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Job Crafting and Job Satisfaction

 Meta-analysis

For this assignment, you will choose a topic and undertake a meta-analysis. You will subsequently prepare a powerpoint presentation and record yourself (audio or audio + video) delivering a presentation of no more than 10 minutes on your meta-analysis which may be presented in the final lecture (the presentation is worth 10 marks, which is additional to the 20 marks allocated to Assignment 3).

You may wish to use this opportunity to select a topic and/or research question that you are either currently researching, or that you are planning to research in the future.

Instructions

  1. State your research question. (2 marks)
  2. List the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of past research into the meta-analysis. (3 marks)
  3. Describe the search strategies that you used to find studies for your meta-analysis. Note that for the purposes of this assignment, I am not expecting your meta-analysis to be an exhaustive review of all studies in an area. Nor am I expecting you to contact authors to seek unpublished data. I will be expecting you to choose a minimum of 3 published studies that meet your criteria, address your research question, and which usefully contribute to your analysis. (2 marks)
  4. Undertake a meta-analysis with a minimum of 3 studies (more is better, but the minimum of 3 is set to acknowledge that some research questions may result in more published studies than others) and submit a Results section describing the results of the analysis. Your Results section should include the analytical approach taken; for example, which measures of effect size you used, and how you obtained these measures. Your Results section should include detail about; the model you selected (fixed-effect or random-effect model), the method of meta-analysis used, and the credibility interval of the final effect size. Your Results section should also include either a table listing the sample size, the effect size, and the confidence intervals of the effect size for each study in the analysis, or a graph of this information, such as the one in Sisk et al. (2018). (10 marks)
  5. Include a written summary of the overall outcome of your meta-analysis in relation to your research question. (3 marks)

Answer

 JOB CRAFTING AND JOB SATISFACTION

Introduction

The study provides an in-depth analysis between the job crafting and the job satisfaction. It helps to depict the basic understandings of two aspects and also help in the carrying of successful research on the two factors in details. It helps to focus on the advantages and disadvantages on the two phenomenon and try to conduct the basis of the study to help in reaching of a particular analysis in the study (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017). It helps to draw the correct effect or the relationship between two phenomenons’s and attain to a particular objective at the end of the particular study.

The underlined study also helps to relate the exact difference or analysis between the job satisfaction and job crafting in the organization. It helps to relate both the phenomenon and also carry on the research on the different employees working in the organization about the exact relationship between these two. It helps to inhibit a positive or a negative relationship between the two aspects in the study. It also helps to inhibit the overview of the different employees regarding the effective process followed n the job satisfaction and in the job crafting phenomenon in the study. It also helps in taking or carrying out an effective research and getting of the different views of the employees about the positives and the negatives of the study in details to help in the effective decision making of the procedure followed in the organization.

Literature review

According to Bhave et al.  (2016), job satisfaction is defined as the sum total of the different types of the views or the different types of the judgments given by the different types of the employees working in the organization. It helps to reflect on the overall satisfaction shown by the different types of employees working in the organization. It also helps to review the entire work process followed by the management of the organization and the process by which the employees are happy with the process of the organization in the future. 

Furthermore Breevaart et al. (2016), states that job satisfaction works as the perfect indicators for measuring the actual value of the organization to the different employees and the procedure of the work followed by the employees in the organization. On the contrary Crant  et al. (2016),  states that job satisfaction is defined as the actual need and preferences of the different types of employees working in the organization that includes the ideal time of work, the right amount of salary and also the right working conditions followed by the organization.  It also involves the active participation or communication of the management with the different employees working in the organization according to the needs and preferences of the employees.

According to Demerouti et al.,  (2015), job satisfaction is also described as the correct form of the measurement of the different employees working according to the preferences and need for the job that also helps to achieve the overall objectives of the organization in the future.. It is a positive phenomenon that helps to view the actual views and regrets of the different employees to the performance of the organization. 

Furthermore Eguchi  et al., (2016), states  that  job satisfaction is defined as the ideal process that helps in the analyzing of the different types of the views shown by the different employees working in the organization that also helps to achieve the overall work in the organization. It acts as an motivating factor for the growth of an organization as it shows the correct views of the different employees on the overall performance of the organization in the future. It helps to reflect the positive and negative aspects of the different views of the organization to the performance shown towards the achievement of the different goals in the success of the organization. 

According to Hakanen et al., (2018), job satisfaction is also defined as the correct measurement of the actual confidence of the different employees on the job assigned in the particular organization. It helps to successfully relate with the positive or negative behaviour shown by the employees towards the working procedure and the management of the organization. It is a useful procedure of maintaining the exact positive relationship with the different type of employees working in the company and it also helps to develop the correct form of relationship between the employees and the management of the organization.

Furthermore Kooij et al. (2017), states that, job satisfaction is the pleasurable or the positive behaviour shown by the employees due to the appraisal of the correct form of the work shown in the different work of the employees. It helps to determine the correct nature of the job and also helps to relate the effect of the job with the mindset of the different types of the employees working in the organization. It is a useful procedure of maintaining the correct form of relationship between the work and the employees in an organization that also helps to relate with the exact success of the organization in the future.

According to Lu et al., (2014), job crafting is defined as the phenomenon that is used by the different active employees working in the organization to adjust the overall work done in the organization according to the needs, skills, and preferences for the job. It is an indicator that helps the different employees in the organization to set the overall basis of the work according to the requirements or on the basis of the indivually choices in the organization. It helps to set up a preferred working environment for the different employees working in the organization in the future.

Furthermore, Mäkikangas, et al, (2017), states that the employees who follows the job crafting procedure adjusts and also modifies the duties and the responsibilities towards the different types of job by using the physical means of structure by modifying the entire working boundaries for the tasks by the physical process or means of procedure that helps in the correct alteration of the job for the different employees working in the organization. It is also a process that helps in the alteration of the job procedure in the cognitive procedure by adjusting or altering the overall relationship between the different types of friend or the other employees working in the organization. 

Furthermore Nielsen et al. (2017), states that the job crafting is the functioning of the cognitive and the physical changes shown by the different individuals in the overall approach of the employees working in an organization to get in accustomed with the different types of work allocations and the working atmosphere present in the company. It is a positive process that helps in the correct alteration of the different types of the demands set up by the employees to work in accordance with the objectives of the organization and set up the correct working procedure for the employees.

According to Oldham and Fried (2016), the most important factor or the reason for the success factor of the job crafting process is that an employee working in the organization can alter in the preferences shown according to the overall characteristics of the different types of the jobs allocated in the organization. It helps to analyze the correct choices for the different types of the employees to work in an organization and also help to positively relate the working method of the employees according to the overall objectives of the organization. It is a process used for measuring the success factors that help in the growth factor of an organization and it helps to positively relate with the satisfaction of the employees according to the alterations made in the different jobs or work shown by the employees in the respective work in the organization.

Furthermore Petrou et al(2018), states that the individual job crafting process is used for the adjustment of the individual preferences according to the need, skills, preferences in the job of the organization and the joint collaboration job crafting process is done for the development of the organization. It helps to successfully set up the different processes of the organization and set up the different working procedure in the organization according to the demands and needs of the different types of employees working in the organization. It helps in the correct utilization of the different resources used by the employees working in he organization for the future growth or success of the company.

Designing of a mediation for helping in the evaluation

The main aim of the study is to find the correct analysis for studying the relationship between the job satisfaction and job crafting. It helps to understand the correct relationship between the two aspects and also help in the correct analysis of the study in details. The increase in the job satisfaction depends on the employee behaviour and the effect of the management behaviour on the employees which helps in the shaping of the employees in an organization. The attitudes and the behaviours of the different management officials on the employee are an important factor in the overall analysis of the satisfaction of the employees (Plomp et al. 2016). It helps in the correct establishment of the different aspects of the relationship between the job satisfaction and the job crafting in an organization. It is used as a variable that establishment of the correct relationship between the job satisfaction and the job crafting in an organization.

Aim and Hypothesis of the study

 The overall aim of the study is to identify the correct relationship and also help in the correct analysis between job satisfaction and job crafting in an organization.  The samples of the research are taken from the different types of employees working in the different organizations. The underlined study provides a successful relationship between the various dimensions of the organization including the job crafting and job satisfaction which includes the following hypothesis:

H1: Job satisfaction is positively related with the job crafting in an organization.

H2: Job satisfaction is negatively related to the job crafting in an organization.

Sample of the study

The overall participants involved in the study were 280 different types of employees working in the small, medium, and large organizations. There were a total of 40% males. 20 % females and the age range of the respondents of the different employees from 24 to 60 years. The questionnaire was given to the different types of respondents in the time of the break or during the time of recess in the different types of organizations. The consent and the privacy of the information taken from the different types of the employees were kept in privacy from others. There were about 40% employees who were married and the rest 60% employees were unmarried. It also helped in the correct analysis of the different types of the employees on the job satisfaction and job crafting of the employees in an organization.

 Measures and variables

The questionnaire is set up on the basis of the different types of views of the employees on the social section and also on the various scales of the analysis that are used to understand the effectiveness of the overall review of the different type of the effects of the job satisfaction and job crafting in the organization.

Job crafting scale

The job crafting is defined as the particular type of the pro active or the engaged functions of the different types of employees in an organization that has to be adjusted according to the overall skills, need, and preferences of the working in an organization (Rudolph et al. 2017). I t has been used or measured with the  JCS scale that helps to divide the entire work of the different employees in the organization on the basis of the different types of choices , needs and skills of the employees in an organization.  It divides the entire job crafting scale on the basis of the increasing social job resources, increasing structuring job resources, increasing challenging demands in the job and hindering of the different types of the challenging jobs in the organization (Vogt et al. 2016). 

Job satisfaction scale

It is measured by the Minnesota style of questionnaire that helps in the correct understanding of the different types of the employees on the overall effect of the phenomenon on the working of the employees in the organization (Vogel et al .2016).  The employees had been asked to give emphasis on the different aspect for satisfaction of the job in the organization and also help in the rating of the different types of the jobs on the basis of the scale (Tims et al. 2016). The rating scale was given or marked from 1 to 6 .It has covered the two important dimensions of the work that includes the extrinsic job satisfaction and the intrinsic job satisfaction.  The study helped to provide that most of the employees laid importance on the overall intrinsic job satisfaction of the different employees in the organization (Van Wingerden et al. 2017). It helps in the correct analysis of the job satisfaction procedure for the different types of employees working in the organization.

Analysis of the data

The analysis of the data gathered from the above views of the different employees working in the different types of organization was collected by the testing of the mediation procedure. It helped in showing the correct emphasis of the actual views of the different employees working in the organization on the job satisfaction and the job crafting in an organization.  The condition for the job crafting phenomenon is considered as (H1) in the hypothesis test and the condition for the job satisfaction is considered as (H2) in the hypothesis test conducted in the underlined study. There was the use of the independent variable during the test of hypothesis H1 and there was the use of the dependent variables during the test of the hypothesis H2 .The final procedure in the analysis procedure was the regression of the independent variable on the different types of dependent variables in the study. It helps in the correct analysis of the data implemented from the overall views of the different employees working in the organization to job satisfaction and crafting in the study.

Conclusion

The underlined study helps to provide a successful depiction of the understanding and the correct analysis if two circumstances and also try to analyze the success factors which helps in the correct determination of the different types of facts related to the completion of the study. It also tries to examine the positive and the negative impacts of the job satisfaction and the job crafting in the market and also to present the right effect of  both aspects on the people in the market (Wanberg et al. 2016).  It also helps to provide an entire picture of the effect of the job crafting and satisfaction with the different types of organizations in the market. A detailed introduction is provided at the beginning of the study.

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