Library System: Pay Fines Function

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Question :

Assignment- Library System 

Suppose that you are required to document a library system, particularly focusing on the functionality at the back end. The scope the system’s back end is defined as follows:

 • You should include all system functions and data, such as borrowing items, accessing both physical and electronic items, renewing loans, viewing a borrower’s account (including overdue items and fines), searching catalogues for various items, renewing loans, login, and asking a librarian. Note that this list is not exhaustive. 

• Some functionality (such as book rooms, access databases, borrow ebooks) is provided by applications integrated with the UNI library system. As such, you will need to show that the functionality is captured, but that no structural data is retained in this system. 

• Front-end content, such as ‘getting started in the library’, information pages (with static HTML content), the ‘About’ section, reference guides, and general information, is out of scope, and thus is not required to be included in your work.

Some specific functionality is not necessarily apparent from public or student views, but should be included:

An ITS officer uploads a list of lists of active borrowers each year. The list contains staff, student and ‘others’. On this list: a. staff have a staff ID, barcode, name, DOB, and department b. students have a student ID, barcode, name, DOB and department c. others have a borrower ID, name, DOB, address & license number 

• The uploaded list is compared to existing borrowers by the system. If a person have left the university, his/her account will be removed if they have no unpaid fines. Otherwise, their borrower status is changed to inactive, and their record is retained. A new borrower account is created for a new person on the list

• Librarians can also add borrowers. They create a borrower account with a name, DOB, and an expiry date. 

• If borrowers do not have a card with a barcode (such as those that are just created by the librarian), their borrowing status is pending until they collect a library borrowing card from the library. 

• If a borrower is late in returning items, a fine occurs. When a borrower has a fine exceeding $25, they can no longer renew or borrow any items until the fine is paid. Library fines must be paid in person to a librarian, who will then mark the fine as paid in the system and issue a receipt. 

• Librarians can view any record in the system – catalogue items, borrower records, etc. They can search for a record or scan a barcode (of an item or borrower) to view the data. 

• A borrower’s status can either active, inactive, pending, temporary, or suspended. 

• Staff may request the library to place items used by their course on ‘reserve’ or ‘restricted borrowing’. Staff may also submit past exam papers to the library. 

• The head librarian generates reports based on item usage, borrowing rates, and library usage by department type (staff and student).

You are required to play the role as a technical business analyst, analyzing the library system and creating diagrams as requested in the questions that follow. Note you are not modelling a website using storyboards, site-maps etc., but rather the back-end behavioural and structural needs of the system.

Task 1: Project planning

 1.1 Draw a Gantt chart showing the project planning across the whole assignment process. 1.2 Create a Trello board for managing your assignment, and maintain the Trello board across the whole assignment process. Submit a set of snapshots for the Trello board showing the updating process.

Task 2: Requirements Documentation

Write a requirement, in plain English, for the scenario “Pay Fine”. You may need to make creative assumptions for assignment purposes, and pretend you have conducted requirements elicitation with the client. Your requirements will be assessed based on whether they: 

• are verifiable, non-ambiguous, modifiable, traceable, consistent, and complete 

• form a set of conditions, not only a series of operations / process descriptions 

• relate to system requirements, not only business process 

Hint: This is a potentially large task if you let your imagination run away with you. Try to keep your requirements to the minimum – you are not being assessed on creativity or system knowledge, just your ability to write a requirement!

Task 3: Use case diagram 

You should provide one use case diagram that includes all actors and use cases within scope. Your diagram must include a use case named ‘Pay Fine’, as documented in Task 2. Your diagram will be assessed based on:

 • Consistency with the scope including the specific functionality requested 

• Appropriate use of actors, includes/extends, and generalization 

• Appropriate use of UML notation

Task 4: Use case textual description

 Borrowing a book is the key function of this system. This functionally includes searching, borrowing and returning book to the library. Develop a description of the use case using “Template – Use Case textual description” as per Appendix.

Hint: This is a potentially large task if copious low-level data is included, so ensure you provide the appropriate level of information. For example, in the flow of events a step may be “Log in” or “System validation” instead of “insert student card with bar code facing up for scanning”.

Task 5: Sequence diagram 

You should create a sequence diagram for the scenario below: Lee is a current student with active borrowing privileges. At a desk physically located in the library, Lee searches for the book named “UML Distilled”. Viewing the results, Lee notes it is currently on loan and places a hold on the item. Your diagram should highlight how objects interact to achieve the aims of the user and any objects that are created or destroyed. Your diagram will be assessed based on: 

• Completeness and consistency with the scenario

 • Appropriate identification and use of objects, messages, etc.

 • Appropriate use of UML notation

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Answer :


Pay Fine

Pay fines function in Library system is a method used to ensure the timely returning of the borrowed library item by the borrowers. This is an enforcement mechanism designed to ensure that library books are returned within a certain period of time. Fines are usually assessed for only a few days or months, until a pre-set limit is reached.

Assignment purposes

To improve availability of library items.

Improve Facilities by fine.

Increase borrower loyalty

Attract new customers

Reduce the chance of unreturned items. 

Automating the process of Library.

To make process faster by automating the tedious and mistake prone process.

To incorporate diverse rules of any Library.

To reduce the room for errors by substituting manual work by computerizing process.

Design and implement a fully automated system. Based on the user-requirement, a proper design need to be drawn out carefully. Then the system will be implemented.

To improve the security.

To enable simple interfaces.

To view instant reports.

To avoid the inconsistency in human calculation.

saving the time of Library staff, students and staff.

Requirements gathering with client:

 Users involvement

During the last few weeks, I searched about the requirements of the user on the Internet. I interviewed some librarian also and various borrowers who want to use system and I received a good response from all of them. It gone through some existing students and staffs and I got some good ideas .Internet is also prove to be helpful in my research. Internet will provide access to existing features and these features will we studied carefully and will be embedded in this project along with its unique and new features to make this project a success.

For collecting user requirements, interviews, onsite observation and questionnaires are one of the most common techniques for gathering the essential information regarding the system



 Use case diagrams graphically depict the interaction between the system and users. In other words, they graphically describe who will use the system and in what ways the user expected to interact with the system.

A Use case is a behaviorally related sequence of steps (a scenario), both automated and manual, for the purpose of completing a single business task.

The following use case diagrams represent the interaction between user and system. This system is mainly intended for one type of user (refer figure-1). Some time it is really difficult to predict user will perform what function. There has been used only one actor as a user.



NameBorrow items
VersionLibrarian can edit the student, staff and other actors records.
GoalPresent a menu for Librarian to access the various function of the issue items.
SummaryThe students, staff, others borrows a items from the system.
Actorsstudents, staff, others, Librarian
Pre-conditionsThe students, staff, others have no old debts to the system
TriggerITS officer selects edit student, staff, others records option
Basic course of eventThe Librarian scans the borrower’s barcode to check the fine status.
The Librarian renews the loan Item.
The Librarian issues the Item.

Alternative Paths
  1. If Borrower’s fine limit exceeds, Item will not issued.
  2. If Borrower’s fine limit exceeds, renewing loan not allowed.
  3. If Borrower is student, reserve Item will not issued.
  4. If borrower is not active, Item will not issue.

Post-ConditionsThe students, staff, others have successfully borrowed the items
Business RulesFor borrowing items and renewing loans, fine amount should not exceed $25
NotesThe students, staff, others chooses an items that is not already lent and that s/he does not own. The Librarian assigns the students, staff, others as the borrower of that item and also states a deadline for returning the items.


Sequence Diagram:

Sequence Diagram: