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Management practices related to Motivation and reinforcement

Management and Organisation Behaviour BMO1102

RESEARCH ESSAY

LEARNING OUTCOMES BEING ASSESSED 1. Critically analyse management practices in the Australasian context. 2. Understand organisational behaviour and management theory. 3. Critically analyse the underlying values of these theories. 4. Demonstrate knowledge of management theories and evaluate their impact on practical management decision making in the Australasian context

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT

 1500 word essay based upon the comprehensive essay plan submitted for assessment task 2a. This essay is to be a discussion of a specific management topic and to be presented as a review of the relevant literature (the essay requires at least a review of the relevant chapter from the prescribed text and at least three refereed management journal articles relating to the set topic: the use of additional references is also encouraged). Your essay should include at least three in-text citations of refereed management journal articles you have drawn on, and indicate where you are using your subject textbook. The use of additional references is encouraged


Essay Questions
1
Your textbook suggests that employees might resist change because of self-interest, misunderstanding and distrust, and a general intolerance for change. How can companies manage resistance to change? Outline the five ways to manage resistance to change that are outlined in your textbook. (Chapter 7)
2
Globalisation and doing business globally are significant issues for contemporary organisations. Define what is meant by Global Business. Identify the stages in the phase model of globalisation and explain the strengths and weaknesses inherent in each. (Chapter 8)J

3
Job Specialization uses standardized work procedures to have workers perform repetitive; precisely defined and simplified tasks. Explain why companies use this approach to job design. Using the Job Characteristics model, describe how specialized jobs can be modified to eliminate the boredom and low job satisfaction associated with them. (Chapter 9)
4
Keeping people focused on their work and willing to make a positive contribution to the company is an important role of management. Define motivation and use a personal example to explain how reinforcement theory works. Include in your essay a discussion of Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment and Extinction. (Chapter 12)
5
It is said that many companies are over managed and under led. Define leadership and explain what the path-goal theory of leadership is. Identify the four leadership styles of path-goal theory and explain when they are most appropriately used. (Chapter 13)
6
What are the steps of the Control Process? Describe the elements of the Control Process and explain how assignment assessment works at your university in terms of the Control Process. (Chapter 15)

Answer

Management and organization behavior

Motivation and reinforcement

Introduction

Motivation is a term that is widely used in the context of referring to what causes a person to behave in a certain way as well as repeat behaviors. “Motivation can be defined as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal” (Cameron C. Leone, 2008). “Motivation” is a term that we hear frequently in relationship with human asset administration in present day organizations. Motivation can be characterized as the procedures that record for a person's force, course, and diligence of exertion towards accomplishing an objective (Lawton Smith, H., Dickson K. and Smith, S., 2015). It is critical for a human asset administrator to guarantee that the representatives in the association are exceptionally enthusiastic and positive as it directly affects their execution at work. It is critical that the work power of an association be inspired so as to guarantee that they are fulfilled and give their administrations to the association for higher competitiveness. In this way a motivated work force is a valuable asset to the organization and can help them achieve competitive advantage (Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L¸ 2013).

Human Resource Planning not only figures the required sort and number of representatives yet in addition build up the activity get ready for all elements of human asset of administration. Inspiration ought to be made a basic piece of this procedure so workers are held and ability is saved in an association (Kassin, Saul¸2007). This makes better workplace, better work powers and better commitment to the association. It is important that motivation be used in order to develop the right levels of  organizational competency based on human resources as it helps evaluate organization goals and also encourages employees to work towards achieving these goals (Lawton Smith, H., Dickson K. and Smith, S.¸2015). 

Positive and negative reinforcement 

Positive reinforcement refers to the usage of positive elements like rewards, recognition and results which help an individual to want to perform, put efforts and achieve goals. Negative reinforcement on the other refers to punishment, fear and other negative elements which would lead to an individual performing in order to avoid negative consequences (Lawton Smith, H., Dickson K. and Smith, S., 2015).

Inspiration can be characterized as the procedures that record for a person's force, course, and determination of exertion towards achieving an objective. The value hypothesis of inspiration given by Adams in the year 1963, depends on assessment of endeavors as sources of information and assessment of prizes as yields. It manages the thought of referent others which frame the premise of self assessment (Lawton Smith, H., Dickson K. and Smith, S., 2015). 

The anticipation hypothesis of inspiration that was given by Victor Vroom centers around factors like valence, instrumentality and hope as the reason for estimating and understanding inspiration. This hypothesis frames the reason for understanding the connection between these three components and its part during the time spent exertion, execution and result (Cameron C. Leone 2008).

 These two tools or intervention are widely used in management of human resources in an organization (Kassin, Saul, 2007). This forms an important aspect of balancing motivation levels in an organization by focusing on delivering higher efforts and utilization of full potential of work force. Human resource managers and management researchers in present times state that positive reinforcement is more sustainable when compared to negative reinforcement (Cameron C. Leone, 2008). 

  Personal example for positive reinforcement 

My personal experience with positive reinforcement came in when I shouldered the responsibility of designing the motivation plan for our work organization. The organization motivation design was centered around guaranteeing work fulfillment in view of guaranteeing the utilization of motivation elements and positive reinforcement based speculations that can enable the individuals from the association to comprehend the basic vision and furthermore add to it adequately. It has helped me learn practically about positive reinforcement and its effectiveness (Gibb, A, 2014). 

The first tool or intervention for positive reinforcement that was included in the design was recognition. It is imperative that the representatives are valued and informed that their administrations are precious to the association, to guarantee that they continue working with similar levels of eagerness and endeavors (Cameron C. Leone, 2008).

The second tool or intervention for positive reinforcement that was included in the design was empowerment. The association inspiration design is to guarantee the use of inspiration strategies through the development of groups and empowering individuals cooperate. The arrangement is to utilize the value hypothesis and the anticipation hypothesis so as to rouse representatives in the association (Cameron C. Leone 2008).

The third tool included was training for working in groups. This formed a very important aspect of helping employees change their perspectives towards working in an organization and how they could help in building synergies. In the event of they being happy with working in groups, they can make collaborations and contribute better to the advancement of the association. HR are an amazingly basic part of an association as their aptitudes, ability, learning and endeavors enable the association to create (Elliot, Andrew J; Covington, Martin V, 2001).

Training and preparing for bigger job roles and responsibilities is a critical component of the worker life cycle to any association's human capital technique and it forms a critical factor in accomplishing skills and upper hands if there should arise an occurrence of a business. Along these lines, they are of high incentive to an association (Lawton Smith, H., Dickson K. also, Smith, S, 2005). It is important for workers in present times to focus on understanding how their efforts would result in rewards and this can be made explicit by communicating the organization rewards policies to them well in advance. Working in teams provides employees with a greater sense of achievement and an ability to formulate better understanding about how they should align personal development with organization development (Weiner, Bernard, 2000).

Punishment and extinction

It is crucial that punishment and extinction, which are forms of negative reinforcement be utilized effectively. It is essential that there be a balance built in reinforcement methods and punishment and extinction be used to a minimal extent. Management research indicates that negative reinforcement is not sustainable in the long run. It is important to ensure that punishment is used as a reinforcement only in case of serious issues and not as a threat for every error. Only then it would be possible to use punishment as an effective tool to motivate employees effectively (Cooper, A, 2012). It is required that there be a significant understanding of the impact of punishment on the employees and their efforts. This can help use punishment sparingly but very effectively. In the present day association, workers increase the value of the association by contributing their abilities, learning and endeavors towards accomplishing the objectives of the association. As empowerment becomes popular and a preferred tool to motivate employees, punishment is being used very sparsely in organizations around the world (Lawton Smith, H., Dickson K. and Smith, S., 2015) 

Recommendations

It is recommended that the association trains representatives to work in groups and frame better relationship with every one of the representatives in various divisions, areas and associations. Training forms an important element in encouraging individuals to contribute their thoughts and efforts to the growth of the organization (Kassin, Saul, 2007).

3 manners by which it is conceivable to inspire the lowest pay permitted by law benefit laborer is through giving better remuneration, preparing and offices or wellbeing at work. An inspiration hypothesis which ought to be utilized as a part of this occasion is the utilization of carrot or stick hypothesis where in pay enhances the levels of inspiration in the association. Reward alludes to the compensation or restore that is given to a worker for the work done by him or for his commitment to the association. Pay is a basic segment of each work or occupation profile and it provides inspiration since it is feasible for representatives to satisfy their necessities through this cash (Cooper, A. , 2000). 

This can enable them to work viably. In the event of there being assorted variety in an association, particularly in display times of multinational associations, it is imperative that the decent variety be all around oversaw and the majority of the individuals from the association be given equivalent development openings. Representatives who can work in bunches are of extraordinary preferred standpoint to the association (Gibb, A., 2014).

Conclusion

To conclude, it is important that there be effective balance built in developing motivation tools and interventions or reinforcements in an organization. Worker esteem is an idea of incredible significance in display times and additionally in introduce day associations as the HR shape an advantage that can give an aggressive edge to the association. It is critical that if there should be an occurrence of an association, HR be roused and overseen through esteem creation and assurance of the interests of the employees. Ensuring that their interest is taken care of can help motivate them better (Lawton Smith, H., Dickson K. and Smith, S., 2015).

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