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LITERATURE REVIEW - EMERGING PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE

Code: HST5161

Learning Outcomes:  

- Demonstrate an understanding of the wide range of factors that need to be considered in thinking about the possible "causes" of specific health outcomes;

- Demonstrate the nature and importance to human health of communicable diseases, environmental health, food and nutrition and non-communicable diseases; and

- Discuss in detail the nature and scope of public health, including attention to current challenges.


Answer

Introduction

Cardiac disease is the disease which is referred to the cardiovascular disease and this is the condition which does involve narrowed and or blocked blood vessels which generally lead towards the heart disease, heart attack, and stroke as well as chest pain (Douglas & Daubert, 2016). There are various other heart disease such as affect to the heart muscle, rhythm or valves. The women are found to have cardiac disease and India is one of the most affecting cardiac disease areas where women get affected due to various reasons. There are various reason for which the women does affect with the cardiac disease in India. The aim of the study is to identify the significance of cardiac disease among adults especially the women in India. This also detects the health issues changes within prevalence over time along with the morbidity and mortality that are associated with the cardiac health issues. Further the study elaborates the nature and importance of the human health of communicable, non-communicable, food and nutrition as well as environment health. This study also discusses the nature and scope of the public health along with the attention towards the present challenges related to the health issues.


Significance of the cardiac disease in adults among Indians

The cardiac disease is referred as the cardiovascular disease and these are the group of health disorder within the heart and blood vessels (Darby et al. 2013) . The cardiac health disease does comprise of various issues which are:

Coronary heart disease- this is the disease of blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart.

Cerebrovascular disease – this is the blood vessel disease that supply towards the brain.

Peripheral arterial disease – this is the blood vessel disease which supply to the legs and arms of the human being.

Rheumatic heart disease – this the disease of heart that does damage the heart valves and heart muscles from the rheumatic fever and this is caused due to streptococcal bacteria.

Congenital heart disease – this is the critical heart disease disorder with malformation of heart structure that is from the birth.

Deep vein thrombosis and the pulmonary embolism – this type of disease comprise of the blood clotting in veins of legs that may dislodge as well as move to the lungs and heart.


The most significant cardiac disease that are to concern about are strokes and heart attacks which are generally acute events and these are caused due to the blood blockage which prevent the blood stream flow to the brain and or heart (Ruys et al. 2014). The most general cause is the fat deposits over the inner walls of blood vessels. The strokes are caused due to the bleeding in the blood vessels within brain as well as by the clotting of blood.


Health issues changes within prevalence over time

The people who have the habit of smoking, who are having high blood pressure or hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, as well as the family history of issues in heart such as strokes and heart attacks. In country like India there are many women who have suffered from the disease and still have the risk to suffer the same and this is increasing over time. The nature and daily habits of the women head towards the risk of heart disease. The cardiac diseases are prone to the women mostly in India since they are mostly obese at a certain time of their age. Their lifestyle has prompted to acquire the cardiac disease (Donofrio et al. 2014)


In the recent time women are smoking heavily along with the smoking trends of men. Women smoke a lot in the recent times and do consume alcohol too. These aspects of them are the cause to be obese and building of muscles on the inner side walls of the blood vessels. Women in India are found to have high cholesterol and diabetes due to many reasons and are at risk to have cardiac disease. At the earl days India has the trends to not let the women go outside the home and had the ritual of “purdah system” where they were not allowed to involve in the social culture. However with the passage of time women are free to do anything like the men does and they are more prone to such cardiac disease. They are acquiring the various activities which are yielding the situation to have the cardiac disease. At certain time of their age they feel pain in heart, at the centre of the chest with the radiation of pain usually at the left arm and jaw (Trialists, 2015). Due to smoking and alcohol consumption there is increase od cholesterol and fats and these lead to the heart disorder.


Morbidity and mortality associated with the cardiac health issues

The cardiac diseases are the most cause of death in all over the world and India is among them. There were various surveys for the disease over many decades and this has revealed that the major risk factors are within the Asians and this too in India (Nahar et al. 2013). This is because of lack of correct diagnosis. Hypertension as well as the diabetes is caused among the Indian population that explains the rate of disease occurrence among them. This has high rate of heart attack and for stroke. There are many women who die due to this cardiac disease every year and this has increased in recent years due to lack of proper care and awareness of what cause the disease and the risk factors from it.


Nature and importance of human health of communicable disease, food and nutrition, environmental health and non-communicable disease:

India is referred to as the fertile base for cardio issues prevalent over centuries due to several factors. India is a multi lingual and multi cultural country with diverse population having distinct and distinguishable social and cultural needs and requirements. The people have their own food structure and treatment. With the rising health issues, India has led to several researches and surveys. Due to the social and cultural differentiation, the people have witnessed differences in their consumption that involve fat, carbohydrate and protein consumptions (Branca & Ellis, 2017). It is observed that there are different cholesterol levels that are determined by several factors mostly by their food habits and health care habits. Cardiovascular effects have given rise to respiratory, stroke, ischemic disease, predominant deaths that have resulted towards high mortality rates. Certain food habits have given rise to communicable and non-communicable diseases. 


Communicable diseases are caused due to several infections and germs that are transmitted from one body to another. Human health needs to undergo proper treatment in improving their health conditions (Long et al. 2014). It is important for the people in India in maintain healthy diet and consume vitamins, protein and carbohydrates according to their health needs. Over consumption will lead to obesity and multiple issues. Besides, vaccination and preventions be taken from getting affected by communicable diseases. In maintain healthy environment it is important to look forward to eth environmental safety and hygiene. It is the duty of every individual to clean and care about its nature and environment around and not garbage unnecessary waste that depletes the environment causing scope of communicable diseases. Government need to adopt and formulate awareness program in relation to environmental and human hygiene and safety. Individuals need to follow social etiquettes like keeping oneself clean and tidy, sneeze while coughing and wash hands before eating (Lawrence et al. 2015). It is important for every individual in following social and cultural manners that will them in keeping away with disease. I n addition, the most important part of the importance of human health is to maintain balanced and healthy diet and avoid junk foods and outside food products especially among the children and adults. 


Nature and scope of public health:

Public health is considered to be process and procedure of preventing disease and help in prolonging life. This is done by promoting human health through mutual and strong efforts within different communities. It is determines the risks and threats associated with multiple health and safety caused due to external factors. In order to foster public health and treatment is important for every individual to understand the importance of the health and environment safety and care. It is important to promote health efforts within the society and spread awareness in maintain hygienic society (Gurviez, 2016). Besides, the health, people; need to be mentally strong and well as proper mental health leads to effective health management and physical care. There are broad scope within the field of public health that allows them to survey and research regarding the existing health issues. 


There have been major research over the cardiac issues leading on to respiratory issues and other effects are holding on to women age group affecting the lives of the millions. The scope gives rise to major challenges in understanding the boarder concepts of public health  that involve social sciences, technology, hygienic, health  issues, medicines, biological sciences etc. the nature of the public health and safety is dynamic that enable global participation in resolving the existing problems and deal with the  precautions and preventions of the communicable and non communicable diseases (Branca & Ellis, 2017)


Attention towards the current challenges:

Currently there are various challenges in regards to the public health and safety. Government has been attentive towards promoting equity and improving the health conditions of the people. India being the community of diverse populations has major sections of people living in the rural area who are devoid of proper care and treatment (Hu et al. 2016). It is important to provide awareness among the people so that they can be aware of the prevention and precautions. Initiatives like free check up, elementary education with mid day meals, assessment of health conditions, establishment of health institutions who will look after their exiting issues that could be funded by the government. Vaccinations are cost effective, which are often not afforded by the people residing in the rural areas. Effective measures be taken b y the government in providing vaccinations to the rural people and improve their health conditions. Mortality rates have been increasing mostly among the women and children in both urban and rural areas due to improper health management and negligence (Walker, 2017)


Public health care organizations need to maintain environmental safety and care by planting more and more trees, shaping environmental research agenda, allow society to participate in environmental and public health programs and activities and monitor health issues and generate possible solutions in limiting the health and societal issues. The government needs to invest in support of public health performance and ensure efficient and effective operations within the health systems. 


Conclusion

The cardiac disease and the risk from it are rapidly increasing among the people of Indian and this includes many women due to lack of care to self and improper awareness of the risk. They involve in many activities such as smoking and consumption of alcohol as well as not conscious about their health and often gets obese. All these factors are creating impact and cause the cardiac disease among women in India. There should proper awareness program as well as steps taken by the government as well as health care societies so that the risk of cardiac disease would get reduce. Women have to reduce the risk of such disease since this also occurs due to the genetic issue of the ancestor. Hence this concludes that the cardiovascular disease has to reduce and proper steps must taken by the concerning individuals well as the government.

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