ICT705 Data and System Integration: Intelligent enterprise designs and EIA RA
Intelligent enterprise designs and EIA RA
Enterprise architecture is the crucial process of translating the business strategies into the change in the enterprise by communication, identification and planning the evolution of the organisation into the desired future state. If the technology is adequately executed, it can help to bridge gaps between businesses and IT and enable the organisational leaders to make better-informed decisions. A transformation initiative such as "e-government" is a worldwide phenomenon. The government is spending lots of money and hours to fix the data collection system of the countries. In order to build a useful e-government model, it is required that the transformation initiatives address both the policy governance as well as the operational governance. Within executive management, the priority should be to understand the experience of the citizens with the existing models and source of the failures in those models.
The report provides an analytic view on modern technologies such as EIA for developing a national e-government system. It also introduces the intelligent enterprise design as the means to establish an e-government system. The report analyses the use of advanced technologies in the connecting government system. The report also introduces the enterprise information architecture as the reference architecture for the e-governance framework. It discusses the benefits of the Enterprise Information Architecture as the guide to develop e-government systems around the world.
Intelligent enterprise design
In order to decrease expenses as well as improve the interaction experience of the population, many countries are in the process to convert records into digital form. These countries and constituents, in particular, are the part of the creative enterprise (Fayoumi. and Loucopoulos, 2016, pp.174-194). In the modern world, the larger economies are studying, the smaller economies as models for innovation as well as imitating many of their methodologies in the course. The governments of the smaller economies such as Korea, Israel, Singapore and Dubai among others are striving to make their country a better place are investing on many new technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning and natural language processing among other technologies to drive down the costs as well as to improve customer experience.
On the other hand, the more developed economies like the US and UK are handing down this sort of services to the private sectors. This is not the best practice since the challenges faced by the government are unique such as political uncertainties, demographic shifts, macro threats among others (Afanasyev, Voit and Kanev, 2016, pp. 1-4). These are the challenges best handled by adopting the solutions from the private sector to meet their requirements.
A transformation initiative such as “e-government” is a worldwide phenomenon. The government is spending lots of money and hours to fix the data collection system of the countries. The efforts are not nearly enough because of the demand of people for new and improved digital services that mimic their experiences in the private sector. According to the Digital Transformation Office in Australia survey, 66 percent of the private-public, as well as 75 percent of the small business owners, agree to the idea of a digital form for the administrative interaction. It was also found that the citizens were disappointed with the lack of established government services in the current scenario as compared to the apps as well as cloud services created within the private sector.
These outcomes dictate the need for an advanced technological model within the system of the government to enable transformation, improve the government services as well as increase the security measures in the existing systems (Jenkins et al., 2015, p.20). The government also requires dismantling old systems and structures which slows down the growth in technological advancement.
In order to build a useful e-government model, it is required that the transformation initiatives address both the policy governance as well as the operational governance. Within operational governance, the priority should be to understand the experience of the citizens with the existing models and source of the failures in those models. It is required that the model requests citizen’s feedback and cumulate it in standardised and available formats while continually calculating them. The information is then incorporated with Policy governance into the expectations that governments have for the agencies and in turn that agencies have for their workers. It is the foundation of the performance measurement and establishes responsibility for every step of a citizen’s exchanges with every agency that relies on them for services.
Two functions of the intelligent e-government systems are:
- Citizen centricity – in the future scenarios the government will be inclined to shift to engaging with citizens from the services provided to them in order to meet the rising expectations. Governments from many economies have transformed their focus on the citizen contentment, and commitment and a well-intended digital government setting offers greater prospects for building participatory and mutual relationships among all significant stakeholders (Wang et al., 2018, pp.42-49). According to the UN global e-government survey 2010, the concept of connected government derived ‘citizen centricity’ as the keyword.
The significant trends raised by citizen expectations in the government sector drives four significant characteristics:
- Pressure for delivering more citizen services bearing a resemblance to consumer services.
- Need to redeploy resources in spots that enhances government program deliverance as well as make it evident to the citizens
- Drive to develop citizen-centric outcomes and set up a government culture of service distinction and responsibility
- The necessity to expand the economy and attract as well as foster new businesses utilising new industry models under the umbrella of “government as a catalyst."
Driven by these pressures, government purposes cannot be limited to just the introduction of digital technologies as well as process automation within departments. It also requires a focused effort on engaging citizens digitally to modernise the entire government sector.
- Social inclusion – it is based on the idea of the governments to shift further than the vertical and horizontal incorporation of government service in order to engage the citizens as well as businesses at significant points in the policy and the decision making processes. E-democracy as well as social inclusion ensures that deliverance of government services is not a one-way exchange (Rinaldi and Tosi, 2017, pp. 264-275). Inventive ways to facilitate constituent participation with the help of technology and build a reviewing approach are imperative for the success of connected government.
Citizen inclusion faces a large number of hurdles.
Participation in e-governance is considered to be one of the primary tools to ensure effective government to citizen communication. Governments all over the world have introduced a number of initiatives that have led to the creation of the platforms for e-participation which enables online participation of the individuals in the policy-making and mandate via Information and Communication Technologies (Ju, Liu, and Feng, 2019, pp.1-16). However, the number of people using these kinds of platforms is limited, and the general objective of the governments are not fully met. The reasons which were identified regarding the lack of participation was the digital divide as well as social exclusion. The governments must strive to not only create the platforms to participate but also make people know about the said platforms and provide them with means to connect with the e-governance.
Enterprise Information Architecture Reference Architecture (EIA RA)
Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA) is considered a component of the architecture of the enterprise. It is basically intended to provide a common platform for cost-effective data sharing across different units of the organisation taking care of the privacy of the particular information and security of the data (Yu, Silveira, and Sundaram, 2016, pp. 1856-1860). The architecture is most commonly used in redundancy assessment of the organisation, process redundancy assessment and also for the design and development of the business language common to companies as well as technology redundancy assessment.
An Enterprise Information Architecture provides a view focused on the information on the overall enterprise architecture. The EIA Reference Architecture facilitates an enterprise to generate, preserve, use and administer all information assets throughout their lifecycle. Technical users and business users express their need of information in the context of business practices shaping the business as well as the application architecture based on the performance of the role (Verdouw et al., 2018, pp.755-779). The information is looked upon from an end-user perspective operating or working on it for the achievement of individual goals. Key technical and functional capabilities enable and provide the set of operations on information required by the client community of an enterprise.
Developing an open information architecture helps to establish the decision-making standards as well as principles for using information as government resource, support governance requirements, facilitate the enforcement of information control and incorporate as well as automate government proceedings (Dang and Pekkola, 2017). It can define the original specification that connects the course of information through its lifecycle.
At some point information became government asset and essential to the policies and programs they deliver. The unstructured data stream can be processed as the governments receive it as well as analysed to generate structured data in order to store the data. Based on the insights of the analysis the processes can be changed for the better functioning of the government (Bogner and Zimmermann, 2016, pp. 1-6). The e-governance programs utilise these structured data to conserve its outreach to the citizens of the country.
The enterprise information architecture plays a crucial role in designing the e-governance capability, its deployment and the process to control any instantiation of the EIA throughout its lifecycle. The information capacity of the government enables a business to govern and manage its information as strategic assets.
The benefits of the Enterprise Information Architecture on the development of e-governance are:
- It facilitates a common understanding required between the government and the citizens.
- It provides data security of the information assets from unauthorised access
- It also includes the integration of the new policies within the e-governance framework.
Enterprise architecture is the crucial process of translating the business strategies into the change in the enterprise or the government by communication, identification and planning the evolution of the organisation into the desired future state (Alwadain et al., 2016, pp.39-52). If the technology is adequately executed, it can help to bridge gaps between businesses and IT and enable the organisational leaders to make better-informed decisions.
Effective information architecture can increase the organisational efficiencies reducing the cost, the speed of the market and provide quality benefits. Operational efficiency benefits would be using the infrastructure to identify and eliminate complex and costly processes between incoherent systems and standardise platforms like e-governance technology.
It also provides effectiveness in the organisational processes improving the opportunities and potentially increasing the benefits of revenue generation (Banaeianjahromi. and Smolander, 2016, pp.140-164). The improvement in the operations requires analysis of the business architecture as well as the system architecture for the business proceedings.
The information architecture provides future opportunities and benefits by the implementation of the strategic initiatives.
It also provides efficiency in terms of automation reducing the costs by aligning technologies with the strategies within the organisation. It could be used to assess the benefits as well as the impacts of the new technologies and systems as well.
The report concludes the fact that Enterprise Information Architecture is a viable option to develop any e-government framework. On the basis of the analysis provided it is found that the e-government systems must include steps to enable transformation, improve the government services as well as increase the security measures in the existing systems. The EIA provides various benefits in terms of data efficiency, information effectiveness, data security, and automation among others.