Discuss and analyze the use of information technology in the context of an University.
Information technology plays a major role in the universities. Information technology is the use of computers to retrieve, store, manipulate and transmit data and facts. IT is considered to be a small part of information and computer technology. The primary motive of this task is to outline and showcase ample of information about the IT initiative in the context of university. University is the biggest UK higher education provider to promote and enhance the online education. All the aspects of organization are handled and managed online. The progress of the university is dependent on the clear vision and mission. The paper further explains the strategic plans, objectives and mission of university. The current staffing skills and staffing policy plan also have been presented in the task briefly. Furthermore, the report discusses that how university is using various staffing approaches to hire talented and skilled candidates for implementing IT initiative. Along with this, IT implementation plan and IT initiative budget plan have been created in the report briefly. It is analyzed that advanced technology put direct impact on the environment. At the end, some recommendations have been given to implement or initiate IT initiative in a constructive manner. More detail of the task has been shown below.
The IT Initiative project which would be undertaken for this project would be for UK higher education institutions is to develop a fully comprehensive online university model; a term sometimes referred to as university. In this IT project initiative lessons are delivered using a variety of media and include live and recorded sessions. All aspects of university life are managed online. This will be newly developed IT project for the university which will support the online program for the student and learning without the course material and books. This will give online learning program and accompanied with the create a class room modelled around École 42, an experimental model of running courses with no classes, no teachers, and no books. In the viability of the prototyping, we will consider the information technologies steps taken, IT staff members and undertaken work which will be used to strengthen the overall outcomes and efficiency of the work. However, a new dashboard would be created which will be supported by the simulation work and IT support program. After that, possible steps would be undertaken to strengthen the IT support work and online visibility for the students. Security and privacy program of this IT course work will be supported by the software mechanism. This project would be supported by the IT staff members who will take imperative actions to strengthen the online support program. It is analyzed that dashboard mechanism and unique user Id will also be generated for the clients which will create a panel for the work system.
It is noted that the objective and mission of University are cleared and unique. The university is planning to create a classroom modeled around Ecole 42, an experimental model of running courses will no teachers, no classes and no books (Ortiz, Alonso Llera, and Armengot, 2017). It will make easy the study process of students globally. It is main and innovative strategic plan of university. The objective of the university is to provide excellent education to the students in an effective manner (Daniel, 2013). The strategic plans of this newly developed IT work will be based on the online system developed long term process which will be helpful in increasing the security developed program and strengthen the learning process. This will be more useful for the students who are more inclined towards learning new things through the online portal. The strategic plans of this digital course would be supported by the undertaken work and digital program. IT staff members and online software would be used to support the IT based digital platform for work.
The university is the first UK higher education institution to enhance and build a fully and effective comprehensive online university model. The success and growth of the organization is managed and directed by having a clear and dynamic mission and vision. The main mission and vision of the organization are to be a global leader in education sector. The objective of the university is to provide education to students without classrooms and books. The university is further planning to create a model which helps in rendering education and learning without teachers. For this purpose, the university is receiving financial funding for development and research from various other institutions and government. The main aim of this new initiative is to use new and dynamic idea to provide support their students widely. All these aims and objectives of IT initiative help in fulfilling the long term strategic plan’s objectives and goals (Daniel, 2013). The main aim and objectives of this newly developed IT project is to support the students towards the online learning and strengthen their educational support program.
There are various ways to review of the current IT staffing skills in the organization. Some of the ways are discussed below.
The staffing policy plan for the IT department would be useful for evaluating and assessing the undertaken IT work. The innovative and effective staffing policy plan for the IT department that will meet the IT initiative needs is discussed below.
Revise job descriptions: It is first and unique step to create a staffing policy plan for the IT department. Job duties and roles can change over time. Talk to managers and leaders and ask them how their responsibilities and their team member’s roles have changed. Revise job description is significant steps to create a plan for staffing of IT department. Job description is a document that explains the general tasks and duties of the employees to a position. Specific skills and qualification are needed to fill the job description effectively. This document further states the significant and essential job needs, roles, requirements and duties. A more unique and detailed job description would cover how progress and success are evaluated in the role so it could be used during performance assessment (Zoogah, 2011). This revise job description would be more beneficial for hiring efficient employees.
Conduct a skills gap analysis: Evaluating and conducting a skills gap analysis is an effective way to analyze and identify staff current skills and abilities in a hassle free manner. It is the second step of staffing policy plan that helps in identifying and analyzing the skills gaps of the workers while functioning at the workplace. Skills of the workers can be improved and enhanced by using of skill gap analysis.
Visualize hiring activity: Quantitative methods and techniques can be used to predict future hires in recruitment plan. It will help the university to meet the IT initiative needs and requirements while hiring the skilled and talented staff.
Revamp hiring process: Analyze the past recruitment plans, policies and hiring habits help in fulfilling the IT initiative needs and demands.
Create a hiring budget: If the university is planning to hire the staff then it needs to focus and calculate the recruiting yield ratio and cost per hire (Diaz‐Carrion, López‐Fernández and Romero‐Fernandez, 2018).
Think in terms of hiring teams: The employees need to think about the success and growth of the company while performing tasks and duties at the workplace. The new candidates should perform tasks and duties in a constructive manner to meet the IT initiative requirements in the workplace.
Learning and development- This will be last steps which will be accompanied with the training and development program. It will focus on educating students more through the online dashboard mechanism and strengthen their learning.
This staffing policy plan will help the organization to fulfill the needs and requirements of IT initiative in a hassle free manner. It will also help the university to be a leader or pioneer in advanced and innovative educational development (Gagnon and mattingly, 2015).
There are several primary approaches that university can use in staffing decisions such as polycentric, ethnocentric, geocentric and egocentric approach. The ethnocentric staffing approach mainly focuses on the practices, policies and rules of the parent company where top management positions are highly held by the corporate personnel from the home country. Therefore, by using the staffing approaches would be supported by the online hiring and imparting online learning phases for the students. The university can use this approach to make effective and dynamic staffing decisions. Personal development and growth of the workers can be done with the help of ethnocentric approach (Kelleyflores, 2019). Effective and strong communication among the different departments can be possible with the help of ethnocentric approach. Along with this, the organization can also use polycentric staffing approach to recruit the candidates in an effective manner. In this approach, the company of the host country is appointed candidate for the managerial positions to conduct functions and activities efficiently. By using this approach, the organization can reduce language barriers and obstacles while hiring the applicants at international level. Furthermore, this approach boosts the career opportunities and moral of the employees largely. Geocentric staffing approach is one of the important policies that can be used by university to recruit IT staff. By using this approach, the organization can select talented and skilled candidates. This approach helps in minimizing and eliminating the tendency of national identification of managers or leaders with subsidiary units of the company as well. In addition, regiocentric staffing approach further could be initiated by the firm while appointing candidates for providing education in the global market. This approach is similar to the polycentric approach but somehow it reflects region instead of a specific country (Kelleyflores, 2019).
B. Explain and justify preferred approach to staffing
The preferred approach for the university is polycentric approach. This approach is the international recruitment technique wherein the HR appoints the personnel for the international operations and businesses. Host country recruits the candidate for the conducting of the business under this approach. The rationale behind this theory is that the domestic of the host nation know their values and culture effectively and can expand the business more effectively as compared to the others (Can and Çetinarslan, 2017). This approach is suitable for the university because it helps in eliminating and reducing the difficulties in the adjustment of expatriates from the close relative nation. It is less expensive approach thus, the organization can take ample of benefits while initiating the business in the international market (Ployhart and Weekley, 2014). The university can improve and enhance the morale and loyalty of the staff and better productivity further can be done with the help of polycentric approach. The experts have more knowledge therefore, the productivity and efficiency of the university can be increased and enhanced. The chances of success and development are high in this approach. Besides this, career opportunities for the country increase through this theory. The university can take full support of the government under this approach to provide education in the international market (Guo, Rammal and Dowling, 2016). This will change the arena of the education work which will strengthen the extensive educational work approach for the newly developed IT work. This will not only change the educational work arena but also give a new line for the students to inline towards the digital education.
C. Ethical impact of polycentric approach
It is stated that polycentric staffing decisions exercise from a decision model of bounded rationality wherein limited and dynamic search and availability heuristics formulate the decision making procedure that arrives at a policy of placing host country nationals in charge of activities and initiatives in their own environment. It is noted that there are various ethical impact of polycentric approach. The ethical rationale of moral rights and duties recommends that domestic skills and talent are deserving of identification host country nationals are bounded to enhancement and employment (Nagendra and Ostrom, 2012). This policy is excellent for the host country because code of conducts and ethics can be maintained effectively in the host and home country as well. It is evident that polycentric approach is best for the university because it serves as the stakeholders to the organization. Training and development programs and sessions are held to maintain a favorable working environment at the workplace. This approach further helps in conducting business initiatives and activities successfully. On the other hand, some issues will be faced by the university by implementing polycentric approach. Employee discrimination and safety issues can be faced while initiating this approach at the workplace. It puts direct impacts on ethics and code of conducts of the university (Kucza and Gebauer, 2011). In this way, polycentric approach put various positive and negative impacts on the ethics.
The below IT installation plan would be used to set up proper program and implemented strategies which will strengthen overall IT developed work. A more unique and detailed job description would cover how progress and success are evaluated in the role so it could be used during performance assessment (Zoogah, 2011). This revise job description would be more beneficial for hiring efficient employees.
The IT implementation plan has been discussed below.
The scheduled plan plays a major role in IT initiative. Without scheduling, the university cannot achieve its long term IT objectives and goals. The scheduled plan using Gantt chat has been detailed below.
The budget plan IT initiative is elaborated below. The below given budget plans revolve around the undertaken work and budgeted work which will strengthen the overall outcomes and business efficiency in effective manner.
Now 5 years objectives
Advanced and innovative technology help in increasing and enhancing the significance of education and learning in today’s modern world. Advanced technology will help the university to improve and boost the teaching and learning and help students be successful and careful. It is evaluated from the various studies that innovative technology enables learning to take place outside of the college and classroom as well. In various cases, the technology helps the students share opinion, learn significant skills, research subjects and learn more about the topic. The university is using audio feedback systems to teach the students widely. Training is provided to provide technical knowledge to student in the international market. To train the students to meet the industrial and social requirements, the government spent a large amount of money in technical education. Advanced and dynamic technology provides new direction to the students to a large context. For example, computer aided methods and techniques permit students to spend more time and money developing broader and more dynamic and diverse interests in the various subjects rather than routine technical drills with a slight scope. Advanced and new technology minimizes and eradicates the barriers for students with individual differences (Salmon, 2013).
To meet investment in new technology with strategic plan, the university needs fulfill buy in from everyone at the workplace, from the top down, to offer a clear understanding of how innovative technology could resolve and handle key business pain points and further organizational objectives. The investment in new technology aligns with the company’s strategic plan with the help of strong commitment. The IT departments that could show dedication and patience to the overall business vision and plan while getting things done would increasingly be given more and more freedom to derive alternative technology policies and approaches (Rennie and Morrison, 2013). This will help in creating the synergy in the process and strengthen the overall educational program.
The five steps are involved in the business continuity planning for IT initiatives that have been presented below.
Get started: The Company needs to think about the plan for IT initiative effectively within the organization. The top management and managers need to identify and analyze the significance of IT initiative and plan for university. The executives would need to invest their amount where their mouth is and offer the financial resources necessary for the executing and implementing the plan (Buntin et al, 2011). This process would be accompanied with the several process system and management activities work which will strengthen the overall outcomes of the newly developed IT program.
Identify business needs: It is the second step of business continuity plan. After acquiring the resources required initiating IT plan, the university should turn attention to analyzing and documenting the effective business functions and operations that require support in the aftermath of a disaster (Jolliffe, Ritter and Stevens, 2012).
Determine recovery speed: The University needs to focus on the recovery speed of data and information to initiate IT plan successfully (Jewitt, 2012).
Deal with gaps: While initiating the IT plan, the organization will face various challenges and obstacles. The top management should deal with the gaps and problems which are occurring in the workplace while planning for IT initiative. The university needs to purchase additional systems, mechanisms and add fault tolerance capabilities to reduce and eliminate the gaps (Elliot, 2011). This deals with the IT initiatives and also strengthen the overall outcomes in effective manner.
Maintain the program: It is stated that business continuity planning may be defined as a living documents that shall evolve as the needs and requirements of the business and the capabilities of new and advanced technology change (Goldin and Katz, 2018.).
(Source: Community door, 2019)
The information technology put direct impact on the environment to a large extent. It not only hamper the social and environments but also negatively impact the learning phase of the students. For instance, it focus on the digital learning and phasing towards keeping data in one set. The environmental impact of information technology including rebound effects however, it is stated that ICT services are called to generate rebound effects like inducing higher demand for the system and new activities. These rebound effects could lead to advanced and new environmental impacts (Mathews and Tan, 2011). This provides how a person could strengthen the overall outcomes and efficiency of the process. The information technology project provides various ways to eliminate energy use, for example through smart teleworking. Information technology further affects economic growth and development and brings societal and technological change. Handling the direct effects of IT is more complex than just producing or making effective devices and instruments, owing to the energetically costly manufacturing process and maximizing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account (Hasle et al, 2012). The recommendation for this project would be to increase the developed IT project and increase the overall outcomes. This will strengthen the overall rebound effects and IT development program for the IT work. Project IT developed work needs to be supported through the educational work IT support program.
The recommendations for IT project initiative are discussed below.
It is concluded from the above mentioned limelight event that IT initiative plays a major role in rendering education and learning to the students in the international market. The organization wants to be a global pioneer thus It focuses on the IT initiative. To implement IT initiative, the organization needs to follow a dynamic and strong IT staffing policy. This staffing policy will help the company to review and hire the IT staff for conducting the business activities and operations in the global market. Staffing policy plan is made by the university to identify and measure the skills gaps within the organization. The university also uses various staffing approaches to meet the long term needs of the IT initiative. IT implementation and installation plan has been created to fulfill the long term mission and vision. It has been studied that the university uses dynamic and effective technology to achieve company’s strategic plans and objectives. The innovative and advanced technology also put direct impact on the environment.