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Investigation Report and Short Presentation: Assessment 3 Answer

ASSESSMENT BRIEF
Subject Code and NamePUBH6013: Qualitative Research Methods for Public Health
AssessmentAssessment 3: Investigation Report and Short Presentation
Individual/GroupIndividual
Length2000 words (+/- 10%)
Learning OutcomesThis assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
  1. Apply qualitative research methods through undertaking data collection through, e.g. focus group, interviews, observational methods
  2. Appreciate cultural and ethical considerations for qualitative research in Public Health
  3. Understand sampling techniques, bias and rigour as they apply to qualitative research
  4. Apply coding and analysis techniques to qualitative data
WeightingWritten report: 30%
Presentation 10%
Total Marks100 marks

Instructions:

This assessment involves preparing a report with data analysis/discussion of interviews and a brief presentation.

There are two steps for this assignment. Part A involves writing a report and Part B involves a 10 minute presentation in class.

Part A: 

Coding and Theming: Use module six as basis for coding the data you collect from your interviewees. Develop themes based on your coding, and in this section report on the themes you’ve identified, supported by relevant quotes from your interviewees. Report this part in the same style as the results section of a qualitative journal article.

Reflection: reflect on your experience of interviewing and analysing the data. What did you do well, and what did you struggle with? What did you learn through this experience?

Part B: 

Presentation (10 mins)

Summarise your research question, methods and data analysis in a 10 min presentation

In ten minutes presentation, explain your overall process for conducting this interview. Summarise your reflections on your interview technique, and your data analysis and findings. You can use the presentation mode of your choice ie PowerPoint, Prezi.

Note: Online students may find PowerPoint easier to use, as it allows you to record narration to each slide.

Submit Part A by uploading them via the Assessment 3 submission portal in Blackboard. On-campus students will submit Part B through an in-class presentation.

Online students will submit Part B by uploading their recorded presentation to the relevant forum thread in Blackboard.

Assessment Criteria:

  • Ability to interpret and analyse data (30%)
  • Reflection upon the interview experience and demonstrates reflexivity (25%)
  • Presentation of findings (25%)
  • Use of academic conventions (20%)

Answer

Qualitative Research Methods for Public Health

Research Questions

  • How can organizational learning and knowledge management develop the quality of treatments and improve policymaking decisions in public health NGOs?

Interview Questions

1. What are the ways you feel that knowledge management can improve performance in public healthcare systems?

Sam Wright: In today’s world of health care system solving problems and making the right decisions is solely dependent on the exposure to knowledge or information as we know. I, Sam Wight from the NGO of Green-leaves am going to put forth my view in regard of the ways knowledge management can improve the performance in public health care systems. Ways in which knowledge management can create a change are:

a. It is useful in building learning objectives for hospitals by the formation of a specific learning routine(Martínez-García, et.al., 2019). As the saying of great writer David Garvin goes, “to move ahead, one must first look behind”. Thus a need arises of creating a data based continuous learning environment that will promote clinical learning with its basis on experiences. The factors that play a major role in the format for clinical research are a strong and supportive environment for learning, appropriate learning processes and practices, and finally a zeal for leadership that may provide reinforcement when needed. The success and failures can be continuously monitored as we strive to improve. This will lead to a creation of culture that indulges in learning from the past experiences. This knowledge accumulated as a result of such endeavor can then be transferred into databases and may be used for the improvement of healthcare operations.

Laura Denison: Knowledge management can be defined as an integrated process of capturing, widening, sharing, and effectively using the information gained. It has its primary focus on the objectives of improving performance, innovation, the sharing of the learning, integration into new arenas and all round development. Ways in which knowledge management can create a change in health care system are:

 a. It helps in developing the decision making capabilities. If a hospital receives lack of information or overload of the information then there can be a deficit in the adequate method of treatment offered in the hospital. The clinicians, physicians and nurses may have their hands tied in such scenarios. Applying a knowledge management system would ensure the circulation of internal knowledge to areas of application and thus create a smooth flow of information and result in a smoother process of decision making.

John Smith: Knowledge management in our NGO stimulated the change of culture and innovation. Managing the vast resources of knowledge with the advent of the free flowing ideas create an environment for innovation. The thought-process modernizes and adapts to change. We start expecting the unexpected (Maharjan,et.al., 2019). This mindset is mandatory to create a zeal for leadership at the top of the hospital and these needs to seep into every level in the hospital. It has to be imbibed by all the sectors of a healthcare system and create a knowledge management program that helps the clinicians and the operational doctors to adapt to changes leading to innovation.

2. To what extent you believe that knowledge management can be used to figure out to work through improved processes and strategy?

Sam Wright: I, Sam Wright believe that knowledge management can be used to figure out to work through improved processes and strategies till a large extent. Each and every knowledge resource is an important resource for knowledge management in a hospital. Knowledge that is acquired or retrieved, developed, applied and popularized by the inventors is inexhaustible resource for creative attitudes, and new innovative solutions in the process. If there is involvement by the members of a hospital then it is possible for them to explore their core talents, skills, information and experience, and implement these into new processes stimulating new innovations. 

Laura Denison: The workers at an institution should abide by the rules set by their supervisors but at the same time they should too indulge in application of their knowledge and experience for a specific product or procedure. This is a way in which these workers will become employees of knowledge and will lead the key to innovation. The platform for executing medical proposals can be used in implementing clinical knowledge(Cooper, et.al., 2018).  The idea of application from the literature encountered on the subject is improvised for the betterment of the existing processes and used to modify them as and when implicated. In this scenario it is highly important to create a conglomeration of concept of knowledge management and the improvement of medical processes so as to make an overall benefit from the synergized effect. 

John Smith: The processes that are encountered are used to meet the objectives and the knowledge and data are developed according to these aims. Proper knowledge management and reviewing from time to time enables a current basis on current knowledge(Korstjens and Moser, 2018). In a public health sector knowledge management ensures adequate access to the newest research and the application of that research at all the levels in a health system. It can be used to promote the collaboration and learning, inform policy and legal advocacy, improvement of programs, practice and research opportunities and finally to improve health training and educational programs. These processes are basically supported by three resources of people, processes and use of technology. People are instrumental in the generation of the information, and can be used to cultivate an environment encouraging knowledge sharing. Processes are implemented to capture, curate, and to share the knowledge. And finally, technology is used to expedite the storage of knowledge, retrieval and exchange as and when required. 

3. What are the areas you feel that organizational learning can provide the necessary path to successful ideas and better practices?

Sam Wright: Clinical learning can be elaborated as the process used in increasing the capacity for application of effective clinical action that is undertaken through information and understanding(Cannon, et.al., 2018). In a health care setup the following goals may be expected to be achieved and changed:

a. Approval of research grants that are funded by the government

b. Enhancement of reputation by implementing innovation in the daily functioning of the clinical.

These goals can only be catered to by fulfilling the following procedures of the institution:

a. Buildings and infrastructure management

b. Creation of a goal and fulfilling it by short term aims.

Laura Denison: The learning process basically involves a few steps recurring in a pattern namely, a cycle of action and reflection. Performing the job, thinking about it, and finally conversing about the experience of the work(Wright, et.al., 2018). The learning is spread through routines that are conducted for work and used in accomplishing goals. In a health care setup the following goals may be expected to be achieved and changed:

a. Attracting and retaining greater quality staffs by review of salary pay checks and policies of the hospital

b. Training residents and employing them in their institutions

These goals can only be catered to by fulfilling the following procedures of the institution:

a. Hiring of personnel who can support greater workload

b. Buying new equipment which support the recent innovations

John Smith: I, John Smith form the Medical Corporations have viewed some of the clinical learning in this institution. This hospital has created opportunities for the flow of information and created a wide range of application mechanisms mainly, it has implemented measures like action reviews, general audits, problem investigations at regular time intervals, performance appraisals of the nurses, simulation and benchmarking. Routines evolve with the passage of time as an individual gains experiences that adds on and modifies the existing tasks(Coen, 2018). People in-charge may alter, technologies involved may be altered, a shift in priorities and policies may occur. In a health care setup the following goals may be expected to be achieved and changed:

a. Improvement of patient well being by new advancements and equipments or new policies of the institution

b. Handling of larger and bulky case load with lower form of investment, transition as observed form the manual format to the electronic format of maintaining records of patients.

These goals can only be catered to by fulfilling the following procedures of the institution:

a. Optimal patient admissions

b. Fast delivery of care to the one in need

c. Billing at reduced and payable rates

Learning may be in the form of verbal or non verbal learning. The auditors who perform their tasks are supposed to file their audits and similar for the researchers to publish their research(Germain,et.al., 2018). These results are then further implemented in the process of standardization of work practices, making knowledge more explicitly available, and to practice control over learning. 

4. Do you believe that senior doctors in public health NGOs are sharing their experiences through knowledge management practices?

Sam Wright: No I don’t believe that senior doctors in public health NGOs are sharing their experiences through knowledge management practices. Primarily knowledge management occurs in two eras:

a. Knowledge acquisition and sharing

b. Knowledge assimilation and application.

Though there is adequate acquisition of information by the senior doctors through their experience and age(De Wit,et.al., 2018). Sharing is limited only to a few individuals. Most of the research papers do not get a chance of publishing in this scenario. Importance is not equally distributed in all sectors. Though there is enough innovation but equal application is lacking. Though there is the key knowledge of management practices and adequate exploration of linkages in the technical and interpersonal arena but there is a lack in the practical point of view(Muhwava,et.al., 2018). Factors explored are the characters of physician characteristics, disease characteristics, IT clinical infrastructure and various clinical processes. 

Laura Denison: Yes I believe that senior doctors in public health NGOs are sharing their experiences through knowledge management practices. For smooth flow of knowledge in an institution there is primarily two arena knowledge information and experiences. These two eras must coexist to create an effective health care system. Some opportunities that can transform healthcare advancements that have been achieved are:

a. n health knowledge and communication technology, 

b. maintenance of electronic health record systems  

These processes are adapted by this hospital for adequate knowledge implementation.

John Smith: Yes I believe that senior doctors in public health NGOs are sharing their experiences through knowledge management practices. Time, place and person vary for each institution. But this hospital provides the right information at the right time(Flick, 2018). Application of knowledge management practices are applied at the point of decision making. There is usage of appropriate tools and application of a very user friendly system. These when combined together can result in good quality and safety of care that can be strived to provide at a hospital and home arena. This institution uses the model proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi showing the different stages of socialization-externalization-combination-internalization (SECI). Tools that are implemented are knowledge directories, bulletin boards, journals and podcasts. Application of these processes to create the smooth flow of information occurs to enlightened minds who seek the change. 

5. To what extent decision making process in public health NGOs are affected by an improvement in learning and knowledge sharing practices?

Sam Wright: Knowledge management strategies to acquire the correct knowledge and its application at the right point. Knowledge can be used to solve problems, create opportunities and to undertake decisions(King,  2019). Knowledge management speeds up the process of decision making by affecting both the quality of the decision as well as the decision speed. With the right knowledge it is easier to identify knowledge and then solve the problems encountered. Adoption of new technologies to overcome problems in a hospital can be easily implemented if there is the source of right knowledge for the innovation. 

Laura Denison: Decision accuracy as well as decision speed matters while decision making. These factors can be modified on the basis of correct knowledge(Mannell and Davis, 2019). If there is the right source of knowledge then both maintenance of accuracy and speed can be ensured. Study of both the environment and of internal knowledge systems of this hospital have a heavy role to play. Guided by the rationality theory a single human brain is limited and cannot acquire or process huge amounts of information. Collaboration between the different sectors speeds up the process of problem solving.

John Smith: Improvement in learning and knowledge sharing practices has a direct and important role to play on the decision making capabilities in this public health NGO. Knowledge management enhances the relation between this hospital and the other health institutions, hospitals and clinicians. It helps the institution function in smooth collaboration. New innovations on curative, preventive and effective service delivery is met and applied for improving the clinical activities(Israel, et.al., 2019). It is also used to expand the intellectual base of this hospital across diverse functions and distant locations. It also helps in the approximation of reliable data and its incorporation into the electronic database. 

Coding and theming

Code 1- Learning environment-

According to one respondent Sam Wright said that the factors that play a major role in the format for clinical research are a strong and supportive environment for learning, appropriate learning processes and practices. Similarly, John Smith also emphasized on thought-process modernizes and adapts to change

Code 2- Information flow

Laura Denison believes to create a smooth flow of information and result in a smoother process of decision-making. 

CODE 3- application of effective clinical action

Knowledge management can be applied to clinical action for more effective patient care. According to Sam Wright, knowledge management can be used to figure out to work through improved processes and strategies till a large extent. Laura Denison favours that The learning process basically involves a few steps recurring in a pattern namely, a cycle of action and reflection. Sam wrights responded that clinical learning can be elaborated as the process used in increasing the capacity for application of effective clinical action

Code 4- rules and procedures

It os said that knowledge management can be applied through rules and procedures. Laura Dension responded and said that the workers at an institution should abide by the rules set by their supervisors. Similarly, John Smith advocated that the processes that are encountered are used to meet the objectives and the knowledge and data are developed according to these aims. John Smith again responded that These results are then further implemented in the process of standardization of work practices, making knowledge more explicitly available, and to practice control over learning.

Code 5- Sharing of knowledge

Sam Wright thinks that knowledge is not equally distributed in all sectors. Laura Denison responded that senior doctors in public health NGOs are sharing their experiences through knowledge management practices. John Smith thinks senior doctors in public health NGOs are sharing their experiences through knowledge management practices.

Code 6- Decision-Making

Sam Wright resonded that Knowledge can be used to solve problems, create opportunities and to undertake decisions. However, Laura Denison says that Decision accuracy as well as decision speed matters while decision making. These factors can be modified on the basis of correct knowledge



Codes
1-learning evironment
2-Information flow
3- application of effective clinical action
4- Rules and procedures
5
Sharing of knowledge

6
Decision making

Sam Wright
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Laura Denison

Yes


Yes
YEs
John Smith:
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes








Overall analysis

From all the interviews above it can be summarized that knowledge in any form is a boon. Passing this acquired knowledge through application of various means of management is the target. It is seen in different hospitals this act of passing the information into means of application is a very difficult task indeed. Research and innovation as I have seen in these hospitals are being undertaken, but there is an absence of it's means of practical involvement. Sam Wright holds a strong view point about the theoretical base of knowledge management but encounters a lack when such knowledge is being implemented(Jennings, et.al., 2018). The institution he represented had adequate means of acquiring information but lags behind the other institutions in term of implementation. Laura Denison belongs from a relatively better hospital. Their ideologies are well reflected in her interview. But according to me this institution has areas of technological advancement that they can work upon and improve. The aspect of collaboration that has been put forward by the John Smith is quite recommendable. His involvement and ideas will create quite a change if properly applied. If there is collaboration among the three individuals and their thoughts the results will surely surprise me(Green and Thorogood, 2018). Overall it was quite an impressive method of interview, all the three versions of learning can be adapted for a better practical understanding. This conclusion can easily be drawn from the interviews of these candidates that these NGOs are yet to perfect their hospitals but are striving for a greater good.

Reflection

The above interview was conducted on the working of three clinical set-ups. The questions that were formulated had taken into consideration the overall growth of these NGOs. The candidates had been deficient in prior knowledge and had been asked to run an overview before participating in the interview. A lot of research had been conducted after which the selection of these specific candidates done. The overall matter presented was of recommendable quality but have areas of improvement being pointed out. More such intra-hospital researches should be conducted to get a fair idea of the performance of the doctors, clinicians, physicians, nurses and the entire associated medical fraternity.

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