ITBO201 IT For Business Organisations Assessment 2 Answer

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Question :


COURSE:Bachelor of IT / Bachelor of Accounting / Bachelor of Business
IT for Business Organisations
Unit Code:
Type of Assessment:
Assessment 2 – Content Analysis (Reflective Journal)
3,500 words

Unit Learning Outcomes addressed:
Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to:
  1. Understand the core principles and concepts of information systems.
  2. Describe business processes and how information systems can be used to improve those processes and contribute to business decision making.
Assessment Task:
Students are required to analyse the weekly lecture material of weeks 1 to 11 and
create concise content analysis summaries of the theoretical concepts contained in the course lecture slides.


Students are required to analyse the weekly lecture material of weeks 1 to 11 and create concise content analysis summaries of the theoretical concepts contained in the course lecture slides.

Where the lab content or information contained in technical articles from the Internet or books helps to fully describe the lecture slide content, discussion of such theoretical articles or discussion of the lab material should be included in the content analysis.

The document structure is as follows (3500 Words):

  1. Title Page
  2. Introduction (100 words)
  3. Background (100 words)
  4. Content analysis (reflective journals) for each week from 1 to 11 (3245 words; 295 words per week):
    1. Theoretical Discussion
      1. Important topics covered
      2. Definitions
  5. Interpretations of the contents
    1. What are the most important/useful/relevant information about the content?
  6. Outcome
    1. What have I learned from this?
  7. Conclusion (55 words)

Your report must include:

  • At least five references, out of which, three references must be from academic resources.
  • Harvard Australian referencing for any sources you use.
  • Refer to the Academic Learning Skills student guide on Referencing.


This assignment should be submitted online in Moodle through Turnitin.

The assignment MUST be submitted electronically in Microsoft Word format. Other formats may not be readable by markers. Please be aware that any assessments submitted in other formats will be considered LATE and will lose marks until it is presented in Word.

For assistance please speak to our Academic Learning Skills Coordinators, in Sydney ( or in Melbourne ( They can help you with understanding the task, draft checking, structure, referencing and other assignment-related matters.


Content for Assessment Task papers should incorporate a formal introduction, main points and conclusion.

Appropriate academic writing and referencing are inevitable academic skills that you must develop and demonstrate in work being presented for assessment. The content of high quality work presented by a student must be fully referenced within-text citations and a Reference List at the end. Kent strongly recommends you refer to the Academic Learning Support Workshop materials available on the Kent Learning Management System (Moodle). 

Kent recommends a minimum of FIVE (5) references in work being presented for assessment. Unless otherwise specifically instructed by your Lecturer or as detailed in the Unit Outline for the specific Assessment Task, any paper with less than five (5) references may be deemed not meeting a satisfactory standard and possibly be failed.

Content in Assessment tasks that includes sources that are not properly referenced according to the “Harvard Referencing Workbook” will be penalised.

Marks will be deducted for failure to adhere to the word count if this is specifically stated for the Assessment Task in the Unit Outline. As a general rule there is an allowable discretionary variance to the word count in that it is generally accepted that a student may go over or under by 10% than the stated length.


References are assessed for their quality. Students should draw on quality academic sources, such as books, chapters from edited books, journals etc. The textbook for the Unit of study can be used as a reference, but not the Lecturer Notes. The Assessor will want to see evidence that a student is capable of conducting their own research. Also, in order to help Assessors determine a student’s understanding of the work they cite, all in-text references (not just direct quotes) must include the specific page number(s) 

A search for peer-reviewed journal articles may also assist students. These type of journal articles can be located in the online journal databases and can be accessed from the Kent Library homepage. Wikipedia, online dictionaries and online encyclopaedias are acceptable as a starting point to gain knowledge about a topic, but should not be over-used – these should constitute no more than 10% of your total list of references/sources. Additional information and literature can be used where these are produced by legitimate sources, such as government departments, research institutes such as the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), or international organisations such as the World Health Organisation (WHO). Legitimate organisations and government departments produce peer reviewed reports and articles and are therefore very useful and mostly very current.

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Answer :


An information system is a network of interrelated electronic components that collect, process, store and produce solutions for business purposes, and a software program is a computer software programme that runs an useful purpose or set of related mechanisms on a desktop computer. When computers were brought to the stage, the business world changed forever. Corporations may use digital technologies by the use of computers and various applications to conduct their activities in a cleaner manner. In multiple agencies, such as financial services, production, human resources, and security, they use it. Today, information technology and information systems are essential parts of every company. Every company needs to invest in innovation to compete, like accounting and law. Software is a cost of business, as well as a chance to do more business. The majority of the population I refer to acknowledge the need for a device, an account number, and a site, and they still look more towards the upfront expense than most other problems.

A computer system or set of research collection, development, storage, processing and distribution elements, usually including computer hardware, system users, and the database itself.

Background Information

Use of machines to store, retrieve, transmit, and control data or information is information technology (IT). In contrast to private or media technology, IT is usually used within field of business activities. A type of information and communications technology is known to be IT. An information technology system is typically an integrated system, a messaging service or, more precisely, a computer run by a restricted set of folks, along with all hardware, software and peripheral equipment.

The most popular programmes that run in the foreground of the system are application software. They prefer to perform valuable activities that are not related to machine maintenance, boot-up of the system, or communication with hardware.

Content Analysis

Week 1 (Information Systems)

Theoretical Discussion

Information system, an interconnected collection of modules for data collection, storage and processing, and knowledge, awareness and digital services system integration. In order to carry out and maintain their operations, interact with the clients and suppliers, and compete in the market, business organizations and other organizations depend on information. 

The emphasis of such a section is on latest events in computers that affect the course of product science and research and organizational project management maturity. The development , implementation, and integration of computer-based simulation models, databases, and decision-support systems for artificial intelligence has already resulted in substantial advances in specific science and technology.

Interpretations of the contents

Transaction Processing System

A transaction processing system in a processing system that tracks transaction programmers is a set of information that manages digital certificates. The system is valuable when something is sold through the internet. This allows for a time delay between when when an item is finally sold. An instance is that of an international media ticket. While the client fills out their information to buy the seat ticket, the transaction processing system retains the reserved seat so that it can also not be bought by that other individual. It makes it very difficult for two different clients not to sell a ticket.

Management information system

Software integrated of hardware and software that serves as the centre of a company's operations is a management information system. A MIS gathers data from different online systems, evaluate the data, and reports data to assist management decision-making.


A MIS aims to be able to compare several data points in order to strategize how to improve processes. For example, being able to compare revenues this month to revenues a year ago and looking at staffing levels will point to opportunities to improve revenue. Or it can also strengthen decision-making to be able to compare and relate marketing expenses to sales by geographic location. However, due to data compiled by a MIS, the first and only way this degree of research is feasible is to do so.

Week 2 (Computers and Data Communication)

Theoretical Discussion

A computer is defined as a device that takes data as input , processes data by using written procedures without user intercession, and act . as a result. The directions, also called a script, are step-by - step guidelines for a particular task to be performed, recorded in a form that can be understood by the machine.

Interpretations of the contents

Components of computer system

A computer system includes three elements:

  • Computer Hardware: There are portions of the computer system which can be reached by the human hand. Examples are: device display, keyboard, mouse, graphics card, memory, modules, disc drive, etc..
  • Computer Software: The software aspect relates to the commands, initiatives, information, and protocols running on top of an operating system. It is also maintained briefly and persistently in primary and secondary hardware media. The random access memory chip is an example of primary electronics, while the hard disc drive is an instance of specific functionality.
  • Human ware: Human ware part describes a person who is using the device. More explicitly, this is about the guy who makes components of hardware and software productive.

Device Components for Data Communication:

Components of data communication

A data communication system mainly has five components:

1. Message

2. Sender

3. Receiver

4. Transmission Medium

5. Set of rules (Protocol)


Connection of data is based on the exchange of information between network entities via some type of means of distributing, Broadband, string, or air or vacuum, for example. The transmission of information must be part of a communication system consisting of a pair of hardware or software equipment and programmes in order for data communication to occur.

Week 3 (Database Systems, Data Warehouses, and Data Marts)

Theoretical Discussion

A database is a standardized set, normally stored and accessed electronically, of data from a computer system. Where datasets are even more complex, they are often built using systematic architecture and modeling techniques.

The Database Management System is statistical data analysis software that deals with end users, apps, and the structure of the database. The DBMS programme also includes the main facilities provided for the maintenance of the system. The simple form of a Data Warehouse is a data mart. It is limited to a single topic. Data Mart considers opinions from just few other publications. These references may be main warehouses of data, inner operating systems, or publications of external data.

Interpretations of the contents

Logical database as a collection of translation process the database level of the software system into a schema for the data model correlating a particular DBMS, such as a relational or object-oriented database schema.

Logical database architecture is done using a variety of strategies, including top-down, bottom-up, and combined research methods. The traditional approach, specifically for relational databases, was a low-level, bottom-up operation, synthesising individual existing data into normalised tables after careful analysis of the data of individual interdependencies recognised by the system development.


A data mart is a particular topic-oriented database that is also a subdivided component of data warehouses. The relatively small group of data collected in a data mart usually coincides with a company or other organization, such as revenue, finance, or marketing. Data marts simplify business processes by providing access to relevant information in a data warehouse or functioning data store within days, as comparison to months or longer. Because a data mart only contains the data relevant to a particular business area, it is a cost-effective way to gain useful information easily.

Week 4 (Protecting Information Resources)

Theoretical Discussion

Password-protecting all your devices and important documents will protect your knowledge. Adjust the default passwords at all times and don't give anyone your password. Protect every Wi-Fi network so that it's impossible to intercept data. A especially prevalent mode of attack is computer viruses. These are programme instructions capable of not only executing malicious actions, but also inserting copies of themselves into other programmes and thereby transmitting them to other computer systems. Worms are complete computer programmes, similar to viruses, that duplicate and propagate via telecommunications networks. To successfully accomplish these Benefits require a set of physical, technological and social resources to support

Interpretations of the contents

Any operation intended to protect the usability and integrity of your network and data is network protection. Both hardware and software innovations are included. Access to the network is managed by efficient network protection. This solves a number of threats and prevents them from accessing or expanding on the network. Protection of the network incorporates many layers of protections at the edge and throughout the network. Policies and controls are enacted by each network security layer. Registered users gain access to network services, but vulnerabilities and attacks are blocked from being carried out by malicious actors.


Authentication methods, firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and antivirus and encryption applications provide different tools and technology used to help defend against or track intrusion.

Their aim is to inspire the private industry to partner with government agencies by reporting assaults on data protection. The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team provides the international community with a list of publicly documented vulnerabilities and exposures to security, develops security advisories, and issues cyber warnings.

Week 5 (Emerging Trends, Technologies, and Application)

Theoretical Discussion

Radio Frequency Identification is a communication technology that uses electromagnetic radio-frequency fields to collect data about an object without touching the data carrier. This programme uses transponder / tags attached to the objects to mark the objects.

Increasingly, biometric systems are used to identify people and to monitor way in to physical objects, information, facilities and some other rights or advantages, including the ability to disrupt borders within the country. The explanations for the use of biometrics are complex and often they interact.

Interpretations of the contents

Virtual reality ( VR) is a synthetic environment that can be equivalent to the physical world or entirely different from it. Virtual reality solutions may include entertainment.

Virtual reality systems essentially consist of the input sensors and output sensors of the device and software, known as the reality engine. Tech enthusiasts are fitted with control input that The monitor, mouse, knobs, and joysticks are also included. The output components are provided by the printer and the video display monitor. In addition, the above-described head- and ear-mounted devices and gloves for controlling the virtual world provide virtual reality input and output devices. Finally, the consumer, who both guides and reacts to the considering the external business, is the fourth sensory aspect.


The head-mounted display has to be the most directly recognisable aspect of Virtual Reality. Human beings are basic entities, and the single largest discrepancy between interactive Virtual Reality systems and conventional user interfaces is always display technology.

Week 6 (Enterprise Systems)

Theoretical Discussion

Supply chain management is the management of the distribution of goods & services and includes all processes that turn raw materials into products. This entails the vigorous streamlining of an organisation's supply-side activities to maximize customer loyalty and to achieve a sustainable competitive edge.

CRM stands for "Customer Relationship Management" and relates to all methods, tactics, instruments and technology used by organisations to create, attract and acquire customers.

Innovation application, also referred to as business application software (EAS), is computer software used to fulfill corporate needs instead of anonymous consumers. Amongst certain organisations are corporations, colleges, interest-based user groups, clubs, charities, and governments. Enterprise software is an integral part of a (computer-based) management system; a collection of such software is referred to as an enterprise system.

Interpretations of the contents

Enterprise software is a compilation of software programmes that have common enterprise applications, resources to design why the whole organisation functions and frameworks to build organizational-specific apps. Rather than an individual departments issue, the technology is aimed to fix an enterprise-wide issue. Enterprise application software seeks to increase the competitiveness and performance of the enterprise by offering support features for business process.


Enterprise application software performs company operations such as order processing, sourcing, demand planning, client data management, energy management, and accounting. It is think things on servers and offers simultaneous services to multiple users, generally over a computer network. This is in contrast to a single-user application that runs on a user's personal computer and only serves one user at a time.

A knowledge management system is any sort of IT system that stores and retrieves knowledge to improve understanding, communication, and process alignment. Information management systems can exist within companies or teams, but they can also be used to focus your users or clients on your established knowledge.

Week 7 (E-commerce)

Theoretical Discussion

E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the purchase and sale over an electronic network , primarily the internet, of products and services or the transmitting of financial resources or information. Such business transactions take place either as business-to - business (B2B), as business-to - consumer (B2C), as end user-to-consumer or as business-to - consumer. Terms for e-commerce and e-business are often used interchangeably. The term e-tail is also often used in reference to explicit statements for online purchases.

Interpretations of the contents

Business-to - business (B2B): It refers to information replace among businesses, as well as between businesses and customers, of goods, services or information. Instances involve internet folders and websites for product and supply exchanges that enable companies to search for products , services and information and to response protocols via e-procurement interfaces.

The consumer part of e-commerce on the platform is business-to - consumer (B2C). It's when customers actually offer products , services or data to customers. And during dot-com boom of the 1970s, when online stores and buyers of products were a status symbol, the term was popular.

Consumer-to - consumer (C2C) is a type of e-commerce in which customers internet exchange one another's products , services and information. In general, such activities carried out via a private entity providing an internet site on which the processes are conducted out.

Consumer-to-business (C2B) is a form of e-commerce in which users purchase online bidders and purchasing of their services and products accessible to firms. This is the reverse of the conventional B2b market of economic activity


You have to maintain a short-term customer-buyer alliance with B2C. Whereas in B2B, a long-term customer-buyer relationship must be maintained.

Typically , customers buy based on desire and reaction. Consumer buying in B2B is largely focused on need. It must be prepared and it must be rational.

Week 8 (Building Successful Information Systems)

Theoretical Discussion

The Life Cycle of Device Creation is a series of six key phases to build a software application only, a software program only, or a variation of both to meet or exceed the product 's requirements. A management information system is a computer-based information system that generates relevant documents and also allows managers to view current and historical information online, primarily at mid and first line levels.

Analysis of requirements covers all practice that determine the needs or standards to be met for a new or revised product or project take into account the potentially conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, assessing, documenting , validating and managing them. software or system requirements.

Interpretations of the contents

Defining topics, priorities and services, such as workers and costs

Studying the ability to suggest alternatives after consulting with consumers, vendors, advisors and staff

Evaluating and recording the end user's requirements, what their expectations are for the system, and how it will work is meaningful. A feasibility review, including the assessment of whether that is organizationally, politically, socially and practically feasible, will also be conducted out for the campaign.

The design process defines the components of the system, the components, and the level of security, packages, architecture, and the different interfaces and data types that move through the framework, after a clear understanding of user requirements.


The system development life cycle ( SDLC), also known as process development life-cycle, is a mechanism for designing , developing, evaluating , and implementing an information system in systems engineering , information systems and software engineering. The definition of the life cycle creation of systems refers to a variety of combinations of hardware and software, since a system can be composed only of hardware, software or a mixture of both.

Week 9 (Management Support Systems)

Theoretical Discussion

Decision-making is the process of decision-making by forming a decision, gathering facts and reviewing alternate resolutions. Using a step-by - step decision-making strategy will assist the decision to take reflective decisions by organizing relevant details and defining choices. This method increases the chances of choosing the most rewarding alternative feasible. Help structures for management concentrate on the managerial use of information services. For planning and decision-making, these structures provide knowledge to handle. Both internal and external data are focused on the knowledge generated by these programmers, using different data analysis methods. They also provide the user with an option to choose from these tools for data analysis purposes. These systems represent the knowledge needs of managers in the organizational structure at the upper middle stages.

Interpretations of the contents

The main goal of information systems is to assist decision-makers by providing reliable and time-based information that allows them in volatile markets to make the right decisions.  An Executive Information System is a sort of system of decision support used in companies to assist decision-making executives. It does so by providing convenient access to critical data required to achieve organizational plans in an organisation. On a user-friendly GUI, an EIS typically has graphical displays


Business decision-making involves decisions that are made that determine the results of companies or organisations.

The choices that decide who we are as individuals and the consequences that we build for ourselves and those with whom we have relationships are personal decision-making. This group encompasses what are often referred to as decisions about life.

Picture of the concept of customer

Consumer decision-making consists of decisions that decide our efficacy in purchasing decisions that take place in either a personal or company sense. In this case, an individual or a person within a company may be the customer.

Week 10 (Intelligent Information Systems)

Theoretical Discussion

Knowledge evolution is represented by the Intelligent Information System (IIS). In various computational environments, it has been led by modern technology integrations, data processing, and distribution. Machines are perfectly designed to provide an intended outcome by processing a particular data in a specified way for a fixed type of environment.

Artificial Intelligence is a technology platform capable of understanding, reasoning, adapting, and executing tasks in human mind-inspired ways. Researchers are planning to build intelligent software and machines with access to data and the computational power and technological development needed to extract increasing value from it to support overall profitability and motivate individuals everywhere. In order to help address some of the most important challenges in society, from medical diagnosis to education to wealth generation and empowerment, employment agency and businesses have created AI systems.

Commonly chosen, case-based thinking (CBR) is the way to approach additional problems due to similar past corrective actions. Case-based reasoning is used by an electronics engineer who repairs an engine by retrieving another vehicle that showed similar symptoms.

Interpretations of the contents

There are typically four components of an expert system: a knowledge base, the search or inference system, a system for obtaining knowledge, and the user interface or data communication. Knowledge systems address complex real-world problems by carrying out inference processes on clearly specified knowledge. Any portion of all equipment such as information management is centralized. Both client-server systems are machine like. By having all the customers autonomous and equal to the server, we can transform any computer information system into an intelligent system. 


Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a paradigm for artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology which essentially models the reasoning mechanism as memory-based. Case-based reasoners address new issues by remembering stored 'events' describing similar past problem-solving episodes and changing their solutions to suit current needs. CBR article investigates the CBR framework both as features of consumer learning and memory and as a methodology to intelligent system development.

Week 11 (The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets)

Theoretical Discussion

The Internet, extranets, and intranets are all based on the same technology as TCP / IP. However, in terms of the degree of access they allow to various users within and outside the company and the scale of the network, they are various. An intranet allows the members of an entity to have limited access; an extranet extends that control by enabling non-members, such as vendors and clients, to use company services. The distinction between the Internet and extranets is that while the extranet provides restricted access to non-members of an entity, the Internet usually provides anyone to access all network resources.

Interpretations of the contents

Usually, intranets begin by publishing web pages about company activities, health and safety policies, and newsletters for workers. It is followed by common applications, such as forms to recover expenses or request holidays. These all help to remove required documents and speed up business processes.

An intranet may become central to an organisation's operation as more features are added. It becomes a forum that gives access to all the things employees need. Firewalls and the need to log on with a strong password protect the internal network from the global internet. By using a VPN (virtual private network), workers working outside the company can be able to access the intranet. This ensures that all contact is encrypted between the web portal and the desktop computer of the user.


Extranets take this process a step further by offering access to individuals working for multiple companies. For example, for online ordering, order monitoring and inventory management, a company might have access to a supplier. It helps them to procure it on a self-service basis rather than always sending data to suppliers. Another example would be a hospital giving access to a booking system to local GPs so that they can schedule appointments for their patients. An extranet should be more powerful because, in the same format, everybody has access to the same data. It can also be more reliable than transferring information over the public internet, because all extranet messages can be protected over a VPN.


Information computers and the internet are not only valuable features for facilitating people-to - people interaction, and they're a way of creating new revenue streams by evolving and improving business expansion in a positive way. The Web can be seen as a strategic tool for enterprises to encourage their work and services and to grow into new markets.

It has become part of our everyday online lives to search and browse the internet. Web browsers and their embedded standard navigation tools include a web browser with a Showcase of powerful software technologies with a worldwide user base, which has way we look for and communicate with data has been altered. Searching Engine technology has become commonplace, offering the infinite amount of knowledge the web contains with a simple interface. Search engines have provided a continuous stream of developments since the beginning of the web, satisfying their users with increasingly precise results by introducing sophisticated retrieval algorithms and scalable distributed architectures. For the smooth running of the internet, search and navigation technologies are fundamental and it is difficult to imagine seeking knowledge without them. It is of vital importance to both IT students and professionals to consider the mathematical basis of these technologies and the structures influencing them