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Lesson plan to meet the needs of a child with cerebral palsy

TASK:

You are required to design a lesson plan using the principles of UDL. The lesson plan must consider the needs of one child with a disability or additional need chosen from the list below. You need to support your lesson plan with a discussion of the chosen disability or additional need as well as justify the lesson plan you have planned. You may use subheadings in your work if you desire.

You ae required to choose a disbility/special need from the below list.

- Cerebral palsy

- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

- Mild learning difficulty

- Moderate hearing impairment

- Autism spectrum disorder

- Mild intellectual disability

- Mil vision impairment

- Gifted and talented


Answer

Introduction 

Cerebral Palsy affects a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. Cerebral Palsy is caused by brain damage or abnormal brain development that happens before birth or early in life. There are different types of cerebral palsy depending upon what part of the brain is affected. In this assignment cerebral palsy disease has been analyzed in a broad way with the support of various literary materials. 


Discussion of Cerebral Palsy

 What is cerebral palsy? 

Cerebral Palsy is basically the aftereffect of cerebrum damage or a mind abnormality. People with Cerebral Palsy were in all probability conceived with the condition. It is a word that alludes to a gathering of clutters influencing a man's capacity to move. As opined by Myrhaug,  Odgaard-Jensen, Østensjø, Vøllestad & Jahnsen (2017) there is one child having cerebral palsy among 500 births worldwide. Currently, there is 17 million people who have cerebral palsy throughout the world and till now there has been no cure found top threat this disease.     


Characteristics of cerebral palsy 

Abnormal mental health or damage to the creating mind can cause cerebral palsy. The harm influences the piece of the cerebrum that controls body development, coordination and stance. The indications of cerebral palsy differ from individual to individual. A few people with cerebral palsy may experience issues strolling and sitting. As suggested by Novak,  Mcintyre, Morgan, Campbell,  Dark et al.(2013) .However muscle shortening and muscle inflexibility may exacerbate if not treated forcefully (Abanto, Ortega, Raggio, Bönecker, Mendes & Ciamponi, 2014). There are various types of cerebral palsy which includes hypotonic, ataxic, athetoid- dyskinetic and spastic. 


Hypotonic cerebral palsy: There is just direct resistance when a grown-up tries to move the newborn child's appendages. The newborn child may rest with their elbows and knees inexactly reached out, rather than flexed. There might be breathing troubles.


Ataxic cerebral palsy: It influences facilitated development and posture as well as balance is likewise included. Strolling walk is regularly wide and infrequently sporadic. The control of eye developments and profundity discernment can be weakened. Regularly the fine engine abilities requiring coordination of the eyes and hands are troublesome. 


Athetoid- dyskinetic cerebral palsy: The children will have issues while maintaining postures, sitting, strolling and talking unmistakably in light of the fact that the tongue and vocal lines are difficult to control. 


Spastic cerebral palsy: The most widely recognized sort of cerebral paralysis which is referred as spastic cerebral paralysis. This is caused by harm to the mind's engine cortex. The ordinary indications incorporate exaggerated movements as well as stiffness (Ferrari, Sghedoni, Alboresi, Pedroni & Lombardi, 2014). 


Causes of Cerebral Palsy 

Cerebral paralysis is caused by a variation from the norm in mental health or by harm to the creating cerebrum. The cerebrum harm as a rule happens before birth yet it can likewise occur amid birth or the main years of life. In various cases it has been found that the correct reason for cerebral paralysis is still not known (MacLennan., Thompson & Gecz, 2015).  Following are some of the causes of cerebral palsy.

  • Absence of oxygen to the cerebrum amid work and conveyance 
  • Serious jaundice in the newborn child 
  • Bleeding into the cerebrum 
  • Maternal diseases for instance German measles and herpes simplex 
  • Cerebrum contamination for instance encephalitis and meningitis 
  • Head injuries which may come about because of a fall, child abuse or a car accident
  • Genetic conditions
  • Seizures done during birth 

Muscle control generally happens in a particular part of the brain which is known as cerebrum which is the upper piece of the head. Any harm to the cerebrum earlier or inside 5 years of birth can cause cerebral paralysis. The cerebrum is likewise in charge of memory or capacity to learn and relational abilities (Nelson & Blair, 2015). 


Positive impact on the student’s learning process 

Penner, Xie, Binepal, Switzer & Fehlings, (2013) suggested to investigate the positive effect the inability can have inside families a subjective meeting based examination was performed to add story profundity to the exploration. The most obvious disclosure was the attestation that a tyke with an inability can have a portion of similar beneficial outcomes on their families and make a portion of indistinguishable commitments from some other youngster (Gusso, Munns, Colle, Derraik, Biggs, et al. 2016). 


Negative impact on the student’s learning process 

There are various negative impacts on the student’s learning process are as follows:

Communication issues: cerebral palsy hampers the functioning of the brain thereby malfunctioning of the muscles around the mouth. Hence they cannot talk properly and imbibe things clearly.

Mobility issues: Since they face problem in walking, sitting and performing various tasks

Intellectual disability: They take enormous time to understand the things as their mind set up is very different from that of a normal mind. 


2. Justification of the lesson plan based on the principles of UDL which can successfully include the student with cerebral palsy

A strategic lesson plan often helps any teacher or trainer to assess the group of learners with different learning needs. In a group of learners no two students can have the same learning outcomes. In order to ensure proper learning for all it is necessary to develop a lesson plan keeping in mind the learning needs, criteria and disabilities of the existing students in the group. It is challenging to develop a lesson plan for bunch of learners which includes a student with cerebral palsy(Courey, Tappe,  Siker,  & LePage, 2013). Cerebral palsy can not only hinder the learning process of the student but it is difficult for the trainer to assess the student with such learning disability.


It is a wise choice for the trainer to develop a lesson plan based on the three principles of UDL. learning difficulties and cultural barriers require different approaches for learners in any group. The three principles of UDL can be summed as following:


Principle 1: according to the first principle of UDL multiple means representation requires to be provided. Different perceptions of the learners need to be encouraged and the students need to have the domain to explore multiple languages, expressions and symbols. Comprehension of topics can vary from student to student and the trainer needs to acknowledge different perspectives.


Principle 2: The trainer needs to encourage multiple means of expression and action. Students with special learning needs and disabilities require the space to explore the learning through different mode of expression. Their expression and communication style can not be same as a regular learner. Some can be unable to express their views via speech and in this case the student with cerebral palsy has difficulties with moving different body parts and his or her mental development is not the same like other learners in the group(Christopher, 2015). Therefore, this student requires special attention and incorporating different means of expression and action can be helpful for the assessment of this student.


Principle 3: It is necessary for the trainers to provide several means of engagement to the learners such as different recruiting interests. It is a crucial element of learning. Every learner is unique in their own ways and requires different ways in which they can be motivated and engaged to learn. There are different sources which are influential for individual variation. A student with cerebral palsy requires motivation so that he or she can be included in the group activities with other learners and can perform accordingly(Christopher, 2015). One mean of engagement should not be applicable to all learners as different learners have their different perspectives and some are comfortable to work alone and some prefer to work with their peers. The student affected with cerebral palsy is necessarily not comfortable in working with other people in a group because of his interaction problems which leads to a functional communication gap between him and his peers(Courey, Tappe,Siker,  & LePage, 2013). The trainer in the lesson plan needs to incorporate group activities in such a way so that the student with learning difficulties can comfortably perform with other peers.


UDL lesson planning and its advantages:

UDL lesson planning format can proved to be helpful for the teachers as flexible options forva diverse group of students from the beginning of the session. The standardized board games teachers can successfully develop the learning objectives that are accessible for every student. It also helps to recognize learning barriers of the students from the very beginning of the session. After identification of the possible learning barriers the teachers can consider multiple means of representation, expression and engagement (Courey, Tappe, Siker,& LePage, 2013). The purposeful brainstorming can help the teachers to make every instruction count and the learning outcome can be more productive. The primary component of UDL curriculum design are goals, assessment, methods and resources. 


Individual Educational Plan(IEP) goals, adaptations and objectives need to be included. The teacher also needs to make the learners aware of the Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) goal (Courey, Tappe,  Siker,& LePage, 2013). In this case for the student with special learning need both formal and informal assessment. Evidence based method or the procedures of a direct instruction lesson planning always provide the necessary structure for all learners and also allow more extensions for the students with learning needs and disabilities. Students can be benefitted from prompting systems and cueing especially for the student with cerebral palsy it can prove to be helpful. The lesson plan needs to be supportive of cooperative learning and self-monitoring strategies. Pyramid planning can be helpful in order to prepare a unit or a lesson plan. Pyramid plan can explain what all students are capable of doing, what most of the students are capable of doing and what only some students can do.


3. Lesson plan based on the principles of UDL

Lesson   overview:

The lesson overview includes introduction to   the title of the topic, author and subject

Unit   description

The topic is divided into several segments   and each segment and unit requires introduction and description from the   teacher.

Lesson   description for a particular day

Informing the students what they are going to   explore on that day. This includes the mentioning the group activities if any   on that particular day.

Stating   the standards

Standard division is important in order to set   the standard based on the merit of the students of a particular age group and   intellectual capacity.

Unit   goals

Students are to be questioned on the topic   and they will be provided with the opportunity to demonstrate the learning   using innovative ideas and different perspectives will be welcomed. Different   modes of presentation will also be acknowledged by the teacher.

Lesson   goals

Each stage of the particular chapter needs to   be demonstrated by the students in their own way using different methods.

providing   guided practice

The students will be allowed to perform in a   group or individually.

Providing   independent practice

In this stage the students are   encouraged to innovate new ways to express their learning.

Wrapping   up the lesson

Students will share their views on the   particular topic and can arrange a role reversal game where the trainer will   pretend to be a learner and the learners one by one can play the role of the   teacher.

Informal   assessment

Informal assessment of the students not only   helps to understand the learning needs of the students but the students can   even feel free to provide wrong answer to the teacher.

Formal   assessment

The final step is the formal assessment and   this step can include written tests and verbal questioning in order to   understand the learning outcomes of the students.


Conclusion 

It can be concluded from the above study is that cerebral palsy is permanent; however, it is not progressive. The various perspective of cerebral palsy has been covered in the above assignment. There different types of cerebral palsy have been covered in this assignment which includes hypotonic, ataxic, athetoid- dyskinetic and spastic. Apart from that the causes as well as characteristics of cerebral palsy have been elaborated. Moreover the assignment has also talked about the positive as well as negative impact of cerebral palsy on the student’s learning process.


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