LEARNING OUTCOMES BEING ASSESSED
1. Critically analyse management practices in the Australasian context. 2. Understand organisational behaviour and management theory. 3. Critically analyse the underlying values of these theories. 4. Demonstrate knowledge of management theories and evaluate their impact on practical management decision making in the Australasian context 5. Develop skills and knowledge with regard to individual and group behaviour in the context of organisations and their environment
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT
This semester the subject has been structured around the classical management functions of planning, leading, organising, and controlling. We know from the work of Mintzberg and others that managers seldom have the luxury of structuring their day so that they spend a certain amount of time Leading, a certain amount of their time Planning and so on. A manager’s day is typically busy with short periods of time spent on many different tasks. Often managers are reacting to events taking place both inside and outside of the organisation. In groups of four students, your task is to interview a manager in order to find out how they typically spend their day, week, month, or year. The next task is to compare the answers you receive and your observations of the managers you interview with the theory outlined in your textbook. This process of comparing information and observations with theory is the basis of much of the academic writing that you will undertake during your time at university. Your comparison should lead you to being able to make informed comments about the role of the manager you interview. By comparing actual management in practice with the theoretical “ideal best practice” described in the textbook and other sources you will be able to see how closely successful managers follow good theory
Below is a set of questions to for you to use; your interview may be more comprehensive if you wish to prepare extra questions. You can discuss any extra questions you may wish to ask with your tutor. However, a good starting point is to address the themes covered in this subject during the semester. Do not try to ask too many “closed” questions. Closed questions are questions that can (and will) be answered with a “yes” or “no”.
• How do you plan your workday?
• How far into the future do you plan for your job role?
• How do you plan for your career, and how far into the future do you plan for it?
• What is it about your job that makes it difficult to achieve goals, and what makes it easy?
• How do you motivate your subordinates and how do you maintain your own motivation?
• How do you approach the task of leading others?
• What things do you look for in a person who leads you?
• Who do you see as your mentors, and whom do you provide mentoring for?
• How do you mentor?
• How do you achieve goals by working with subordinates and fellow managers?
• How do you deal with conflict in the work groups you manage?
• How do you deal with conflict between you and other managers?
• What ethical issues do you face in your management role and how do you deal with them?
• How important is it for you to be aware of workplace diversity?
• Does workplace diversity give your organisation a competitive advantage? If so why (or why not)?
REPORT ON MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION
The current report aims to illustrate a set of managerial implications that are essential for a smooth business proceeding in organizations. Apart from the business dealings and procedures, it is extremely important that there is an internal ambiance in an organization which allows each of the members of the organization to work smoothly and effectively. In the current report, there has been conduction of an interview on 15 managers working in an organization in Australia. The purpose was to understand their way of work and how that differentiates from the bookish knowledge. The organization belongs to the retail sector and managers have been selected form that organization because retail sector follows a strict managerial process for dealing with the huge number of customers that they have. The interview has been conducted 2 months back. The findings from the interview have been set in form of a report and themes.
Figure 1: Theory of management
(Source: created by the author)
Career development process for managers
A question on career development process was asked to the managers. As stated by Bird (2016), career development process is one of the crucial stages of the professional sphere of a manager and thus, he does that in the preliminary stage of his career. As reported by the managers, the most important factor that they pay attention to is self assessment. Through this process, they identify the factor that they like the most and thus, work towards the fulfillment of that in their career. In the opinion of Morden (2017), the self assessment process is one of the most important factors of successful managerial implication in an organization. This is because this allows them to opt for the sector that they would work in. For instance, some people have inclination towards healthcare sector and therefore, they indulge into managerial implication of a healthcare organization. Along with that, in the interview process, some of the managers told that the decision making process is very important in their career development process. This is because a variety of options shall be available to the managers to choose their career from. However, it depends on his self assessment process regarding the sector that the manager wants to associate him with. According to Eichhorn and Towers (2018), the development of goals and objectives must be made by manager in order to allow them to opt for better decision making process in the process of development of his career. Furthermore, the managers also said that they have developed certain goals and objectives for their career in compliance with the skills that they have and their inclination towards specific career factors. Thus, in accordance with that, the managers develop certain smart objectives with the application of which they shall be able to understand the fulfillment of their career goals. Moreover, this also allows them to understand the extent to which their career objectives have been met and the steps that are needed to be taken by them for further fulfilling the goals.
Leadership skills for managers
As reported by one of the managers, communication is regarded as one of the most important leadership skills that they follow. As stated by Răducan and Răducan (2014), communication skill is one of the most important traits that should be possessed by a manager. This is because a manager needs to develop a relationship with each of the members in a company for understanding their needs and demands. One of the primary roles of a manager is to identify the needs of employees in the organization in order to allocate them tasks accordingly for the fulfillment of their own desires. Thus, in this regard, communication is an important aspect as that allows the managers to identify the needs and specifications of organizational members in terms of their professional sphere. In addition to that, as studied by Bârgău (2015), communication also helped in conflict management process within an organization. As reported by two of the managers, the leadership skill that they rely on the most is communication as that allows them to identify any of the issues faced by any of the members in the organization. The occurrence of issues among organizational members results in the generation of resentment among them which harms the internal organizational ambiance. Therefore, they implement communicational skills in order to identify any of the issues at the preliminary stage and take steps for the mitigation of those. Furthermore, as stated by the managers, communication also allows them to build a relationship between the different members of the organization. Therefore, the managers indulge into communicational processes with small groups and ventilate communication among them. This encourages team work and collaboration which are again important traits of leadership for managers. In addition to that, decision making skill also serves to be an important leadership skill for managers. According to Kobersy et al. (2015), the responsibility of taking the best decision for an organization to solve conflicts or to constitute into the success of the organization rests on the manager. Thus, he needs to analyze the different scenarios efficiently and implement his decision making skills.
Motivating other managers and team members
Motivation is an important factor in business and organizational culture that allows the different organizational members to work in a positive ambiance. Moreover, motivation also includes the assessment of the needs of members in an organization and allocates them tasks accordingly, so as to, work towards the fulfillment of their professional needs and desires. As reported by one of the managers, the most important factor of motivation is the assessment of the needs of each of the members in the organization including the managers, higher officials and employees. As opined by Einstein, Addams and Roosevelt (2016), needs assessment is an important factor in motivation because that helps in understanding the comfort zone of the members. Moreover, employees always want to fulfill their professional needs and specifications as part of an organization. Therefore, it is the duty of the managerial sector and higher official of a company to ensure that the goals and objectives of the members are being fulfilled.
In this regard, the theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs shall be stated which rests on five factors in order to motivate the employees. For instance, according to Burlachuk, Zhiyenbayeva and Tapalova (2015), the very first factor of this theory is a psychological need which is associated with the basic needs of employment. Thus, as part of an organization, employees always want a goof remuneration, and good relationship with higher officials. According to De Baerdemaeker and Bruggeman (2015), remuneration plays an important factor of motivation for employees as they feel content and valued for what they are doing in their professional sphere. Furthermore, it is also important that employees have job security which is another factor of motivation for members in an organization. It is applicable to both members and managers as their job security will allow them to work more efficiently. Thus, in compliance with these factors, the managers stated that they always ensure that the employees in the organization are availing adequate remuneration (Kobersy et al. 2015). Furthermore, they are also provided with job security in the form of contract which helps earn their confidence. In addition to that, they are provided with rewards and incentives whenever they come up with good outcome by performing certain tasks.
Team work and collaboration
Team work and collaboration is an important factor in business that allows bringing unity between the different members in an organization. According to Carlson et al. (2017), organizations have also certain goals and objectives and thus, the responsibility to fulfill those goals relies on the members of the organization. The managers, higher officials and employees must work collaboratively and there must be an interrelation between each of the departments. As per some of the managers, all the departments in the organization are interrelated and needs information from each other while pursuing a specific task. For instance, one of the managers said that the board of directors and managerial sector in a company are entrusted with the task of making strategies of the company. However, the strategy formulation process in a business is dependant hugely on the financial status that the organization is performing in. The responsibility of providing financial information relies on the auditors and financers and thus, based on their information the strategies are formulated by the higher authorities. The role of the employees in this regard is to work on the basis of the task allocated to them. Therefore, in this regard, it can be understood that collaboration between different teams is essential for the smooth business running in an organization.
However, according to Galegher, Kraut and Egido (2014), a team shall consist of different members belonging to different backgrounds. Therefore, their skill set and communicational technique are also different. Thus, in this regard, it is the role of the manager to act as a coordinator between them and ensure that effective communication is taking place between them without the arousal of any conflict. Coordination is an important factor in this aspect and by mean of that, the manager ensures to cater information to the team members that they are working towards the fulfillment of the same organizational goals which shall be beneficial for them in the long run as well. Thus, as influenced by Cha et al. (2015), the managers must act as a factor of coordination between them and this is how team work and collaboration take place in an organization.
Conflict management with other managers and team members
At the very beginning, it is important for the managers to make the members of the organization realize that they act as pillars in the various organization procedures. As stated by the managers, in order to manage conflict the factor that they do primarily is to make the members understand that their primary role is to fulfill the goals of the organization and therefore, they must cut down any indifferences between them. The managers and higher officials are the pillars of an organization and therefore, it is the most important factor to resolve conflict among them. As per one of the managers, in order to curb conflict with other managers, they indulge into good communication process. In the opinion of Rahim (2017), communication allows them to learn the difference of opinion among them and therefore, they must value the opinion of the other managers as well. They hold meetings where they discuss regarding any issue that has occurred in the organization lately. The important factor of managing conflict in this aspect is to provide equal opportunities to each of the managers to share their viewpoints and opinions. Thus, in this way, the managers feel valued as they become able to share their opinions for the mitigation of any issue in the organization. As answered by the manager, the final decision that is taken for the issue resolution is done in accordance with the idea of each of the managers and those are merged to make new decisions. Furthermore, in order to solve conflicts among employees, the managers ensure that likeminded people are in the same group. However, diversity is an important aspect that the organization encourages (Ivanova and Bikmetova, 2017). Thus, people from all backgrounds are given equal opportunities in their professional sphere and communicate. In that way, each of the members feel valued in the organization and thus, the likeliness of conflict arousal between them shall be curbed.
Steps taken for resolving ethical issues
Managerial sector in an organization is entrusted with the task of looking after the business procedures of a business and constitute to its gradual betterment and development. As opined by Mason (2017), in this regard, one of the prime duties of managers is to ensure that they are using the resources for the well being of the business only. However, one issue that is associated in this regard is the use of funds and resources for the own benefit of the manager. This is a serious unethical issue that needs to be demolished. Thus, as per the managers, in order to solve this ethical issue, the managers always track the level and amount of funds and resources in the business (Morden, 2017). They also track the use of those in the business which shall be helpful in identifying and tracking the amount of it. This curbs the risk of using those by managers or higher authorities for their own purpose. Along with that, according to Luthans and Doh (2018), another ethical issue is discrimination of employees on the basis of their cultural backgrounds. Thus, due to that, the employees receive different remuneration as they belong to different cultures. Moreover, the pay gap among male and females is also a diversity issue. The managers stated that in order to eradicate this ethical issue, the managers provide equal opportunities to all in terms of employment (Bird, 2016). They are also treated with equality and fairness and are asked to report the higher authorities whenever they face issue of discrimination from any of the members in workplace.
Workplace diversity management
Diversity management is the process of allowing people from all background in terms of employment in an organization. According to Harvey and Allard (2015), diversity management has become an important aspect in businesses in the current era because that allows multicultural people to form the employee base in an organization. The managers reported that the organization appoints people from all background and does not make any distinction between them. In order to manage conflict between people from different cultural background, they are indulged into communicate between them to understand the cultural perspective between each other. According to Martin (2014), the understanding of the cultural perspectives of other people curbs the risk of arousal of conflict between them to a great extent. Therefore, this allows them to work smoothly without the likeliness of conflict arousal between them.
The managers stated that here are both positives and negatives associated with each culture and as managers of an organization they must respect the dissimilarities. They also communicate to each of the members to value the cultural aspect of other people in the organization. The teams that are there in the organization comprises of people from different background. In this way, diversity is encouraged in the organization. The managers ensure that there are similar criteria and objectives for each of the groups that they need to fulfill as part of the organization. As influenced by Syed et al. (2017), this would develop a sense of unity and like-mindedness among them because they are working to achieve the same goal for the organization. Furthermore, the managers are well acquainted with the cultural different of different people and thus, value each of those. This would boost the confidence of them and allow other people to have respect and value for the different culture as well.
Work diversity and competitive advantage
Diversity culminates into presence of different cultured people in an organization. As stated by Eichhorn and Towers (2018), the current era of globalization is triggering the expansion of businesses to different countries where there is different culture. Thus, firms also need to be well equipped with knowledge of different cultures. This is important because the primary aim of businesses is to impact customers and thus, for that purpose it is essential to understand their cultural aspects. The understanding of their cultural aspect helps firms to carry out the promotional activities, so as to, impact the customers. Therefore, the presence of a diversified team allows the firm to gain knowledge on different cultural backgrounds. Thus, with the help of gaining knowledge from the diverse people, the firm integrates that into the business procedure and makes an impact on the customers. Along with that, according to Morden (2016), diversity also results in the betterment of the decision making process due to involvement of different people with unique ideas and opinions. Thus, the integration of different cultured people results in different opinions in the decision making process, resulting in the innovativeness and uniqueness of the idea. This results in making a strict business decision, by means of which the firm gains a positive impact on the customers. As a result, the customers adhere to the business more resulting in the increase of profitability and customer base. This culminates into the gaining of competitive advantage by the firm (Eichhorn and Towers, 2018).
On the basis of the findings and discussions of the current report, it can be summarized that managers are the most important pillars of a business and therefore, the presence of skills and knowledge in them are immensely important. The skills and knowledge of managers results in positive internal ambiance for the members to work efficiently. At the very beginning, the managers must set their goals and objectives that they want to achieve in their professional life. This allows them to work accordingly for the fulfillment of those goals. Some of the important leadership skills important on part of a manager are communication skill, decision making skill and conflict management skill. It is also important for them to motivate other members in the organization and for that purpose, the managers ensure to provide sufficient remuneration to employees, constitute into a positive workplace ambiance and provide them job security in the long run. In order to solve internal conflicts among members, the managers communicate with them and identify any issue for resolution of those in the preliminary stage. In order to enhance team work and collaboration, the managers act as a factor of coordination between the different team members. The ethical issues in business include using funds and resources for own benefit, discriminating employees on the basis of their culture. In order to eradicate this ethical issue, the managers provide equal opportunities to all in terms of employment. The firm also indulges into diversified teams and that adds to the competitive advantage of the organization. This shall further result in the sustainability of the company which shall prevail for a long period of time.
Appendix 1: Interview transcript
|How do you plan your workday?||“I usually go to my office and have a communication regarding the status of the business. I try to listen to the employees as well to understand if they have any issue.”|
|How do you plan for your career, and how far into the future do you plan for it?||“I have firstly assessed myself and the goals that I want to achieve. Therefore, on the basis of that, I do the everyday work.”|
|How do you motivate your subordinates and how do you maintain your own motivation?||“I opt for both monetary and non monetary motivation. I pay attention to providing them rewards and incentives. And also I ensure that they are availing a positive workplace ambiance and job security.”|
|What things do you look for in a person who leads you?||“I look for communication skills, decision making skills and analytical skills. These help in problem solving process.”|
|How do you deal with conflict between you and other managers?||‘I give equal opportunity to all to share their views. The decision taken is in compliance with everyone’s opinion.”|
|What ethical issues do you face in your management role and how do you deal with them?|
How important is it for you to be aware of workplace diversity?
|“Sometimes managers use the company’s belongings for their own use. Also, some people are treated differently for their diversified background. I ensure to track the company’s resources because that refrains others from using it for their own purpose.|
|Does workplace diversity give your organisation a competitive advantage?||“Yes because it helps in putting an impact on employees and customers.”|