtours conducts two level interviews that help them to evaluate both the knowledge of the employee regarding different tourist's destination and their customer convincing skills.
As opined by Lawler (2011), motivation is the process by which behaviour of any individual is influenced by the other individual and those individual helps each other to satisfy their needs and goals. On the other hand, reward is something that any person receives based on the performance they achieved. There are different motivational theories like Maslow’s motivational theory, Herzberg’s motivational theory Electra. Among them, the Herzberg’s motivational theory mentions that there are mainly two factors that can motivate any person are hygienic factor and motivational factor. Therefore, the management of Marriott hotel fulfils the needs of their employee by satisfying these two factors. They satisfy their employees by different motivational factors like working environments, recognition, job condition, challenging work Electra. On the other hand they satisfy their employee by different hygienic factor that include compensation and pay for which they provide sufficient payment to their employees (Rynes et al. 2012). Managers of Marriott hotel that follows Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, motivates their employee by satisfying their needs. Therefore, it can be said that by implementing different motivational theory at work, Marriott hotel motivates their employee so they can get the job satisfaction and provide highest possible effort to their organization.
Job evaluation process of the Marriott hotel is as follows:
As stated by Boxall and Purcell (2013), job analysis is the process by which different information regarding the job is obtained by the management. For analyzing the job, Marriott hotel first specify the job description and then they indicate all of the abilities and skills required to perform the job.
After the analysis of the job, Marriott hotel assign the worth of the job by analysis the specification and description of the job.
After the assessment of the job, they determine the pay structure for their employees.
Classification of the job:
Classification of the job is the last process of the job evaluation, in which Marriott hotel is mainly concerned with the job categorization according to the pay scales of the job.
Therefore, it is clear that the Marriott hotel evaluates the job to determine the pay structure for their employees. They evaluate the job description, responsibilities and roles of the job for the determination of the paying structure of the job. Along with that, they also set the job priority. If any job has the less priority then they set less amount of pay for the employees associated with that job and if any job has the highest priority then they set higher pay structure for the employee associated with that job. For example, they provide their manager better salary than their room service personnel.
Reward systems can be financial like money reward and nonfinancial like recognizing for good work. According to Brand and Croonen (2010), based on situations, reward systems helps in motivating and improving employee performance. Apart from financial and nonfinancial reward system, there are intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that are used to motivate employees. However, as different organizations have their own goals and objectives, reward system differs. For example, in Airtours, financial reward systems are mostly followed. It is believed that immediate money reward helps in motivating employees. However, as identified from Herzberg two-factor theories, even after the presence of extrinsic rewards like money rewards and promotion, intrinsic rewards like recognising for good work or autonomy in doing work helps in fulfilling the requirements identified in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory. As per this theory, employee motivation depends on the fulfilment of physiological, love, safety, self-esteem and self-actualisation. Only money rewards cannot fulfil this requirement. Providing intrinsic and extrinsic rewards help in fulfilling these requirements which help in obtaining job satisfaction among employees. As employees are satisfied with their jobs, their performance improved which ultimately contributes to the overall performance improvement of the organisation. Marriot hotel focuses more on intrinsic rewards as it is believed that intrinsic rewards helps in employee engagement actively, the first requirement for employee performance improvement and organisational performance improvement.
Flamholtz (2012) identified performance appraisal and 360 degree performance measurement as the two main methods of employee performance measurement. In Marriot Hotels, the main method used for employee performance is 360 degree performance measurement (Marriott.com, 2016). In 360 degree performance measurement, performance of an employee is measured based on the rating gained by an employee by the managers and sub ordinates regarding the work. This method is effective as it helps to identify the weakness and strengths within an employee which helps the trainers to provide accurate training. However, as argued by Bell et al. (2011), due to personal interest, sub ordinates and managers can lie against an employee which may show negativity in an employee. However, Airtours is not only dependent on 360 degree appraisal as it focuses on the overall performance of employees based on their performance on sales, customer satisfaction and completion of work within the deadline or given time. It helps in measuring and monitoring employee performance in the real time.
As stated by Mowday et al. (2013), cessation can be referred as the termination of any employee due to several reasons. There are various reasons for which Marriott hotel terminates employee or employee leaves the Marriott hotel. However, maximum employee describe that they get a delightful experiences in their organization but there are several reasons for which they can left their organization, which are as follows:
Reason behind Marriott hotel terminates employees:
Reason behind employees leaves Marriott hotel:
When any employee of Marriott hotel wants to leave their organization, they submit a resignation letter to their organization and in that resignation letter, they confirm the last day of working (Bell et al. 2011). When the resignation letter draws the attention of the HR manager then he/she encourage the employee to set stages for the transition to learning knowledge from the departing employees that can help them improve the company standard. Immediately before or on the date of leaving the departing employee has to attend different basic housekeeping issues. After that, employers document the general impression of the employee regarding their HVS work environment so it can be used in later time to improve the environment. Finally, employer and employee must achieve an appropriate closure by conducting a face-to-face interview.
The exit procedure of the Airtours is slightly different from the Marriott hotel. Here first employees draw their resignation letter and draw their notice period to the HR manager. After that, the employers request a written statement that shows the reason for leaving the organization. This statement must be submitted within 14 days of the request. If an employer can arrange replacement of the departing employees within the notice period then it is important for the employee to organize a handover timetable that clearly involved all the work process (Brown et al. 2010). After that, employers must assess the net payment that they should provide to the employee and after completing all the process, employers should pay that amount. Then employers conduct a face-to-face interview with discussing the reason for leaving.
As opined by Slaikeu and Hasson (2012), cessation of the employees in the Marriott hotel is directly impacted by the regulatory and legal framework of the UK, because they follow every regulatory framework in order to make their organization more transparent. The employee Rights act 1996 in the UK assured that the employees of the Marriott hotel would get a job security that means the employer cannot terminate their employees without any effective reason for termination (Kruppe et al. 2013). According to this law, if the employer in Marriott hotel terminates their employee without any effective reason then the employee can sue the employer. Along with that, there are several discrimination laws in the UK like Race relation act 1992, Sex discrimination act 1975, according to which employer of the Marriott hotel cannot terminate their employees for their race, ethnicity, gender Electra. The legal and regulatory framework of the UK also describe that employer cannot terminate any employee just because that particular employee has disabilities.
From the above discussion, it can be clearly concluded that the Marriott hotel applied affective HRM to plan their organizational human resource so they can gain competitive advantage. It is also seen that they follow all of the rules and regulations that help them to increase their brand image. It is seen that currently, Marriott hotel is expanding their organization so they need to hire more human resource through effective recruitment and selection policy. After hiring those employees, they provide appropriate training to their employee so they can be motivated towards their work. They also provide different types of reward so their employee can feel motivated.