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Land Use and Land Cover Changes at the Edge of Delhi

Literature Review

1. Introductory statement which sets international context for urban growth and then follows sentences on the Indian context, then something specific on Greater Delhi.

2. Urban growth models- Burgess, Hoyt and pthers.

3. land use and land covers change associated with urban growth., urban sprawl and the phenomenon or peri-urbanisation.

4. Discussion of the impacts of urban growth, urban sprawl and the phenomenon or peri-urbanisation on agricultural land adjacent to cities.

5. Summary

Evidence:

1. Population growth of Noida and Gurgaon, compare population of both region to Delhi.

2. What do the people do in Noida and Gurgaon

3. Contrast between Noida-Industrial, and Gurgaon- commercial.

4. Policies and actions-what are they (be specific), are still in operation, etc. who implemented these actions. Who funded them?

5. Effect on agriculture land- maps (old maps and new maps, google earth), land use statistics, etc.

6. Summary of evidence.


Answer

Literature Review

Introduction 

Urban growth is considered to be a well known worldwide phenomenon and in the global context it is highly affecting the land cover. Land cover is a description that implies something about the biogeophysical characteristics of a portion of the earth surface, e.g. water body, woodland, bare ground. However, land use is the description of how a land area is used, e.g. arable agriculture, residential housing, shopping mall (Mell, 2015). Urbanization is growing fast majorly in developing country like India and it has brought significant adverse effect because of unorganized expansion, rapidly increasing population and increased immigration. According to the experts urban growth is the primary reason behind several emerging environmental issues like decreased air quality, subsequent flooding, increased local temperature and deterioration of the water quality. Fast growing cities of India like Noida and Gurgaon have encountered rapid environmental changes due to rapid urbanization that mostly unplanned.Land use and land cover changes modify the existing land use and land cover, and are caused by proximate causes and underlying drivers, which are socio-economic, demographic, political and technological in nature (Orkin, 2014). These drivers can be modified by environmental factors such a rapid-onset hazards, e.g., flooding, or slow-onset events such as climate change. Different drivers have led to significant land use and land cover changes in Noida and Gurgaon, two districts on the edge of Delhi, which are the focus of this research thesis. Information regarding the issue of urban growth, land use and land cover change study have proved to be immensely helpful for the urban planners for betterment of the future plans which leads to sustainable development of a city.


Urban growth models 

The study of urban land use can be drawn from three different descriptive models. These models have been developed in order to generalize the patterns of urban land use. The models which have been used in order to understand the urban growth are Concentric Zone model, Sector model and Multiple Nuclei Model of Urban land use.


Concentric Zone model: Urban social structures have been evaluated with the help of concentric model which is also known as the Burgess model. The model is developed based on the human ecology theory and it explains the distribution of the social groups and the population concentration accordingly. The concentric ring model also depicts the urban land usage in the concentric rings. The zones that are identified by this model are:

  • The central business district which remains the central point and that is also considered to be the focal point.
  • The transitional zone which is consisted of mix residential and the commercial uses and thus it is considered to be the zone transition.
  • The working class residential mainly found in the inner suburbs that later was titled as inner lands or inner city zone.
  • Better quality middle class housing which is mainly based in the outer suburbs.
  • Lastly the commuter zone.


Many contemporary urban geographers have drawn several drawbacks of this model and it is considered to be not relevant enough for the cities which are outside United States as it depicts the peculiar American geography and assumes an isotropic plane which is an even and unchanged landscape (McBride, 2017).

Burgess Model

Figure 1: Burgess Model

(source : self developed)


Hoyt model: the sector model which is also known as the Hoytb model of urban land use is a modification of the concentric zone model of city development (Kallawicha, 2015). The application of this particular model has certain benefits including the fact that it allows for an outward progression of growth.


Hoyt model diagram

Figure 2:Hoyt model diagram

Source: (Kallawicha, 2015)


This model suggests that the growth of the new city is commenced through the development of a series of sectors or wedges. Traditional communication routes are grown along with the development. It is important to note that low quality housing comes next to the industrial zone according to this model. Similarly, middleclass next to the low class and the high class remains as far as possible from the industrial area and the low class population.


Multiple nuclei model: The Multiple Nuclei Model is an economical model that describes the layout of a city which is based on the model of San Francisco. As per this model even if a city have begun with a central business unit or CBD, it is possible that other CBDs to develop on the outskirts of the city. Because of this nodes or nuclei are created in the other parts of the city. This model aims at presenting a more realistic and complicated structure of urbanized city. The primary goal of the model was to move away from the concentric zone model and better reflect the complex nature of the urban areas which are larger in size (Davies, 2015).         


Multiple Nuclei Model

Figure 3: Multiple Nuclei Model

Source: (Davies, 2015).

Land use and land covers change associated with urban growth, urban sprawl and pre-urbanization using Drivers model 

The structure of t5he cultural landscape is determined majorly by human decisions but the land cover is highly affected by the environmental drivers. The drivers model effectively identifies the reasons behind unplanned urban growth and its consequences on the emerging environmental issues.


The land use and the land cover changes the environment and the surrounding urban areas and it is related to the anthropogenic activities, which creates lot of problems. Due to this issue the land surface temperature is increasing. 


The expanding population size of this capital city (Delhi) is directly affecting at the land use and land cover issues.  Due to the changing and modern infrastructure or urbanization in Delhi, the extended part of Delhi is also changing in nature (Kumaret al. 2014).


Noida stands for new Okhla industrial development authority.  This city is renowned for the industrial development and it also developing for more than 70 decades. The land use of Noida is very industrial based. In addition, the Government of India has developed this specific place as an industrial junction of India. It comes under the Uttar Pradesh Industrial Area Development Act, 17th April 1976. The land use has changed until the year of 2000. Several institutional and residential buildings came on agricultural land before 2001. After the year of 2001, the main land use of Noida has done on high-rise residential buildings. Noida is well connected to Delhi through various roads, which has been spread over an area of 20316 hectares. In the year of 2015, Noida was ranked the best city in housing sector in India according to the news channels. IT and IT enabled services industry with many different large companies is still setting up their business in this city. Because of the over population, the Noida authority CEO has focused in the environment of the city. In the last few decades, the ‘green Noida, clean Noida’ concept has helped the city to develop the greenery coverage of the area. Today, Noida is India’s greenest city covered with 50 percent of greenery (Acharya, Sen, Punia & Reddy, 2017).


The city Gurgaon is situated in the national capital region. The Haryana government has used the land as the main commercial zone of this region. They also have been developed residential properties within these commercial complexes. The new land ‘mixed land use licensing policy for commercial zones’ has helped to develop the commercial sector of Gurgaon. The land cover of this area includes water bodies, wetland, forest etc, which is related to this city. These external drivers affect the Rohtak district, where this city is situated. The government of the area also concentrated on the land cover of the city to manage the area's environment (Chaudhuri, Singh & Rai, 2017). 


Noteworthy explanation behind this exceptional abatement in district under Cultivating use was an enormous addition in urban range. Table orchestrated using GIS tech show that 11387 hectares of rich cultivating region was lost as unrecoverable i.e. arrive where immutable improvement has happened and 3712 hectare as an unfilled land left open, showing up next augmentation site for created. The rule factors affecting the urban outskirts arrive change are improvement of current, business and institutional activities. In addition, as a result of urbanization and extending design towards urban development for business and other developmental open door the organization of Delhi isn't an inside and out orchestrated or choice sum. Change along genuine corridors is the perceiving feature of urban sprawl in this period. Delhi in its past stage created towards east yet in the last 15years it stretched out along different national highways.


Discussion on urban growth, urban sprawl and pre-urbanization (500)

Pri-urbanization means an area, which is metamorphosed due to the migration of people from rural areas to cities or more specifically metropolitan cities. The migration specifically takes place due to a certain reasons. First, due to urbanization and exploitation of fertile land covers, many people who used to sustain their lives by means of practicing agriculture or farming faced havoc consequences due to sudden industrialization and commercialization (Schindler & Kishore, 2015). The unfathomable ambition and greed of business tycoons led to the suffering of the people who belong from the underprivileged section of the society, or more specifically the poor farmers and woodcutters. According to (Padilla-Díaz, 2015), it has been stated that the sudden migration of the poor and underprivileged class of people into the urban areas affected the natural vegetation and equilibrium of the land covers of Noida and Gurgaon. Lack of provision and proper opportunities in the rural areas has led to overpopulation in the urban areas. This has certainly led to the growth of slums in the urban areas. Therefore, the natural land covers has been exploited to a great degree. Overpopulation has become one of the vital issues regarding the exploitation of the greenery and the land covers that used to be in a normal state in the past (Ahluwalia& Mohanty, 2014).


According to a certain survey and researchers like (Rai & Saha, 2015) it has been learned that the main reason behind urban growth in population is over migration of people from rural areas. Exploitation of fertile land has led to such a situation in Noida and Gurgaon. The poor farmers were denied of their traditional rights and were forced to migration in the urban areas purposelessly. Informal settlements like slums have increased due to the intervention of the industrialists in the rural areas. Urban growth can be interpreted in two certain ways (Sharma & Joshi, 2013). Firstly, it can be comprehended that the population of Noida and Gurgaon has increased drastically and this in turn can be directly related to the population growth of those mentioned areas. On the other hand, growth can mean progress of Noida and Gurgaon in terms of economy. According to Saxena, it is comprehended that Noida and Gurgaon has excelled   expectedly in terms of business and infrastructural development. However, infrastructural development has led to serious consequences as there has been repetitive reports of massive deforestation and unusual exploitation of the natural resources (Raj & Saha, 2015). Materialistic development has affected the natural habitat and fertile land covers of Noida and Gurgaon. 


The overall effect of the change in the society is very much apparent. In comparison with its past livelihood with the modern livelihood, the people of the Delhi it can easily evident that the overall life standard has been drastically improved (Ghosh et al 2014). The income level of every family has been increased rapidly when the consumerism is out broke in the system of social structure. These factors will be discussed in detail. The Gurgaon is mainly such kind of city, which is maximally producing the usable goods; therefore, it can be easily predictable that this area is rapidly developing the industry in the overall geographical domain of the Gurgaon. The other city is Noida, which mainly deals with the consumerism factor. Which type product is manufactured in the Gurgaon has the opportunity to represent those in the open market of the Noida. 


Summary

After reviewing all the literatures, which has been analyzed in the above section of this chapter, it has been evaluated that both the cities have different purpose for using their agricultural land. As this chapter is completely based on the comparison of two major cities of Delhi, even for India also, have different specialization and perceptions for using the land, moreover, this chapter focuses on the land use along with the land cover that change at the edge of Delhi. In addition, this chapter more focuses on the driving forces along agricultural forces used by both the cities. 


Furthermore, there are few sections of this chapter, which further is based on various models that are Urban Growth model and the Drivers Model. Both the models have contributed for reviewing the living style and working style of the people, living in both the cities. Both the cities have contributed in the development of Delhi as well as for India, moreover, for the sake of development in terms of industrialization and commercialization, it has been found that Gurgaon and Noida, both of them have not been using their agricultural land properly. The Government of that city can utilize the land in an efficient manner. After analyzing the models and linking with the literature review, it has been found that success of both have been affecting the sustenance of the agricultural business across the globe.

 Evidence 

Comparison between the population growth of Noida and Gurgaon

In the context of Delhi, it can be said that, since it is the national Capital Territory of India, the urban area of the city has attained a special status of capital region of the nation. Noida, being the neighbouring city of Delhi has evidently witnessed a massive growth in the last few years. 


It is important to note that, both Gurgaon and Noida are modern cities with developed infrastructure and several facilities. In the last 10 years, both the cities have faced infrastructural developments, which is another important facet of development among the two cities. 


When it comes to residential, shopping or educational facilities, Noida has been providing more facilities and improved facilities to the people all over the world. It is also important to note that, since the educational facilities and residential facilities are improved, Noida has been witnessing a massive population growth in the last few years. Since Noida is well connected with the roads of Delhi, the transport facility has also developed for entering into the city (Bernard, 2013). Most of the IT infrastructural companies have settled in Noida, which has also facilitated the population growth of the city. 


The land use and the land cover changes the environment and the surrounding urban areas and it is related to the anthropogenic activities, which creates lot of problems. Due to this issue the land surface temperature is increasing.  


The land use of Noida is very industrial based. In addition, the Government of India has developed this specific place as an industrial junction of India. It comes under the Uttar Pradesh Industrial Area Development Act, 17th April 1976. The land use has changed until the year of 2000. Several institutional and residential buildings came on agricultural land before 2001. After the year of 2001, the main land use of Noida has done on high-rise residential buildings. Noida is well connected to Delhi through various roads, which has been spread over an area of 20316 hectares. In the year of 2015, Noida was ranked the best city in housing sector in India according to the news channels. IT and IT enabled services industry with many different large companies is still setting up their business in this city. 


Contrast between Noida-Industrial and Gurgaon-commercial

Industrialization is very predominant in the states of Noida and Gurgaon. In India, among most of the metropolitan cities, Gurgaon has flourished rapidly in terms of infrastructural development. Many companies have established themselves in the states of Noida and Gurgaon. In Gurgaon, many foreign and domestic organizations have made their settlements in recent times. Adequate number of candidates got recruited in various companies in Noida and Gurgaon. However, the consequences of materialistic and infrastructural growth are havoc


Commercialization in Noida and Gurgaon has become a challenging issue. The overpopulation of the cities offers considerable resistance to the transportation of the manufactured products from the factories. Commercialization gets affected indirectly by the overcrowding of the streets. The informal settlements like the slums near the highways and roads meant for the transportation purposes are congested. 


Therefore, it can be propagated that, Noida has managed to provide an improved and better infrastructure, along with developed facilities, in comparison to the infrastructure and facilities provided by Gurgaon. On the other hand, it can also be said that, in the context of transport and education facilities, Noida again is a much improved city than Gurgaon. Therefore, it can be evidently said that, the population growth in Noida is much facilitated than Gurgaon (Broad, 2014). However, in the context of development of real estate, it is backed by the creating an association with the physical infrastructure, which higher in both Greater Noida and Noida; whereas, in Gurgaon, the scenario is the opposite, as the development of infrastructure is prominent only after the full exploitation of the potentiality of the real estate.   


Policies and actions

The policies and actions in both Noida and Gurgaon are influenced by the methods and procedures that are to be attributed by the cities. It is also important to note that, since Noida is characterised by a massive growth in the population, this, the policies and actions are more implemented on the inhabitants of the city. It can also be said that, the predominant policy, which is strictly followed by Noida is the monitoring of the residential complexes that are being made in the city. There are strict laws that are made in the building regulations of Noida. Since Noida is the city with improved facilities and developed residential areas, thus, the building and regulations of 2006 is one of the pivotal policies that is followed by the city.


Then again, in the context of Gurgaon, the same policies are being followed throughout the city. The city has strict rules of implementing effective strategies and policies for the development of the infrastructure and processes in the city.


Effect on agriculture and land maps

Delhi is one the major metropolitan city of India; where the Noida and the Gurgaon can be labelled as such kind of city, which are the results of decentralized the extra population who are migrating from the different countries. The Noida and Gurgaon are those kinds of cities of the Delhi, which are mainly made accommodation of those migrating people. 


Agricultural and land map of Noida

Figure 4: agricultural and land map of Noida


Delhi is mainly unable to accommodate the extra population. Other reasons for evolving these two cities are to decentralize the activities of industrial zone. The uncontrolled growth of the population is led the Delhi government to take the decision to do land cover for accommodate those huge population.


Agricultural and land map of Gurgaon

Figure 5: Agricultural and land map of Gurgaon

In today's world, the mass media directly influence its target audience to manipulate their thinking pattern, structured their way in some productive way as if they select that kind of advertisement or broadcasting content in order to manipulate the purchasing behaviour of their target audience. According to the past study regarding this particular topic of consumerism the target audience of any particular media become very much influenced when they are became the premium audience of any particular media (Ahmad et al. 2016). 


With the advancement in the livelihood of people in both the cities, the agriculture and land use has increased to a great extent. For the purpose of making residential complex and educational facilities, the cities have been providing enormous land use to facilitate the working process. Therefore, it can be evidently said that, the aspect of land use is more in Noida, due to the massive population growth in Noida, the land use has increased to a great extent in the city. On the other hand, Gurgaon is on the peak of achieving population growth and is also using great amount of lands for the facilitation of better residential and educational facilities.


Summary

Therefore, it can be concluded by stating that, the aspects of land use and the contrasting features offered between Gurgaon and Noida helps in the attainment of the predominant features of both the cities. It also provides an extensive knowledge regarding the existing condition of the cities, and also points out the changes that the cities need to formulate in order to attain the most of population growth.


Population growth has played a major role in the exploitation of land cover, thus, leading to deforestation and acquiring of the cultivable land.  The urban land use or land cover guide of Delhi for the year 1992 has been prepared utilizing Landsat TM data. The extensive land use classes have been taken from TM data. The gathering of various classes has been upgraded using ground. Specifically, in the greater towns and urban territories of the making world the rate of people increase has been steady and nowadays, a significant parcel of them are defying off the cuff and uncontrolled settlements at the thickly populated goals or edges. 

 Analysis and Discussion 

Introduction

This chapter focuses on analyzing the driving forces, which have been operating in both the properties of Delhi, One is Gurgaon and another one is Noida. Moreover, this analysis can be done by comparing the operational process of both the cities, that how these cities are different from each other based on their operating procedure. In addition, these two are varied in accordance with the agricultural land, that is, the total coverage area for agriculture, which both the cities have been using, the reasons for which they use their agricultural land and at which extent they use it; all these factors are going to be analyzed in this chapter. As growth of population has played a major role in the exploitation of land cover, thus, leading to deforestation and acquiring of the cultivable land (Acharya et al. 2017). The urban land use or land cover guide of Delhi for the year 1992 has been prepared utilizing Landsat TM data. 


The extensive land use classes have been taken from TM data. The gathering of various classes has been upgraded using ground. Specifically, in the greater towns and urban territories of the making world the rate of people increase has been steady and nowadays, a significant parcel of them are defying off the cuff and uncontrolled settlements at the thickly populated goals or edges. After analysing all the aspects of comparison between land use of Gurgaon and Noida, this chapter has been enclosed by giving a short brief based on what has been done in this chapter and the findings of the analysis.


Difference between the driving forces operating in Noida and Gurgaon

After analyzing the literature review, it has been found that both the cities are quite different in terms of their driving forces, which often create problem to both cities. With the extension of the Delhi Metro, which have been proposed phase 3, the travel time between these two cities can come down approx. around 40 to 45 minutes, as the time taken by the travelers now a day is approx. 1 hour and 15 minutes. In addition, apart from metro as one of the major transport system available in the entire Delhi including Gurgaon and Noida, the business person, even some of the service man love to reach their destination by driving their own car (Ahluwalia, I., & Mohanty, 2014). 


Moreover, it is well known that IT hub system of North India lies within Noida and few of them are present at the border of Gurgaon and Delhi; therefore, the residents of Delhi need to go to either Noida or Gurgaon. Thus, they need to travel from one area to their destination, moreover, at the same time, they need to maintain a particular speed, which they usually maintain; whereas, the driver of other cars such as passengers car, the driver often fails to maintain the traffic rules and usually commit mistake either intentionally or unintentionally. Furthermore, according to the Drivers model, which has been discussed in the Literature review, the operational manager of the organization can assess the situation, can give direction to their strategy, and can implement the plan. In addition, they further can monitor the progress also. The driving forces of these cities is different from each other, a metro journey from the Huda city centre in Gurgaon to the Botanical Garden of Noida, takes one hour 15 minutes having interchanged at a huge congested area as Rajiv Chowk (Ahmad et al. 2016). 


The road journey between Gurgaon and Noida can take approx. 1 hour and 15 minutes; therefore, the commuters need to have transverse via the congested streets of New Delhi. The drivers of both the cities are different in attitude and driving style as well. The driving style of Gurgaon is based on the aggressive nature of the driver, the driver’s personality can be shown on their driving style; while on the other hand, these two cities’ driver are completely different from other cities. They are arrogant, aggressive and a bit ride in nature as compared to other cities. The overall livelihood of the public of the Gurgaon and the Noida are hugely improved than its previous condition of the people. The livelihoods became elite class after knowing the value of the standard lifestyle (Bergh & Ketchen, 2014). The basic livelihood mainly improved for the consumerism factor. In this prospect, the direct and indirect influence also comes from the effect of media. 


Media is trying to create the “Mass culture”. Mass culture is such a concept, which depicts that type of culture, which is spread towards the general mass through the mass media. In today's world, the mass media directly influence its target audience to manipulate their thinking pattern, structured their way in some productive way as if they select that kind of advertisement or broadcasting content in order to manipulate the purchasing behaviour of their target audience. Urban growth can be interpreted in two certain ways (Bernard, 2013). Firstly, it can be comprehended that the population of Noida and Gurgaon has increased drastically and this in turn can be directly related to the population growth of those mentioned areas. On the other hand, growth can mean progress of Noida and Gurgaon in terms of economy. According to Broad (2014), it is comprehended that Noida and Gurgaon has excelled   expectedly in terms of business and infrastructural development. 


However, infrastructural development has led to serious consequences, as there has been repetitive reports of massive deforestation and unusual exploitation of the natural resources. Peri-urbanization means an area, which is metamorphosed due to the migration of people from rural areas to cities or more specifically metropolitan cities. The migration specifically takes place due to a certain reasons. First, due to urbanization and exploitation of fertile land covers, many people who used to sustain their lives by means of practicing agriculture or farming faced havoc consequences due to sudden industrialization and commercialization. The government of the area also concentrated on the land cover of the city to manage the area's environment. The government of the area also concentrated on the land cover of the city to manage the area's environment. Noteworthy explanation behind this exceptional abatement in district under Cultivating use was an enormous addition in urban range (Burns, 2014). Additionally, there are also several causes related to the changes in the ecology that has taken place.


Difference between the agricultural land

Agricultural land is used by both the cities are different from the purpose. As it is well known that Gurgaon lies at the border of Haryana and Delhi, moreover, Noida lies at the border of Uttar Pradesh. In addition, Noida stands for the new industrial development authority of Okhla; Noida is renowned for the industrial cities; on the other hand, Gurgaon is famous for the commercialization development industry. Both the cities have their own specialist regarding the agriculture use (Weigold et al. 2013). In addition, Noida uses their agriculture land for building IT industries and making this city as an IT hub; whereas, Gurgaon uses their agricultural land for building the commercial complexes and for making this city as a commercial Hub. In addition, Gurgaon is well known for its commercialization and Noida is known for its industrialization. 


However, both the cities have failed for comprehending the importance of nature and agriculture.  Industrialization is very predominant in the states of Noida and Gurgaon. In India, among most of the metropolitan cities, Gurgaon has flourished rapidly in terms of infrastructural development (Bryman & Bell, 2012). Many companies have established themselves in the states of Noida and Gurgaon. In Gurgaon, many foreign and domestic organizations have made their settlements in recent times. Adequate number of candidates got recruited in various companies in Noida and Gurgaon. However, the consequences of materialistic and infrastructural growth are havoc. There is a grim story behind the polished and infrastructural developed landscape of Noida and Gurgaon. 


On one hand, industrialization has proved to be a blessing to the literate section of the society and on the other hand, it affected thousands of underprivileged lives of the urban areas. The impact of industrialization in the lives of thousands of rural people is completely disastrous. Commercialization in Noida and Gurgaon has become a challenging issue. The overpopulation of the cities offers considerable resistance to the transportation of the manufactured products from the factories. Commercialization gets affected indirectly by the overcrowding of the streets. The informal settlements like the slums near the highways and roads meant for the transportation purposes are congested. As a result, commercialization faces ample challenges (Sharma & Joshi, 2016). 


Moreover, due to the wastage and depletion of fertile land covers, trees and water bodies, the scope of agriculture got reduced and commercialization of agricultural commodities got seriously affected. With a lack of fertile land for the purpose of agriculture, the scope of agricultural practices has been diminished. According to Sen & Yadav (2017), it is comprehended that deforestation and exploitation of the natural habitat has diminished the scope of commercialization of the agricultural commodities in Noida and Gurgaon. Industrial growth has not triggered commercialization of agricultural commodities. It is known to everyone that most of the Indian economy is based on the trade of agricultural commodities. The distinction between the land cover areas and the land cover changes apparent on those two areas of the Gurgaon and the Noida. 


The main difference among the land use and land cover are differentiated such as the land cover areas are those areas which have the resource like the natural environmental  resources are used to cover the land and the  land use is something to make some mechanistic change through the industrialization process. The areas where the construction is being made for the purpose of development scan brew considered as the land usage material in order to expand the wheel of development and implement some action for increase the productivity level (Chaudhuri et al. 2017). The area is the land covered areas which can be stated those areas which are covered by the environmental elements like the other kind of elements like ponds. Land use is the description of how a land area is used, e.g. arable agriculture, residential housing, shopping mall. 


Land use and land cover changes modify the existing land use and land cover, and are caused by proximate causes and underlying drivers, which are socio-economic, demographic, political and technological in nature. These drivers can be modified by environmental factors such a rapid-onset hazards, e.g., flooding, or slow-onset events such as climate change. Different drivers have led to significant land use and land cover changes in Noida and Gurgaon, two districts on the edge of Delhi, which are the focus of this research thesis. The land use of Noida is very industrial based. In addition, the Government of India has developed this specific place as an industrial junction of India (Choudhary & Punia, 2017). It comes under the Uttar Pradesh Industrial Area Development Act, 17th April 1976. The land use has changed until the year of 2000. Several institutional and residential buildings came on agricultural land before 2001.


Summary

This chapter has been given a proper structure and selection based on the analysis of the concepts used in the previous chapter. This proper structure along with the selection of the appropriate concepts has been implemented for the successful completion of this chapter. In addition, this chapter has been enclosed by providing proper analysis of both the cities, Gurgaon and Noida. This analysis is based on the comparison of driving forces and agriculture forces operated by both the cities. 


Moreover, both the cities have its own specialization and importance that has been analyzed in this chapter and the same concept has been analyzed in broad spectrum in the literature review. The examination with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technique is to a great degree important gadget for urban land change. The estimation of land use/arrive cover change is particularly useful for future urban masterminding at neighbourhood likewise, overall level. Finally, though urban improvement cannot be ended, with fitting organizing and orchestrating it can be constrained and facilitated in a charming and supportable way, securing rich cultivating grounds. In addition, this chapter focuses on the purpose of using the agricultural land done by both the cities, Gurgaon and Noida. The proper establishment of this chapter has already been resulted after the successful completion of each topic mentioned in this chapter.

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