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Level of Structural Organization in Human Body

Analyze and present a discussion on levels of structural organization in the human body.

Answer

1. 

The human body consists of the diverse level of structural organization that is associated with each other in a different way. The level of structural organizations are classified in the following way (ANATOMY, 2018)-

  • Chemical level

It is the lowest level of structural organization. Therefore, it includes atoms and molecules which are essential to maintaining the life. Thus, atoms are considered as the smallest particles of the elements which are necessary for life. Molecules are a combination of two atoms. 

  • Cellular level

The next level of organization is cellular level. It is obtained by the combination of molecules from the chemical level. 

  • Tissue level

In this level, several kinds of cells are joined together to form a structure known as tissue. 

  • Organ level

In this level of organization different kinds of tissues are joined together to form a structure of the body known as an organ. 

  • System level

In this level different kind of organs are joined together to form a system. Therefore, the human body has eleven systems. 

  • Organismic level

It is the highest level of organizational structure of the body where every part of the body are working together to maintain the body equilibriums.     

Ref: ANATOMY (2018). Levels of Structural Organization in the human body. [online] ANATOMY.https://theanatomyofyourbody.wordpress.com/2015/01/23/levels-of-structural-organization-in-the-human-body/ [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].


2.1

According to body organization, each and every component have a specific division of labor and have their own job and responsibilities to maintain the proper body functioning (Anatomy & Physiology, 2002).  If a single cells loss its integrity it will die. 

Ref: ANATOMY (2018). Levels of Structural Organization in the human body. [online] ANATOMY.https://theanatomyofyourbody.wordpress.com/2015/01/23/levels-of-structural-organization-in-the-human-body/ [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].


3.1

Homeostasis is considered as a steady internal condition of the living organism. It is a process of maintaining a stable physiological condition. Therefore, the human body utilizes several processes to maintain the homeostasis. The body can use the thermoregulation to keep the body temperature normal which helps in the proper functioning of the body cells (Schulkin, 2003).    

Ref: Schulkin, J. (2003). Rethinking homeostasis. Cambridge: Bradford Book / MIT, pp.59-156.


3.2

The homeostatic imbalance is a condition in which internal environment is incapable to maintain equilibrium due to influence from the internal and external environments. Several diseases like type 1 diabetes, dehydration, and aging can cause a homeostatic imbalance (Schulkin, 2003). High level of blood glucose or dehydration can damage the cells present in kidneys and alter their functional capabilities.    

Ref: Schulkin, J. (2003). Rethinking homeostasis. Cambridge: Bradford Book / MIT, pp.59-156.

 

3.3 

The body temperature is regulated by the neural feedback mechanism which is operated by the hypothalamus. If the body temperatures decrease below 37C variety of responses are started to increase the body temperature. Thus, vasoconstriction stated to decrease the flow of heat to the skin along with increasing the heat production through the muscles and secretion of hormones to enhance the body temperature (Schulkin, 2003). In case of high body temperature sweating and vasodilatation begins to normalize the body temperature.       

Ref: Schulkin, J. (2003). Rethinking homeostasis. Cambridge: Bradford Book / MIT, pp.59-156.


4.1 

Cell: the cell is considered as a smallest unit of the living organism are it consists of the cell membrane, plasma membrane, nucleus, Golgi apparatus, ribosome, lysosome, mitochondria, microtubules, and peroxisome etc (Medibiztv, 2018). The cells can help in the transportation of nutrients, preserved energy, helps in metabolism and nutrient absorptions.

Ref: Medibiztv (2018). Human cell structure and Functions | Medical Articles | Medi BizTV. [online] Medibiztv.com. Available at: http://www.medibiztv.com/articles/brief-introductio-on-human-cell-structure-and-its-functions [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].


 4.2 

Skeletal muscle tissues: it is coarse muscles tissues helps in contracting and moving the body parts (Jie, 2018). The skeletal muscle tissues are often associated with the muscular system and support the vital organs. It also helps in blood cell formation and storage of energy.

Ref: Jie, M. (2018). Structure of the Muscular System. [online] Sciencing. Available at: https://sciencing.com/structure-of-the-muscular-system-12751646.html [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].

7.

It is considered as complex collections of tissues and it consists of smooth muscles, skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and adipose tissues (Burgess, 2018).

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. It helps in different physical activities. It helps in muscles tendons stretch over the joints and thus helps in joint stabilities.  It holds the correct posture of the body by providing muscles flexibilities and strength.  It also helps in blood circulation, digestion, urination, temperature regulation, and respiration. 

Ref: Burgess, L. (2018). 11 functions of the muscular system: Diagrams, facts, and structure. [online] Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321617.php [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018]. 

8. 

The human skeletal system is made up of 206 bones along with tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. The skeletal system can support the human body movement along with blood cell production, and endocrine regulation. It helps in the formation of body framework and provides the mechanical protection to the body. (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001)  It also helps in the storage of minerals like calcium, phosphorus and maintains the minerals balance. In some cases, it has been isolated that it can act as chemical energy reserves of the body.   

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

 9.

The endocrine system is made up of various glands which produced different types of hormone. However, the major glands of endocrine systems are the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenals, reproductive organs, and parathyroids glands (Rushton and Cooley, 2004)

The system is responsible for secretion of hormones and circulating them throughout the body. Each hormone has specific target organs and tissues. It can also prevent the development of hormonal diseases in human.

Ref: Rushton, L. and Cooley, D. (2004). The endocrine system. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, pp.55-1115.

 10. 

The human nervous system can be divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is consists of the brain, spinal cord. Thus it helps in analyzing of gather information (Anatomy & Physiology, 2002). The PNS is composed of neurons and parts of neurons which include sensory neurons, and motor neurons.   The basic function of the nervous systems is to receive the signals, integrate the receiving signals, and communicate signals to the target cells. 

Ref:  Anatomy & physiology. (2002). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.125-210.

11. 

A network of neurons helps in transmission of signals from the brain to body which is essential for communications. In Furthermore, the endocrine system utilizes the glands which are located in the body to secrete hormones. Therefore, the hormones are regulating the variety of function in the human body like digestion, metabolism, growth, and maintaining blood pressure. This way it can help with communication (Rushton and Cooley, 2004)

Ref: Rushton, L. and Cooley, D. (2004). The endocrine system. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, pp.55-1115.

12. 

The digestive system can be divided into two parts. One is the digestive tract and other is accessory organs. The digestive tract consists of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach large, and small intestine. The accessory organs are tongue, saliva, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. 

The prime function of the digestive system is to help in digestion and absorption of foods (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). Through the process of digestion, the foods particles are converted into small molecules and improved the utilization of foods in the body. 

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

 13. 

The urinary system is consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The main function of the urinary system is to maintain the water balance in the human body. Therefore, kidneys monitoring the water balance within the body (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). Another important function of the system is maintaining electrolytes balance. Therefore, it can help in normal cell functioning and helps in waste excretion through urine formation. 

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

14. 

The kidney is considered as prime organ responsible for excretion. However, skin, liver, and lugs are also helped in excretion. The nephrons present in kidney helps in excretion of the waste material from the body (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). In other hand digestion and metabolism process helps in the formation of the stool in the colon. The undigested foods are sending to the colon and after the reabsorption of water, it can remove through the defecation process.

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

15. 

The male reproductive system is located outside the body and external structure of the male reproductive system includes penis, scrotum, and testicles.  Therefore the internal organs are epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands (Heffner and Schust, 2014).  The entire male reproductive system is completely dependent on the activity of different hormones like FSH, LH and testosterone. Therefore, the produced sperm fertilizes the ovum.

The external female reproductive system consists of labia majora, labia minora, clitoris and the internal parts consist of vagina, uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. The female reproductive system is responsible for the development of ova. Then carried out the ova to the fallopian tubes for fertilizing the egg and then helps in the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus (Heffner and Schust, 2014)

Ref: Heffner, L. and Schust, D. (2014). The reproductive system at a glance. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, pp.55-97.

16. 

Endocrine system plays an important role in human reproduction. In case of male androgens, hormone are responsible for spermatogenesis and responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics (Rushton and Cooley, 2004).  Testosterone is considered an an androgen. In puberty androgen along with FSH is required for spermatogenesis. 

In the female, estrogen and progesterone are essential for the fertility and ovulation along with the development of secondary sexual characteristics, healthy bone formation and in development of the embryo(Rushton and Cooley, 2004)

Ref: Rushton, L. and Cooley, D. (2004). The endocrine system. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, pp.55-1115.

 17.

The integumentary system consists of skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves. The main function of the system is to protect the body from the infections. It can protect the body from the disease and eliminate the waste products. Therefore, it can maintain the body temperature by storing water and fats (Anatomy & physiology, 2002).

Ref:  Anatomy & physiology. (2002). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.125-210.

 18. 

The spleen is the important organ in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is generally composed of lymphatic vessels and the vessels are connected with lymph nodes. In other hand tonsils, adenoids and thymus are the parts of this system (Zimmermann, 2018)

The system is responsible for the removal of the interstitial fluids from the tissues. The system can absorb fatty acids from the digestive systems and transport the white blood cells from the lymph nodes into the bones.   

Ref: Zimmermann, K. (2018). Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases. [online] Live Science. Available at: https://www.livescience.com/26983-lymphatic-system.html [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].

19. 

The body immune system has 3 lines defense system against the foreign particles. They are-

  • Physical  and chemical barriers 

The skill, mucous membrane, hair and cilia act as a physical barrier which prevents the entry of the foreign particles. Thus vomiting and defecation are also considered as barriers (Immune system, 2018). Within human body gastric juice, saliva, sebum and lysozyme are acting as a chemical barrier which can destroy and inhibit the pathogens. 

  • Nonspecific resistance

It is the second line of defense which can destroy invaders without targeting specific individuals. In this process, phagocytic cells ingest and destroy all microorganisms present in the tissues. If tissues damaged by the invaders then inflammation can results which increase white blood cells secretion. Fever is indicating the growth of the invaders within the tissues.

  • Specific resistance

In this process, antigens are produced which produces an immune response against the foreign particles. 

Ref: Immune system (2018). [online] Austincc.edu. Available at: http://www.austincc.edu/apreview/EmphasisItems/Inflammatoryresponse.html [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].

20.

The cornea is a transparent structure present in the front of the eyes and helps in focusing the light. The transparent colourless structure is known as a crystalline lens. 

The light received from the photoreceptors on the retina. Then the pigments present in the rods and cones have absorbed the light. The light is converted into action potential in the membranes of the vesicles. Thus, the impulses are reached to the synaptic knobs. Then the impulses are transmitted to the bipolar nerve cells. From there it reaches to ganglions and optic nerves. Therefore, the nerve impulses generated in the retina are transmitted to the brain with the help of optic nerve neurons (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). Thus, the information received in the brain is processed in the back brain and helps in visualizing the image. 

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

 21.

The human ear has three parts. The parts are an outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The cochlea of the inner ear helps in hearing (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). It is lined by the tinny hair cells which filled with fluids. When the middle ear transfers the vibration to the cochlea, then the fluid present in the cochlea is became displaced and helped in hair cells movement.  Therefore, signals from these hair cells are converted into nerve impulses and send to the brain. Thus, the auditory nerve helps in the whole process and helping in hearing.

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

  22. 

The inner ear helps to maintain the body balance and equilibrium. It has two structures-

  • Semicircular canals: 

The canals are filled with a fluid known as endolymph. Each canal has an enlarged cup-like structure. Whenever the head moves the fluid inside the canal is also moved along with hair cells (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). This can generate signals about the changing of the body position. 

  • Vestibule detects signal:

 The utricle and the saccule present in vestibule are lined by the hair cells and help to detect the linear acceleration of the body in straight line. Therefore, the signals detected by the hair cells of both vestibule and semicircular canals are converted into nerve impulses and send it to the brain with the help of vestibule nerve (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). Then the brain can send the further signals to the visual and skeletal system of the body and maintain the balance.   

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

23.

At the initial stage vaporizing the odor molecules from the environment can enter into the nostril and dissolve in the mucus present in each nostril. Therefore, the olfactory receptors present in olfactory epithelium detect the odour (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). Then the olfactory receptors can transmit the odour to the olfactory bulb which is present at the back of the nose. Thus, the olfactory bulb can send the odour to the primitive and higher centers of the brain. At last, the brain recognises the odours.    

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

24.

  • Execratory System – Kidney- renal failure – stops purification of blood, deposition of water in the body.
  • Respiratory System- Lung- Asthma – Shortness of breath, lack of oxygen in the blood.
  • Digestive system- Stomach- Peptic Ulcer- Ulceration on stomach wall, indigestion.
  • Nervous system - Brain- Alzheimer’s disease  - loss of memory, Dementia.   

29.1 

In pathogens are biological agents responsible for disease development in the human body. Therefore viruses, bacteria, and protozoa are termed as pathogens. The pathogens are responsible for disruption of multicellular physiology in human. 

29.2 

It is a genetic condition in which an individual inherit an altered gene from their parents which can increase the risk of developing the specific conditions. In this condition, the gene can be passed from the parents to the newborn (Healthywa, 2018). Example –cancers, fibrosis etc. 

Ref: Healthywa (2018). Genetic conditions. [online] Healthywa.wa.gov.au. Available at: http://healthywa.wa.gov.au/Articles/F_I/Genetic-conditions [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].

29.3 

Trauma can be stated as human reactions towards a horrible incident. It can adversely affect the normal lifestyle of affected individuals. Trauma has a huge effect on the mental and emotional stabilities of the individuals (PsychGuides, 2018).

Ref: PsychGuides (2018). Signs and Symptoms of Trauma - Causes and Effects. [online] PsychGuides.com. Available at: https://www.psychguides.com/guides/trauma-symptoms-causes-and-effects/ [Accessed 9 Sep. 2018].

29.4 

Toxins can be defined as harmful substances produced by the living microorganisms. They are harmful to live bodies and can create several diseases in humans. They can precipitate life-threatening conditions.

29.5 

An environmental hazard can be considered as substances or states which have a potential to terrorize the surrounding natural environment and adversely affect the health condition of human being (HS and HJ 2017)

Ref: HS, J. and HJ, L. (2017). OCCUPATIONAL STRESS, AND SLEEP QUALITY ON FATIGUE AMONG COMMERCIAL AIRLINE PILOTS- BASED ON MODERATING EFFECTS OF JOB RELATED FACTORS. Occupational Medicine & Health Affair, 05(02).

29.6 

Nutritional factors are responsible for the healthy life of an individual. Therefore, any deficiency or imbalance in nutritional factors can precipitate illness and diseases in human. It is important to maintain a healthy life. 

29.7 

The impact caused by health intervention implies that any effect on an individual resulting from any activity of the healthcare professionals or a specific intervention process which has an adverse effect on the individuals (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). It can be caused by medical errors, drug interactions, and negligence of the healthcare professionals.   

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

29.8 

Degenerative changes in vital organs can cause the development of degenerative diseases in human being due to functional deterioration of the vital organs (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). It can precipitate due to aging, lifestyle, and pathophysiological conditions. 

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

29.9 

Uncontrolled cell growth can cause cancer in a human. Therefore, a mutation in genes can cause cancer by accelerating the cell division rate (Bullock, Boyle and Wang, 2001). In such condition death of programmed cells can alter the growth and division of cells. 

Ref: Bullock, J., Boyle, J. and Wang, M. (2001). Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.520-650.

30. 

I would try to handle the condition with my knowledge and capabilities; however, in case of further treatment, I would refer the patients to my seniors or specific departments. 


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