ICT705 Data and System Integration Task 1
Assessment and Submission Details
Marks: 20% of the Total Assessment for the Course
Please follow the submission instructions in Blackboard. The assignment will be marked out of a total of 100 marks and forms 20% of the total assessment for the course. ALL assignments will be checked for plagiarism by SafeAssign system provided by Blackboard automatically. Refer to your Course Outline or the Course Web Site for a copy of the “Student Misconduct, Plagiarism and Collusion” guidelines. Late submission will be penalised according to the policy in the course outline. Please note Saturday and Sunday are included in the count of days late. Requests for an extension to an assignment MUST be made to the course coordinator prior to the date of submission and requests made on the day of submission or after the submission date will only be considered in exceptional circumstances. Assignment submission extensions will only be made using the official University guidelines.
Connected Government Connected government enables governments to connect seamlessly across functions, agencies and jurisdictions to deliver effective and efficient services to citizens and businesses. The United Nations (UN), in its Global E-Government Survey of 2008, used connected governance as its primary criteria by which to evaluate and rank national e-government programs. In continuation of this theme, the UN Global E-Government Survey of 2010 takes the concept of connected government even further, adding “citizen-centricity” as the watchword. This approach to government service delivery requires countries to shift from a model of providing government services via traditional modes to integrated electronic modes wherein the value to the citizens and businesses gets enhanced. Government transformation is a long term endeavor that is seldom impacted by any short term technology trends. In their transition toward connected government, all governments typically traverse through the four primary stages of e-government capability and maturity, each stage representing a progressively higher level in the government transformation continuum. The four widely used stages of e-government capability and maturity are: webpresence, interaction, transaction and transformation. Furthermore, connected government is the desired state that countries strive to reach as part of the transformation level of egovernment maturity. However, there is no straightforward way to describe what exactly connected government means and its implications to countries. Based on the current state of practice and available literature, connected government is expected to entail certain characteristics and capabilities. These characteristics and capabilities, described below, are clearly stated to be the key contributors to e-government development according to the UN E-Government Survey 2010, and in turn contribute to national development. These characteristics and capabilities, structured as dimensions, allow connected government to be viewed as a multi-dimensional construct. These dimensions of connected government include but limited to:
Citizen centricity: This refers to viewing the governments from the outside in, i.e. understanding the requirements and expectations of the citizens becomes the preeminent guiding principle for all government policies, programs and services. In short, this represents the service-dominant logic which requires the governments to operate as one enterprise and organize itself around citizen demands and requirements;
Common infrastructure and interoperability: This refers to the use of standards and best practices across governments to encourage and enable sharing of information in a seamless manner. Interoperability is the ability of organizations to share information and knowledge within and across organizational boundaries. The underlying foundation for effective interoperability comes from standardized common infrastructure;
Collaborative services and business operations: Connected government requires ministries and agencies to collaborate. It is not difficult to uncover success stories about integration and interoperability at the technology level. However, to collaborate at the level of business services and functions requires political will. This is because collaboration at this level leads to shallower stovepipes, elimination of redundant or overlapping services and discovery of common and shared services, which in turn lead to loss of authority and control for some;
Social inclusion: This refers to the ability of governments to move beyond horizontal and vertical integration of government service delivery to engaging the citizens and businesses at relevant points in the policy and decision-making processes. E-democracy and social inclusion ensure that delivery of government services is not a one-way exterchange. Innovative ways of using technology to facilitate constituent participation and building a consultative approach is imperative for the success of connected government.
You are to prepare a preliminary report for the Australian Federal Government describing the benefits of intelligent enterprise design and Enterprise Information Architecture Reference Architecture (EIA RA) for developing a national E-Government system. The intended audience for this report are government officials who may have knowledge of the government operations but limited computing knowledge. Your report should follow the following template:
Table of Contents
Table of Figures
2.0 Intelligent Enterprise Design Discuss the business vision for the future intelligent E-Government system. Use two example functions from the “Focus Area” in (Week 1) Information Analysis Evolution discussion file to explain the benefits of evolving from “Historical Reporting” to “Anticipate and Shape”.
2.1 Function 1
2.2 Function 2
3.0 Enterprise Information Architecture Reference Architecture Discuss the benefits an EIA RA approach can provide to guide development of an EGovernment system. This discussion should expand on at least three of the identified benefits and should include at least one diagram providing an overview of the proposed system.
4.0 Conclusion & Recommendations References
Intelligent enterprise designs and EIA RA
Enterprise architecture is the crucial process of translating the business strategies into the change in the enterprise by communication, identification and planning the evolution of the organisation into the desired future state. If the technology is adequately executed, it can help to bridge gaps between businesses and IT and enable the organisational leaders to make better-informed decisions. A transformation initiative such as "e-government" is a worldwide phenomenon. The government is spending lots of money and hours to fix the data collection system of the countries. In order to build a useful e-government model, it is required that the transformation initiatives address both the policy governance as well as the operational governance. Within executive management, the priority should be to understand the experience of the citizens with the existing models and source of the failures in those models.
The report provides an analytic view on modern technologies such as EIA for developing a national e-government system. It also introduces the intelligent enterprise design as the means to establish an e-government system. The report analyses the use of advanced technologies in the connecting government system. The report also introduces the enterprise information architecture as the reference architecture for the e-governance framework. It discusses the benefits of the Enterprise Information Architecture as the guide to develop e-government systems around the world.
In order to decrease expenses as well as improve the interaction experience of the population, many countries are in the process to convert records into digital form. These countries and constituents, in particular, are the part of the creative enterprise (Fayoumi. and Loucopoulos, 2016, pp.174-194). In the modern world, the larger economies are studying, the smaller economies as models for innovation as well as imitating many of their methodologies in the course. The governments of the smaller economies such as Korea, Israel, Singapore and Dubai among others are striving to make their country a better place are investing on many new technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning and natural language processing among other technologies to drive down the costs as well as to improve customer experience.
On the other hand, the more developed economies like the US and UK are handing down this sort of services to the private sectors. This is not the best practice since the challenges faced by the government are unique such as political uncertainties, demographic shifts, macro threats among others (Afanasyev, Voit and Kanev, 2016, pp. 1-4). These are the challenges best handled by adopting the solutions from the private sector to meet their requirements.
A transformation initiative such as “e-government” is a worldwide phenomenon. The government is spending lots of money and hours to fix the data collection system of the countries. The efforts are not nearly enough because of the demand of people for new and improved digital services that mimic their experiences in the private sector. According to the Digital Transformation Office in Australia survey, 66 percent of the private-public, as well as 75 percent of the small business owners, agree to the idea of a digital form for the administrative interaction. It was also found that the citizens were disappointed with the lack of established government services in the current scenario as compared to the apps as well as cloud services created within the private sector.
These outcomes dictate the need for an advanced technological model within the system of the government to enable transformation, improve the government services as well as increase the security measures in the existing systems (Jenkins et al., 2015, p.20). The government also requires dismantling old systems and structures which slows down the growth in technological advancement.
In order to build a useful e-government model, it is required that the transformation initiatives address both the policy governance as well as the operational governance. Within operational governance, the priority should be to understand the experience of the citizens with the existing models and source of the failures in those models. It is required that the model requests citizen’s feedback and cumulate it in standardised and available formats while continually calculating them. The information is then incorporated with Policy governance into the expectations that governments have for the agencies and in turn that agencies have for their workers. It is the foundation of the performance measurement and establishes responsibility for every step of a citizen’s exchanges with every agency that relies on them for services.
Two functions of the intelligent e-government systems are:
The significant trends raised by citizen expectations in the government sector drives four significant characteristics:
Driven by these pressures, government purposes cannot be limited to just the introduction of digital technologies as well as process automation within departments. It also requires a focused effort on engaging citizens digitally to modernise the entire government sector.
Citizen inclusion faces a large number of hurdles.
Participation in e-governance is considered to be one of the primary tools to ensure effective government to citizen communication. Governments all over the world have introduced a number of initiatives that have led to the creation of the platforms for e-participation which enables online participation of the individuals in the policy-making and mandate via Information and Communication Technologies (Ju, Liu, and Feng, 2019, pp.1-16). However, the number of people using these kinds of platforms is limited, and the general objective of the governments are not fully met. The reasons which were identified regarding the lack of participation was the digital divide as well as social exclusion. The governments must strive to not only create the platforms to participate but also make people know about the said platforms and provide them with means to connect with the e-governance.
Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA) is considered a component of the architecture of the enterprise. It is basically intended to provide a common platform for cost-effective data sharing across different units of the organisation taking care of the privacy of the particular information and security of the data (Yu, Silveira, and Sundaram, 2016, pp. 1856-1860). The architecture is most commonly used in redundancy assessment of the organisation, process redundancy assessment and also for the design and development of the business language common to companies as well as technology redundancy assessment.
An Enterprise Information Architecture provides a view focused on the information on the overall enterprise architecture. The EIA Reference Architecture facilitates an enterprise to generate, preserve, use and administer all information assets throughout their lifecycle. Technical users and business users express their need of information in the context of business practices shaping the business as well as the application architecture based on the performance of the role (Verdouw et al., 2018, pp.755-779). The information is looked upon from an end-user perspective operating or working on it for the achievement of individual goals. Key technical and functional capabilities enable and provide the set of operations on information required by the client community of an enterprise.
Developing an open information architecture helps to establish the decision-making standards as well as principles for using information as government resource, support governance requirements, facilitate the enforcement of information control and incorporate as well as automate government proceedings (Dang and Pekkola, 2017). It can define the original specification that connects the course of information through its lifecycle.
At some point information became government asset and essential to the policies and programs they deliver. The unstructured data stream can be processed as the governments receive it as well as analysed to generate structured data in order to store the data. Based on the insights of the analysis the processes can be changed for the better functioning of the government (Bogner and Zimmermann, 2016, pp. 1-6). The e-governance programs utilise these structured data to conserve its outreach to the citizens of the country.
The enterprise information architecture plays a crucial role in designing the e-governance capability, its deployment and the process to control any instantiation of the EIA throughout its lifecycle. The information capacity of the government enables a business to govern and manage its information as strategic assets.
The benefits of the Enterprise Information Architecture on the development of e-governance are:
Enterprise architecture is the crucial process of translating the business strategies into the change in the enterprise or the government by communication, identification and planning the evolution of the organisation into the desired future state (Alwadain et al., 2016, pp.39-52). If the technology is adequately executed, it can help to bridge gaps between businesses and IT and enable the organisational leaders to make better-informed decisions.
Effective information architecture can increase the organisational efficiencies reducing the cost, the speed of the market and provide quality benefits. Operational efficiency benefits would be using the infrastructure to identify and eliminate complex and costly processes between incoherent systems and standardise platforms like e-governance technology.
It also provides effectiveness in the organisational processes improving the opportunities and potentially increasing the benefits of revenue generation (Banaeianjahromi. and Smolander, 2016, pp.140-164). The improvement in the operations requires analysis of the business architecture as well as the system architecture for the business proceedings.
The information architecture provides future opportunities and benefits by the implementation of the strategic initiatives.
It also provides efficiency in terms of automation reducing the costs by aligning technologies with the strategies within the organisation. It could be used to assess the benefits as well as the impacts of the new technologies and systems as well.
The report concludes the fact that Enterprise Information Architecture is a viable option to develop any e-government framework. On the basis of the analysis provided it is found that the e-government systems must include steps to enable transformation, improve the government services as well as increase the security measures in the existing systems. The EIA provides various benefits in terms of data efficiency, information effectiveness, data security, and automation among others.