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Introduction of Technology to the Accounting and Finance Sector

ACCT4440 Management Accounting: Issues and Perspectives 


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UWA Assignment Submission page

Cover page including Topic Title names and student numbers of group members Contents page

Introduction Discussion paragraphs Conclusion References

Appendix

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    • the clarity of the explanations;
    • the oral presentation skills;
    • the visual presentation skills;
    • eye contact with the audience;
    • voice projection so that the audience can hear; and
    • all group members participating in the presentation.

Assignment Topic:

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a useful management accounting instrument to guide organisations in enhancing organisational performance and in the management of employee performance. Discuss the above statement in relation to how the use of a balanced scorecard may assist a not-for-profit organisation (NFP) in performance management and in the efficient running of the organisation.

Some guidelines to address the assignment topic:


  1. Select a not-for-profit organisation for your discussion. For example, an organisation from the health industry; higher education sector; or any other NFP industry.
  2. Explain the concepts of the balanced scorecard and performance management in relation to the chosen not-for-profit organisation. In your opinion, are one or more of the perspectives of the BSC, developed by Kaplan and Norton, more important for the NFP organisation.
  3. You are recommended to use the concepts of lag and lead indicators in the examples that you develop for each of the perspectives.
  4. Discuss how employee performance can be managed within such an organisation (or industry). Are there specific performance measures that you would recommend in line with the BSC perspectives?
  5. To enhance the quality of your discussion, it is expected that you will discuss relevant issues from at least 3 journal articles and source information from various sites.
















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Answer

Executive Summary 

Accounting and finance profession is transforming rapidly due to higher optimization in terms of productivity through introducing the newer technologies. Emergence of technology in the accounting and finance has provided a high value in this industry with intensifying the capabilities to analyses the statistical values. Although replication of human brain through the agent intelligent ha not became a reality, however; different examples demonstrate the limited intelligence in the finance and accounting sector. Abilities in relation to virtual work has torn down and narrowed the office walls, where the small accounting and finance firms has the access to worldwide customers using internet that were previously limited to the multinational corporations only. Introduction of technology to the accounting and finance sector has provided the firms with extreme accuracy with supporting the transitional role along with reducing the additional operational cost. Digital information of finance and accounting key has paired the machines and people together, which is allowing each of them towards contributing their own areas. 

Chapter 1: Introduction

1. Research Background

The revolutionary implementation and integration of entire technology tools, process and platforms through the decision-making process in business are generating continuous ramifications around the accounting and finance profession. Based on the review of technological practitioners numerous technological tools such as block chain, artificial intelligence, the increasing trend of cloud computing are found in the early stages of production rollout and development in an intensified manner. 

Usage of the advanced technology within accounting has significantly helped in reinforcing usage of e accounting based on computerized technologies towards providing administrative-purpose of the information according to the integration of the information system. On the other hand, towards increasing the functionality, improving accuracy, faster processing of accounting and finance in the different industrial sector, the technical implementation can help in shortening the time off entire process. These trends of change can create a dynamic conversion within accounting and finance by having all-possible emerging opportunities and challenges.

2. Research problem

Research problems are considered as the concerned and problematic areas that need to be developed and improvised. In relation to this research, the lagging areas relating to the accounting and finance in terms of decision making, analyzing along with accuracy and data interpretation are the major concerns, that can be improvised through implementation of technology. At the time of undergoing with this research plan based on technological implementation within accounting and finance, some research gaps are identified. In this context, the costing of implementing technological tools within accounting and finance is the first problem. However, relevant information and data are not found as this technology implementation process is still going on. Also, identification of the relevant information in relation to the barriers that may be faced during technological implementation was another key issue. As the research is based on the secondary sources, thus, one of the key issues for this research is the limitation of research questions and survey. 

3. Research Question

The research questions are as follows-

What is the significance of technological intervention in accounting and finance?

How technology can help towards increasing the level of personalized experience in accounting and finance the industrial sector in a competitive market? 

What recommendations can be provided for effective decision-making process within this accounting and finance sector? 

4. Research aim & objective

4.1 Aim

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of modern advanced technologies within the accounting and finance industrial sector. 

4.2 Objectives

In order to achieve the criteria of this research, the research objectives have major consequences. The key objective of the research is to illustrate the core grounds behind the introduction of technology in accounting and finance. Therefore, the objectives of this research study are:

  • To observe modern technological influence for reinforcing the decision-making process in the accounting and finance industrial sector
  • To overview the influence of technological tools on enabling personalized experience 
  • To analyze  effective recommendations towards technological advancements in the accounting and finance industry  

5. Literature review

With the emerging trend of technological advancements, this research can be more helpful in re-busting the relevant ideas and understanding in this specific area of accounting and finance. In this context, emerging forces of the Artificial intelligence and block chain considers as mainstream technological advancements in this research.

5.1 Artificial intelligence

Within the accounting and finance industrial landscape, artificial intelligence can appear as emerging implications, which is possible to learn suitable training process in a sophisticated way. With the interesting form of the technical perspective, integration of such AI tools around the accounting and finance industrial landscape has held major potential within following areas. 

In accordance with this AI tools, the accounting work will be more automated within the current competitive marketplace where quantifying, reporting, analyzing of quantitative information consists in a standardized way (forbes.com, 2018). Through linking with the automation process of accounting based information, the relationship between major working hours and logical intervention can be created within the short tenure of this business process. Within the continuous production of data and information, data can be treated as a major competitive advantage. On the other hand, it can be observed that AI creates the opportunities for emerging, as AI tools are continuing to permit the expansion within the marketplace (Watts, Yapa & Dellaportas, 2014). In this context, customized reporting and continuous accounting allow professional accountants to add higher-margin within accounting and finance services.   

5.2 Blockchain

The Blockchain technology along with their dependent crypto currency applications becomes more popular within various levels of accounting and finance industrial sector (Mahmood et al. 2017). Based on some blockchain characteristics it becomes possible for accounting professionals to include more experience in this business field. 

Functionality 
The shift towards the accounting
Immutability 
Simply identifiable the audit trail as long as records can be changed by the addition of the additional blocks
Decentralized
No point of failure towards reducing needs for requests of information within the periodic basis
Consensus 
Real-time confirmations as long as members of different network approve information and relevant data as it is included to the blockchain
Encrypted 
Secure analysis of data allowing continuous review of information 

Table 1: Connection of blockchain functionality to the accounting 

(Source: Mahmood et al. 2017)

5.3 Stakeholder theory

The accounting reporting and information is focused narrow set of the end group’s users such as equity shareholders and creditors. In this context, Hidayah & Zarkasyi (2017), states that partners, owners, providers of the financial capital and its relevant parties most interested in occupying financial results based on management thinking. (Kloviene & Gimzauskiene, (2014), argues that with the increasing real-time experience in the marketplace, financial information can be embedded by aligning the increasing importance of the stakeholders in this field. 

Stakeholder Analysis

Figure 1: Stakeholder Analysis 

(Source: Hidayah & Zarkasyi, 2017)

Despite having communication and engagement with financial stakeholders, the non-financial stakeholders are included in this industrial sector for connecting technological intervention in this field. It is evident that despite having benefits of technological advances and automation in financial stakeholders, all users of the accounting sectors easily can beneficial towards using organizational data virtually.

5.4 Connection of stakeholder to accounting

Stakeholder group can be able to bring major extrinsic resources through focusing social, environmental and governance initiatives. Primarily, accounting professionals are trained and equipped with the proper mindset for analyzing, communicating and reporting the quantitative data in a structured way. Towards drilling down and significantly applying advanced tactics of handling, data the stakeholders are positioned in unique consequences. Secondly, it becomes more applicable for entire accounting professional in this industrial sector towards putting technological implementations in the financial process to integrate actual operations with a mindset.

6. Data collection plan

In this research, data will be collected from secondary resources. In this context, different books, journals, research articles, websites, the newspaper will be used as the secondary resources. According to those data resources, this research will be more effective for a researcher in future. Apart from that, the qualitative data are collected in this research for analyzing the research insights based on the research topic in a standardized way. Through taking reference from data researcher will be more helpful in the competition market, as it helps in developing the relevance of this topic. Moreover, the research objectives will also be fulfilled based on the gathered data and based on the data collection recommendation will be made in this research topic. 

7. Ethical consideration

Due to the short tenure of this research, budget and data privacy can be considered as the main priority, which will be needed to overview while doing this research. Nevertheless, any type of misleading data and information based on technological advancements will need to avoid. 


Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

In order to increase the entire quality of transparency, performance, and accountability in current times, this structured literature review drives the main focus upon relevant theory based on technological implementation within accounting & finance sector. As the actual basis of accounting is significantly used for overall measurement of liabilities, equity and assets of funds that are considered as the international best practice within the advanced financial management according to the rules and principles of the NPM (New Public Management), which promotes the accountability and transparency of the financial & accounting management. In essence, to this, the Hoff’s Cloud model & Jackson’s Expansion on the UCSB-IBM Ontology along the common & different themes of relevant articles are described here in this study in a proper way. 

1. Brief Summary of relevant theory & its progression

In this context by reviewing the theory based on the technological implementation upon accounting & finance sector can be considered as more progressive within the future initiatives in this research. 

1.1 Hoff’s Cloud model

Based on the Hoff’s Cloud model, the organized online discussion and collaboration between different cloud computing services in a standardized way. However, this model drives its main fou upon the three main cloud-based services such as SasS, IaaS, and PaaS. Through taking reference from this model it can be observed that the IaaS layer can be dissected to such other components (cs.ucsb.edu, 2018). Facilities related to the data centre as the first component is mainly included in space and power. Then the hardware of the IaaS layer can be the second component, through which it becomes possible to compute the data storage, node and the relevant network subcomponents. After the execution of this layer, the next layer is PaaS that provides service integration to the cloud along with different sub-layer databases such as database, authentication and other quarrying services. Then the SaaS layer of this model can be broken in the relevant components and layers. However, in the data Sub-layer is mainly consisted of the actual data and the metadata, which is describing the real data that can be presented in the unstructured or structured form (cs.ucsb.edu, 2018).    

Hoff’s Cloud Ontology

Figure 1: Hoff’s Cloud Ontology 

(Source: cs.ucsb.edu, 2018) 

In accordance to this, model it can be portrayed that the Hoff's model significantly addresses relevant details of different components of the cloud computing. With the increased detail of this model, it becomes easier to manage the database security and safety of the accounting and finance services in an intensified manner. Nevertheless, through taking reference from this model it is possible to regard the complementary and numerous viewpoints of emerging services of cloud computing in the accounting and finance based services. 

1.2 Jackson’s Expansion on the UCSB-IBM Ontology

The model related to UCSB-IBM can be adapted by various computing experts towards reinforcing the conversations and discussions about numerous aspects of cloud computing services in a standardized way. In accordance with this model, it can be observed that numerous additional layers are significantly supported such as workflow orchestration, cloud access management; service management, application security, and connectivity layer (Youseff et al. 2010). The identified several particular related to security challenges towards emerging the cloud computing in the accounting a finance field can be modified through taking reference from the three basic set of layers. 

UCSB-IBM Ontology

Figure 2: UCSB-IBM Ontology

(Source: Youseff et al. 2010)

Access management layer 

In accordance with this layer, it becomes possible to add cloud application towards intending the access of cloud management by implementing the SaaS as a cloud-based service. Within the future progression of accounting and finance based services, this layer can be able to provide a relevant, unified and efficient form of protection for addressing the security-based concerns. 

Explicit SOA-related layers

In accordance to Jackson's model, it can be identified that this set of layers is added in between the layers of PaaS and SaaS platforms within the main UCSB-IBM ontology (Youseff et al. 2010). In order to manage and orchestrate potentiality and discovery of the services in the accounting & finance sector the operation of this layer can be more effective. 

Explicit Connectivity layer

This set of layers mainly helps in supporting the explicit capability of networking within cloud-based services. Through analyzing the security-related issues of accounting & finance services, this model of Jackson can be able to cover the entire cloud network in a standardized way.

1.3 Tam-ToE cloud model

Tam-ToE’s cloud- based model organize and collaborate various types of cloud computing. Among these, Saas model are widely used. As stated earlier, Saas model can be well divided into several sub layers (Demirag, 2015). It is to be noted that, cloud-based SaaS service follows TCP/IP protocol suite or OSI model. In OSI model, seven layers are required to be connected serially in connecting an internet platform (Gangwar, 2015). All the cloud-based platforms have to be connected through internet, as cloud-based services are not readily available but are to be provided by service provider.

The OSI model consists of seven layers; the first one is physical layer. All the wired connection is made in this section. It is to be noted that, cloud based platforms require virtualization to work in a proper way. Therefore, initial hardware requirement other from those of ordinary computers are necessary. In many cases, mainframe computer is required to support the virtualization. Virtualization is a process where a parent C.P.U. is divided among several other computers. Thus, parent computer hardware needs to possess the capability of dividing (Puthal, 2015). It is to be noted that the hardware configuration and other software related configuration have to be remain intact after dividing from parent computer. In addition to this, daughter computers are not allowed to make changes in computers. Thus, the environment of cloud is different from that of normal computing environment and therefore connection to the physical layer is different that of any normal connection. 

The next layer in OSI model is Data Link layer, which establish the connection between nodes. This layer is critical is data transfer as data are encoded in coded form and ready to transfer to another node. Data are divided into binary frame. Each data input corresponds to a binary value (1 or zero). When the data arrives at the receiver's end, this value has been checked, if synchronicity is found, then the data is accepted, otherwise it is rejected. The procedure of data linking remains same for cloud environment and ordinary environment. Thus, it can be said that data link layer provides synchronicity of data between sender and receiver (Wei, 2014 ). Coming to the cloud environment, where virtualization occurs, maintenance of data synchronicity is required as software and hardware are divided among several computers. Data link layer performs cyclic redundancy check on data to identify wrong data. Coming to the security feature where cloud environment lag several yards behind an ordinary computing environment, added bit to the security is required to encrypt data that have to be passed frame by frame in a computer. The Media Access control layer is embedded into Data Link Layer along with LLC (logical Link Control) layer. The MAC address corresponding to MAC layer is required for a computer to gain access to other computer and its data.

Network layer is the third layer is OSI model and borne a great significance in cloud based SaaS. This is because, after data link layer completes synchronization and error removal of data, data packet has to be transferred to its desired destination (Bellini, 2018). This layer supports routing and switching technologies and responsible for creating shortest distance to send data (called logic path). Forwarding and routing functions such as internet working, addressing, error handling within the server are controller by this layer. In cloud, instead of network layer, network domain exists. Network domain of cloud is divided into two domains, namely public domain and private domain. In public domain, very large number of users remains active, thereby making it less secure (Wang, 2015). On the private domain, numbers of users active is less, which makes it more secure. A bottleneck encryption is provided in private cloud domain, thereby providing the opportunity of data encapsulation. Despite this, data handling capacity of private domain is considerably low than that of private domain and hence some time companies require shifting to public domain. This property is called cloudburst. For a financial company, it would be advantageous to use private domain, as it is secure (Bellini, 2018). However, options need to be remained open so that can shift to public domain anytime they want. 

The next layer of OSI model is the transport layer is transport layer, which is responsible for flow control. Data in a system needs to flow in a contagious manner and it requires to be controlled from outside. A data traffic jam may occur within the server (that is in the pathway of the data flow). This in one side can reduce the security of data and other side effect in the speed of data (Puthal, 2015). Transport layer in cloud system therefore need to have strong interface where data congestion occurs most of the times. 

The next layer in OSI model is Session layer where period is provided to user for accessing sets of data. Depending on that time a user can access data by remain idle. When the period is over for respective user, the entire session will be timed out. In other words in cloud based system, the session layer coordinates all the tasks associated with the virtualization and computing (Hidayah, 2017).

The presentation layer is the last and final layer in OSI model. This layer is responsible for presenting data in various formats. Data encryption (end-to-end encryption) is implemented on the data at this stage (Botta, 2016). This layer can be considered as final layer of ender's’ seen of data transfer and receiving end just prior to physical layer of receiver’s end. It is to be noted that the encryption format that presentation layer follows needs to be same as, that followed throughout a server.

1.4 Cryptography

Cryptography and security is considered as the most important thing in any cloud networking topology (Christians, 2015)Cryptography is a sort of security process, encrypts data into coded format. Cryptographic security is essentially required for any financial company that is going to use cloud- based accounting system in future, needs to incorporate cryptographic cloud. In general, cryptography supports many kinds of ciphers algorithm that can be easily implemented in any cloud-based or conventional system (Puthal, 2015)

For example, if “Stream Ciphers” is considered, random bit generator is used. A random bit generator is a XOR gate. A random plain text is inputted in the XOR gate and a number is generated at throughout. This cipher text is added in the beginning or at the ending of each data. Below figure illustrates the process (Hall, 2015).

Random bit generator

Figure 1: Random bit generator

(Source: (Botta, 2016)

 Now, in cloud-based computing system, data are made to travel in blocks, and thus block security is required. Block security can be provided by two sets of methods. One is to consider block as independent variable and cipher as dependent variable, and value of the block changes according to the cipher text before decryption (Al-Nuaimi, 2017). Another is to consider cipher as independent variable, a make change in each data set of the block. These two modes are described as ECB mode and EBC mode respectively.

CBC mode

A feedback mechanism is added in security and encryption process. Each cipher text is made dependent on the block texts. The feedback mechanism ensures that each of the blocks supports synchronicity while data are being transferred (Wang, 2015). This type of feedback action is called positive feedback mechanism. The synchronicity maintain in each block as well as in whole data set ensures the vale id security added encryption remains the same when total value is considered. For cloud-based system, this work is responsibility of interface (cs.ucsb.edu, 2018)

ECB mode

The mechanism of ECB mode is comparatively simple as that of CBC mode. In this mode, a plain cipher text identically generates identical block of cipher text (Penchalaiah, 2016). When added, the summation yield different results for each block and it is verified at receiver’s end.   

2. Explanation Common findings & themes

2.1 Activity-based costing

Within the management change of the accounting and finance sector ABC (Accounting Based Costing) can be considered as a technology-based tool, which becomes more important within the current digitization era of the market. Towards the motivational consequences for developing the accounting management, ABC helps in triggering the change process of the system in a proper way (Watts et al. 2014). In accordance with this tool, it becomes possible for the finance and accounting related services to address the cost objects related activities based on the accurate information. In this context through diminishing the inaccuracy related to cost allotment empirical investigation of accounting and finance, related services can be conducted.

Fuzzy ABC logic framework

Figure 3: Fuzzy ABC logic framework

(Source: Mwaikambo et al. 2015)

As the Fuzzy ABC mainly combines ABC with the Fuzzy logic, it can be needed to design within the accounting operations in an effective way (Mwaikambo et al. 2015). Therefore, it can be said that despite having traditional cost accounting techniques, the ABC is needed to implement. Nevertheless having many troublesome and costly challenges, in accordance with ABC it becomes possible to interpret the result accurately.   

2.2 Organizational performance & Information Technology

In accordance to Al-Nuaimi et al. (2017), it can be observed that through implementing information technology within accounting and finance based information, it become possible to process the view data in a useful way. As the value of accounting information is related to the helping consequences of the decision-making process, it becomes possible to direct the quality based accounting and finance related services through implementing advanced technological advancements. For the instance, Al-Nuaimi et al. (2017), states that the positive effect of IT help in demonstrating the future technology-based automation and mechanism of accounting and finance based services in a proper way. The complexity of modern technologies can be revealed as a higher level of organizational performance, through which it can possible to emerge the organisational growth in the competitive market.

3. Explanation Different findings & themes

3.1 Accounting Information

Within the organizational perspective, where the accounting information of management has not kept within a significant pace, then the relevance of management accounting can face the question in an increasing manner. Therefore, in this context, for making relevance in accounting information of cost management, high-end technology can be initiated as major perspectives in a comparative environment of the market in a standardized way. However, through implementing IT and cloud-based solutions it becomes possible to reinforce the designing process of traditional accounting and finance based services in a proper way. In essence, to this, through explicating the implementation and acquisition of the IT-based accounting program of management, it becomes easier to pace the functionality of management accounting at an advanced level.  

3.2 Technological intervention in the management accounting system

Within the era of a contemporary system based on management accounting multiple techniques such as balanced scorecard, ABC, Value chain analyzing, and TQM practices, which have significantly gained the widespread attention within the accounting and finance can be maintained through underpinned towards growth and achievement of future research in an intensified manner. 

AI-based technology

Figure 4: AI-based technology 

(Source: microsoft.com, 2018)

In future intervention of AI-based technology and blockchain can be seen in the management accounting process which can help to reduce the level of error in the accounting process.     

4. Managerial Implication

Within accounting and finance based services, being a certified CPA (certified practising accountant), the major focus is mainly underlined within the management accounting process in a sequential manner. Towards enabling the managerial implication, it becomes essential to plan the operational position in the business environment in a standardized way. Through taking reference from the articles, it can possible to say that in order to engage the technological intervention the factors based on those articles, can have a major influence (Watts et al. 2014). On the other hand, through levering the simple procedure related to accounting and finance management process, it becomes possible to set a benchmarking internally, towards utilizing the accounting and finance services in a concerted way.

5. Limitations & Future research

Within this research, it can be identified that the process of implementing advanced cloud services and IT based technologies are not addressed as the main limitation of this research. Nevertheless, the issues and challenges that will raise toward adopting technological intervention in accounting & finance are also not described in this research. 

In order to deliver an advanced research based on technological intervention within the competitive environment of the market, it becomes essential to do an effective research based on the current books and journals. In accordance with those recent journals, it becomes possible to understand the evaluation of those technological processes in a standardized way. 

Summary

In this structured literature review, a summary of the relevant model based on the technological implication in accounting & finance is described herein a proper way. Moreover, the common and different findings from undertaken articles are also illustrated in this study in an intensified manner. In accordance with this study, after identifying the limitation of this research future approach is recommended in a proper way.  


Conceptual Framework 


Conceptual Framework


Chapter 3: Research design and methodology

3.1 Research Philosophy

In order to make this research realistic in this research positivism, philosophy will be considered. This will help to include realistic information in this study by considering different authentic sources of information. Positivism philosophy can help to provide proper justification of each issue related to a research topic and due to this reason selection of positivism philosophy will be most suitable for this study(Katz, 2015). With the help of positivism philosophy, proper data related to the research can be standardized more easily. Adoption of the positivism philosophy can help to make data collection easier. Conclusion of a research can be tested with the help of positivism philosophy more effectively. 

Positivism philosophy can help to provide appropriate justification of each outcome of a research by considering reliable natural information related to the outcomes. Positivism philosophy can include the empirical information in a research. Moreover, with the help of positivism philosophy factors related to metaphysical speculation can be avoided from this research. This can help to increase the reliability of study by providing an actual reason for different factors associated with data analysis (Weber, 2017). Positivism philosophy can help to make a study more object-oriented and due to this reason, it can be stated that it helps to make one study more reliable. Positivism philosophy can help to increase the level of knowledge production and hence can make the study more informative. The validity of research can be enhanced with the help of a positivist paradigm. Application of paradigm thus has helped to make this research more reliable and effective (Kaplan, 2017). It can help to include quantitative information in this research, which in turn can help to include quantitative data in this research. Hence, application of positivism philosophy in this research will help to make this research more informative.

3.2 Research Approach

The research approach is the map of completing the undertaken research. Two types of research approaches can be followed in any kind of research, namely deductive and inductive. The deductive approach involves on development of hypotheses because of pre-existing theory. The design of research is then conducted based on this deductive approach. Deductive approach generalizes hypotheses from a special one. However, in order to complete the research using   deductive approach, quantitative as well as qualitative type data analysis can be followed.

In order to get deeper into the deductive approach, study of inductive approach, its contrary one has to be discussed (Katz, 2015). Inductive approach is that sort of research approach, where, researchers require studying compeer phenomena related to topic and these phenomena have to be viewed from various perspectives as deemed necessary. Thus, it can be concluded that, inductive approach helps researcher to develop new theory. 

The topic Technology implementation in accounting requires deductive research as it requires specialization to generalization; a technology team has to communicate with finance and other department of respective company. In conducting this research, researchers need to use different theories to carry out solution of any problem that occurs during research (Chen, 2016). The use of relevant theories also helps employees of respective companies, where technology related to finance needs to be implemented. Hence, deductive approach is appeared to be the effective way in conducting this research. Deductive approach thus can help to increase the validation of this research by including insights of different scholars in this field. This can help to make this study comparative and can include an analytical approach to this research. Application of theoretical aspects can help to enrich the approach of the analysis process. Moreover, with the help of the deductive approach different rules associated with the research can be quickly elaborated. This, in turn, can reduce the time of data analysis, which will be beneficial for this study. Furthermore, with the help of the deductive approach, the time related to the practice of application can be more specific and this factor can help to make this study more concrete.   

3.3 Research Design

For this research, both descriptive and explanatory research design will be applied. One of the major advantages of descriptive research design is this can help to include proper description of different issues related to the technological intervention in accounting process. Descriptive research design thus can help to develop further research on this topic. Specification of different variables can be included in this study with the help of descriptive design (Chang, 2016). The descriptive design also can help to make this study more object-oriented and can help to provide proper direction to this study by mentioning the different types of examples related to the issues. With the help of a descriptive design, proper justification of the outcomes can be included in this study. Descriptive design also will help to include a large amount of information related to the topic and this can help to make this study more reliable and object-oriented. Descriptive design can help to make the approach of the research more concise and simple. This can be considered as another major advantage of descriptive research design. With the help of the descriptive research design, thus the reliability of this research can be elevated. 

On the other hand, the application of the explanatory research design can help to make the conclusion of this research more effective. This, in turn, can increase the validity of this research. On the other hand, with the inclusion of the explanatory research design in this study flexibility of the resource collection can be increased (Alvesson, 2017). Moreover, explanatory research design will increase the validity of this research by including information from trustable sources. Explanatory research will help to include in-depth analysis of issues in this study. This will help to include information by considering the objective of this research as primary criteria. Hence, application of explanatory research can help to accomplish this study by maintaining proper direction. Application of explanatory research design can help to include valid justification in this research by which the effectiveness of data analysis will be increased. Due to this reason, the application of explanatory research design can increase the validity of this research.

3.4 Research strategy

The technology related to account and finance will be implemented in a company. Researchers, who will analyze and recommend technology in respective company, require following specific strategy. A research strategy is built on some conditions like reason behind technology implementation, economic perspective and organizational culture (Alvesson, 2017). Research strategies are composed of grounded theory, interview, case study and others. 

If a case study is considered, researchers are used to follow a particular case and thus require building new strategy, in accordance to the requirement of case study (technology implementation in accounting and finance). Conducting an interview, on the other hand, is an important way while conducting the research. If researchers can take interview of technology team manager or IT team manager or finance team manager, they can find problems while conducting the research. 

Analyzing using grounded theory helps in identification of problems and allows a researcher to take rational approach to complete the research.

In order to understand the managerial aspects of technological implementation in the field of accountancy in this study concept will be included from different secondary sources. In this regards, the online-based survey will be considered as the strategy of data collection and it will help to include online-based realistic data in this regards. With this process amount of information will be increased in this research more effectively. This can help to enhance the reliability of this study. For this purpose, different authentic websites and empirical sources in this field will be considered as one of the primary considerations of this research (Weber, 2017). This will help enrich the content of data analysis and will make this research more illustrative and informative. On the other hand, in this research different sources will be considered by considering the accessibility of the source, which will help to increase the validity of this research. Moreover, with the help of proper sorting technique, this research will be made more realistic which will help to increase the reliability of this study. For gathering information related to this topic different online library sources will be considered as a primary consideration. This will help to elevate the reliability of this study and it, in turn, will prevent data breaches. Inclusion of these strategies will increase the validity of this research and will make this research reliable.

3.5 Data types

Qualitative data will be included in this study by considering different empirical sources. This can help to provide in-depth information about the main issue of this study. Hence, by including qualitative information in this study, this study can be made more informative. This, in turn, can increase the validity of this study. With the help of qualitative information openness of the study can be elevated which can eliminate the biasing effect from data collection procedure. Adoption of qualitative data for this research thus can help to make this research more valid. Moreover, qualitative data will help to make this study more futuristic and will help to develop prediction according to the result of the analysis (McCusker, 2015). Another major benefit of inclusion of the qualitative information in this study benefiting method is this will help to include an effective framework of research by which available data can be analyzed more reliably.

3.6 Data collection method

Every research requires data to verify theoretical explanation and hypothesis. Data are required to construct empirical law in case suitable theories cannot be found while conducting a research in a topic. In case of this study where technology implementation in accounting and finance is considered, relevant theories are discussed corresponding to cloud computing which is the technology that is required to be implemented to modify accounting technology. Survey, interviews are two most used methods in data collection process. Without conducting survey, interview, or any other method that can collect data, a researchers will not be able to conduct research in a proper way. The data from these sources will be collected by considering the relevance of this data according to the main objectives of this study. Moreover, for collecting data for secondary analysis online sources will be preferred. This can help to make this study reliable and it can elevate the reliability of this study (Altigani, 2016). During the collection of a data, profile of scholars in the field of research will be considered as one of the primary factors for this research. This will help to elevate reliability of this research by including prudential approaches of different scholars and exclusive result of several empirical sources in this research. Moreover, data will be collected from books of different renowned publication house, which can be considered as another major factor associated with the data collection procedure.  

In this assignment, secondary research methodology has to be followed. This data collection method avoids fieldwork, instead and collects data from external resources (eminent books and journals). As incorporation of cloud, computing has conducted earlier; it is evident that data related to this can be found from eminent journals and books. Moreover, implementation process is kept secret in every company and thus pros and cons regarding implementation cannot be easily found out. Therefore, this research requires secondary data collection approach to proceed.

3.7 Sampling method and sample size

In this study, secondary research will be considered and due to this reason in this research, there will be no such specific sample size. However, in this research different samples of secondary sources will be considered as primary consideration, which will help to realize different aspects, associated with this research. In this regards, the random sampling method will be applied which will help to make this research more analytic in nature. Moreover, consideration of sample size and framework of different secondary sources will reduce the time of data collection. Consideration of sample sizes of secondary sources will make this study more reliable as for this study empirical studies will be considered as main resources. This, in turn, will elevate the authenticity of this research and will increase the validity of this research. 

3.8 Ethical consideration

In order to increase the reliability of these study different ethical codes associated with the research will be considered in this study. This will help to increase the validity of this study. Source name will be mentioned for all secondary data that will be collected from secondary sources. This will help to prevent copyright issues in this study and will help to maintain the legal aspects related to a research work. On the other hand, the outcomes will be developed by considering the interest of the audience of this study for maintaining their emotional interest related to a study. The content of literature will be developed by providing proper references of the empirical sources for eliminating copywriting issues from this research. 

Moreover, for secondary sources of data archive of information will be maintained for providing justification of each reference that will be used in this research. This will help to retain the authenticity of this research and will eliminate the legal issues of this research. Before conducting this research, consent from the university will be applied. This can be considered as one of the major ethical factor related to the research as this will help to make this study valid. In this consent form of university permission for developing, the methodology will be included. Moreover, necessary qualification will be considered as another ethical consideration, which will be considered during the data collection procedure. This will help to increase the authenticity of the research by reducing the level of error of previous researches. Elimination of erroneous result can make study more validate hence qualification of respected scholars can be considered as another major aspect of this study.

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