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Impact of Social Media on People

Annotated Bibliography – Information sheet & template Word limit: 750 words

An annotated bibliography is an organised list of sources, each of which is followed by a brief note or ‘annotation’ of about 150 to 200 words (for the purposes of this assessment). Please do not outline the source’s structure – make sure that you explain the main ideas and present analysis.

Topic: Facebook, virtual interactions & everyday life Question: How has social media changed personal interactions & relationships?

You will find the readings related to your topic. Please select three of the sources that you think are most relevant to your topic and write annotations for them. You will also need to find three cross-references from each source that you write an annotation for. Please note that the citations for the three sources that you annotate and the crossreferences do not count toward the word limit


Template

Introduction 

The introduction should be no more than 75 words in length. According to Booth et al. (2003), introductions should do three things: establish CONTEXT; identify the PROBLEM that the paper focuses on; and, outline your RESPONSE to it. In writing the introduction, keep in mind that the ‘research question’ is the primary focus here and your response is to consult the literature. Please use the heading ‘Introduction’ as above to identify it. 

Body of annotated bibliography 

Each source should be identified and have its own annotation of roughly 150 to 200 words. It is fine to write the annotation as one paragraph. The annotation must do two things: (1) summarise the key findings/argument of the selected source; and, (2) explain the source’s relevance to the research question. It should also do ONE or more of the following: evaluate the methods used in the source; evaluate the source’s conclusions; or, assess the position the source takes in relation to the research question. 

Formatting tips: This section should citation for the source in a box (i.e. insert a table with one row and column in Microsoft Word) as outlined below. You should then identify the Annotation with a heading (the word ‘Annotation’ is fine) and then list three crossreferences afterwards (you could list these in a table with one row and column). Please use the format below for each of the three sources you have selected…

 

Source 1: McClelland A. and P. Smyth (eds.) (2016) Social Policy in Australia: Understanding for Action 3rd Edition Oxford University Press: Oxford.


Annotation

 < insert text (150 to 200 words) here > 

Cross references

* one relevant citation listed in the reference list of source 1 

* a second relevant citation listed in the reference list of source 1 

* a third relevant citation listed in the reference list of source 1 

Repeat this format for sources 2 and 3.

What are cross-references? A cross-reference is a source of interest identified using the reference list of the source we have read (and that is the subject of the annotation). That is, we read a journal article and look over its reference list closely. For if the journal article is of interest and relevant, chances are some of the sources appearing in its reference list will be too. So, we ask you to search the reference lists of the sources that you selected for annotation, and identify three additional sources with titles that suggest they would be worth following up. This is a useful shortcut to finding the literature relevant to a particular topic. (For this task, you do not need to annotate the cross-references, just identify and list them.) 

Conclusion 

The conclusion should be brief. As a general rule, it should make up no more than 10 per cent of your word count. Booth et al. (2003) state that a conclusion should do two things: briefly reiterate your key argument (in this case, what the sources contribute to understanding your research question) and identify broader implications.

How to write citations for sources…. 

Citations provide the bibliographic details of a source, including: author’s details; year of publication; title; place of publication; publisher and page numbers. 

Please note that the citations for the three sources that you annotate and the cross references do not count toward the word limit. This is an interdisciplinary social science unit, so we do not require you to adopt one particular referencing style. But, please use a widely used referencing style. 

One popular example is the Harvard referencing style, which requires authors to cite sources in the text of their papers and develop a reference list. Templates for writing out citations for widely used source types include: 

Journal Articles Author’s Surname, First Initial (Year) ‘Title of Article’ Journal Name Volume (Issue): page numbers. 

Online Sources Authors Surname, First Initial (Year) ‘Title of Article’ URL, downloaded (date DD/MM/YYYY) 

The Harvard style of referencing is widely used in the social sciences, so it is a good idea to familiarise yourself with it if you are not already familiar with it.

Note: a journal article, a book chapter, a report or a book counts as a source. Please do not use media sources or news items.

Cross references: three cross-references are to be extracted from each of the sources you annotate , you must find three relevant references from that source's reference list. You need only cite these at the end of your annotation; there is no need to annotate these sources. It is an exercise to help you work on finding literature.

Three sources of literature are attached to email

- Annotations must be c. 150-200 words - the citations for the three sources that you annotate and the cross-references do not count toward the word limit.

Answer

Annotated Bibliography

Role of Social Media

Introduction

Today, with advent of new technologies, it is found that people are able to connect with each other in a better way. Further, people can even connect with each other despite the fact that they belong to different geographical locations. It is due to this reason that the role of social media is considered to be vital in today's era. 

The social media platforms, tools, and techniques have not only changed the relationships between people but has also changed the attributes, aspects, behaviors, and conversational style among different people (Park et al., 2016). It is thereby important to determine the role of social media on the relationships between the people and how it is improving personal interactions among the people. 

Earlier, there used to be geographical as well as psychological boundaries due to which it was difficult for the people to enter into the conversation (Park et al., 2016). however, with the advent of these tools and technologies, people have been able to overcome such barriers and have been able to focus on their relations as well as overall development in a given community. 

This report will carry out annotated bibliography to carry out analysis of this issue by conducting meta-analysis of the previously researched articles in this direction. It will provide a better an overview of how language and communication style has changed with the introduction of social media in today's era.

Discussion - Annotated Bibliography

Annotation Source-1: 

  • Park, G., Yaden, D.B., Schwartz, H.A., Kern, M.L., Eichstaedt, J.C., Kosinski, M., Stillwell, D., Ungar, L.H., and Seligman, M.E., 2016. Women are Warmer but No Less Assertive than Men: Gender and Language on Facebook. PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1-26.

Cross-References:

  • Newman, M.L., Groom, C.J., Handelman L.D., and Pennebaker, J.W., 2008. Gender differences in language use: An analysis of 14,000 text samples. Discourse Processes, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 211-236.
  • Blei, D.M., Ng, A.Y., & Jordan, M.I., 2003. Latent Dirichlet Allocation. The Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 3, pp. 993-1022.
  • Moss-Racusin, C.A., Dovidio, J.F., Brescoll, V.L., Graham, M.J., and Handelsman J., 2012. Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 109, no. 41, pp. 16474-16479.

In the first article, the focus of the article is not determining the vocabulary methods and the conversation style that has changed specifically for the women on the social media. The research included a survey of 52,000 Facebook users and determined how language differs among women in a given interactive environment. Also, the topics on which the discussions are carried out include - friends, family, social life, and certain personal aspects. On the other hand, there are no such interaction patterns found among the male users of the Facebook. As the methods deployed were appropriate, the results deduced concluded that the language used by the female users was more interpersonally warmer and more compassionate. It is important to note that with the introduction of such social media tools people have come closer and they are sharing their private talks and other such discussions openly on Facebook in the messenger or in any other private chat options. One can observe this change among the female users more compared to the male users. 

Annotation Source-2: 

  • Kosinski, M., Matz, S.C., Gosling, S.D., and Popov V., & Stillwell, D. (2015). Facebook as a Research Tool for the Social Sciences: Opportunities, Challenges, Ethical Considerations, and Practical Guidelines. American Psychologist, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 543-556.

Cross-References:

  • Hewson, C. (2003). Conducting research on the Internet. The Psychologist, vol. 16, pp. 290-293.
  • Johnson, J.A., 2004. The impact of item characteristics on item and scale validity. Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol. 39, pp. 273-302.
  • Paulhus, D. L. and Vazire, S., 2007. The self-report method. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

In the second research, the researchers focused on the fact that Facebook is becoming a power research tool in the field of social sciences. Facebook comprises of a large and diversified pool of participants that can be recruited for online and offline studies. Also, it will facilitate for the data collection purpose wherein the researchers will be able to analyze the data, use the profiles of the users for demographic and other research studies, and even utilize the behaviors and interaction patterns of the users for social research purpose. From the methodological perspective, this research focused on the aspect of recruiting the users from Facebook for the purpose of conducting any social research. It has discussed about the approaches through which these users can be included for a given purpose. These techniques include - targeting the users through Facebook advertising, tracking participants across studies, collecting the data from the profiles, and collecting the data shared by the users on self-collective basis. However, the researchers also state that they need to adhere to the ethical considerations in a given research so that they do not breach any of the ethical guidelines in a given research environment. 

Annotation Source-3: 

  • Blomfield-Neira, C.J. and Barber, B.L., 2014. Social networking site use: Linked to adolescents’ social self-concept, self-esteem, and depressed mood. Australian Journal of Psychology, vol. 66, pp. 56-64.

Cross-References:

  • Ward, C.C. and Tracey, T.J.G., 2004. Relation of shyness with aspects of online relationship involvement. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, vol. 21, pp. 611-623.
  • Pempek, T.A., Yermolayeva, Y.A., and Calvert, S.L., 2009. College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. 30, pp. 227-238.
  • Boyd, D.M. and Ellison, N.B., 2008. Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol. 13, pp. 210-230.

In the third research, the researchers have focused on the fact that the adolescents are spending more amount of time using social networking sites. As a result, they are suffering from different healthcare issues leading to lower self-esteem and also higher depressed mood. The research method included 34 diverse high school students across Western Australia for the purpose of survey and to generate desired results. The results concluded that the female adolescents were more affected compared to the male adolescents in a given research. The measuring tools used in this research included - SN frequency of SNS activities, and SNS investment tool. It is important to note that there are several negative consequences of utilizing social media platforms for longer time. It will not only disturb the concentration levels but will also effect on the mental health of the people. It is thereby advised to reduce the usage time for social media platforms such as Facebook and focus more on the daily routine activities in a given environment.

Conclusion

This report has carried out annotated bibliography to discuss the impact of social media on the people in a given community. Each of the articles have provided a different view and based on that important conclusions are carried out in each of the research. It is noticed that the social media tools can be used for the purpose of social science research (Kosinski et al., 2015). 

On the other hand, it is also identified that increasing usage of social media affects mental health and causes depression (Blomfield-Neira & Barber, 2014). From the third aspect, it is noticed that social media has changed the communication and conversational style of the female users in a given community (Park et al., 2016). It is thereby important to use the tools and platforms of social media wisely and ensure to overcome the negative consequences of it in a given operating environment.

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