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Mental Health Nursing and Its Basis: Formative Assignment Answer

Assessment Description - Formative Assignment

The formative assessment is a 1500-2000 word written assignment in which you will explain your conceptual framework for approaching the summative assignment. This is not submitted by Turnitin but as a Microsoft Word document attachment and is to be sent to Patricia Howlett ( and Nick Wrycraft ( by 5pm on Friday March 1st, 2019. 

The assignment is to be saved using your student identification number. You will title your work: "Formative Assignment", and it will be structured appropriately and written as a formal academic piece of work. All factual claims or statements need to be referenced, and all references included in the text of your work need to be included in a Harvard referenced list at the end of your piece of work under the heading "Reference List"

Feedback will be provided using Change Tracker on the text of your work, by Word document, comments by email and/or personal tutorials. This assignment is not marked and does not contribute directly to the final mark you will achieve on this module but detailed constructive feedback will be given which will help to develop and deepen your level of analysis and skills in academic writing and help you gain a better final mark in the summative assessment of this module.  

 Your work needs to be written articulately, within a structure and to provide a discussion and explanation of

 The reason for this piece of work is that unlike other disciplines in nursing how we engage and assess mental health is predicated on a range of views and beliefs about how the world works. In mental health nursing values and principles are pivotal in determining how we engage with people experiencing mental health issues. These reflect how we perceive the world, how we understand how individuals experience health and illness and have implications for the therapeutic responses that the services provide. In addition to this though our values reflect how we view and value others.

In this piece of work you will explain the theoretical framework and background of the approach you will use. Among the range of options are nursing models, such as: Barker's Tidal model, Roper Logan and Tierney's Activities of daily living, Peplau's interpersonal approach. Alternatively the most influential philosophical approach to mental health care in the last 20 years has been the recovery approach. If you use the recovery approach, this will have certain elements and features to it which you need to explain.

In addition there are other approaches to mental health nursing which you might like to consider and are covered during the course of the module, these include Roberts' crisis model, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Rogers' core conditions.

It is necessary to select an approach based on the suitability and aptness to your personal philosophy.

This is piece of work will be useful in contributing to your final summative assignment by developing your acquaintance with theoretical concepts informing how mental health nurses approach and engage with service users. In your summative assignment it is necessary to not only demonstrate that you understand the theory but that you can apply it to the case of your chosen service user.


Formative Assignment

 Mental health nursing & its basis

In today’s modern backdrop, alongside the physical ailments, the mental health issues are also on the rise. Therefore, it has become imperative to address this following a definite, constructive and analytical approach so that they can be handled deftly and respite may be provided to the individuals afflicted with mental health conditions. Mental health nursing plays an instrumental role in this context whereby the nursing personnel is engaged in rendering optimal care to the people irrespective of their age brackets suffering from mental illness or distress (Townsend and Morgan 2017). In line with the nursing code of conduct and virtues, the nurses are trained to assess and plan the care regime for the concerned patient affected by mental health issues. Unlike other disciplines, mental health nursing is essentially dependent upon certain views, beliefs and theories pertaining to the functioning of the world at large. A range of philosophies and beliefs are emphasized while making assessment about the mental health condition of a person as perceived by a mental health nurse. The interaction and encounter with patients suffering from mental health issues is dependent hugely on the nursing values and principles that in turn guide the code of conduct of the assigned mental health nurse. Reflection in mental health nursing is an important idea whereby the nurses resort to their individual understanding, perception and judgment to pave the way for their professional pursuit in dealing with the patient (Orthwein 2017). Thus, in the following section, a brief discussion will be made to throw light upon the theoretical framework and background of the approach to be utilized. Necessary explanation behind each choice will be made as well.

Theories in mental health nursing

Mental health nursing unlike other disciplines requires thorough and in-depth analysis of the theories that define the professional pursuit to provide optimal care facility to the service recipient. It is imperative for every mental health nurse to abide by these theories and principles that govern their vocation so that the suitable results may be facilitated. Insightful understanding pertaining to the mental health policy on the part of the mental health nurses that defines the psychiatric or mental health nursing profession is pivotal in this respect. Thus, facilitation in performance while addressing the clinical condition of the patient is caused by means of pertinent understanding about these mental health nursing theories (Alligood 2017). Moreover, in this manner a strong foundation about the mental health concern is created. 

Models in mental health nursing

Another crucial aspect that shapes the professional discourse in case of mental health nursing is that of the nursing models that aid in healthcare delivery through adoption of specific principles. In these models, amongst many other things, emphasis is laid on the behavioral analysis of the patient to address the clinical condition. There are numerous conceptual models in case of mental health nursing concerning the etiology, treatment and recovery that in turn pave the way for effective care of the patient. An important aspect in case of the mental health nursing is that of inclusivity whereby both the patient as well as their families is empowered to procure optimal benefits and ensure utmost recovery for the patient. This approach is followed meticulously to facilitate the patient recovery process. It is generally aimed to gain an understanding about the causes that lead to mental distress and streamline nursing interventions accordingly through conforming to analysis by means of psychodynamic approach (Varcarolis 2016). Thus, theories and models in mental health nursing are vital to ensure optimal health service to the patient.

Peplau’s theory & Tidal Model

Until date, a number of theories and models have been put forward to guide the psychiatric nursing practice. Amongst these, the notable and relevant ones that may guide the assessment and planning of care for the mental health nurse will be discussed. One such theory is that of Peplau’s theory that aims to focus on the nursing practice in a unique fashion. According to this theory, explanation is provided with respect to the phases of the interpersonal process, roles to be served by the psychiatric nursing personnel in nursing situations alongside methods to be adopted for studying nursing as an interpersonal process. As per this theory, nursing is reckoned as a healing art where assistance is provided to those in need (Delaney et al. 2017). Moreover, besides the established theories pertinent to mental health nursing, there are other models which define the functioning of the mental health nursing profession effectively. One such model is the Tidal model that is considered as a recovery model that focuses on promotion of the mental health in persons. Dr. Phil Barker and Poppy Buchanan-Barker proposed the model that relies on a philosophical approach to the discovery of mental health. This model generally attends to the intrinsic continuous process of change that takes place in all people. It emphasizes on attending to the distressed patient through reclaiming their personal stories of mental distress and recovering the voice. It primarily aims to initiate an empowering, person-centered approach to recovery within the realm of psychiatric and mental health nursing (Buchanan-Barker and Barker 2016). Thus, nursing duties may be directed following these theories. 

Roper Logan and Tierney's Activities of daily living & Recovery approach: the chosen ones

Additionally, there are other factors, which govern the pursuit of mental health nursing. In this context, mention may be made about the Roper Logan and Tierney's Activities of daily living. This model is considered as one of the most popular nursing model that in turn is dependent upon the activities of daily living. The main concern lies with attending the problems emanating from everyday living. By activities of daily living, the things we do normally on a daily basis is referred to such as that encompassing eating, drinking, walking, bathing and grooming, toileting and others. Therefore, assessments made with respect to the ability of the patient to perform these tasks, the necessity of care from trained personnel may be determined quit effectively (Williams 2017). In every case, whereby these nursing models are applied, the optimal care for the patient is prioritized above everything else. A key component in mental health nursing is that of the concept of recovery by which actions are streamlined beyond the limits to help the people in distress to achieve their personal dreams and aspirations. The role of the mental health nurses has been identified as crucial in this respect to promote quality health. Attainment of personal truth thorough a journey of self-discovery may lead to recovery ultimately through opportunities for change, reflection and finally discovery of novel virtues. Mental health nurses are key players in promoting recovery in the mentally ill patients by utilizing proper resources, judgment and prudence as the situation demands (De Vecchi et al. 2015). Thus, the Roper Logan and Tierney's Activities of daily living model alongside the recovery approach will be utilized in case of the patient to address the mental health condition.

A person’s activity of daily living forms the basis of Roper Logan and Tierney's Activities of daily living model. It may be used to determine how the life of the affected individual has changed owing to illness or injury. Utilization of this approach will ensure the assessment of the status of the patient following a systematic analysis. The model essentially segregates the day-to-day activities pertaining to living by virtue of proper assessment. Thus, facilitation to interventions is provided that might be difficult on the part of the service recipient to handle alone. Promotion of utmost independence for the patient in terms of daily activities will be provided following proper interventions and necessary assessment actions. A range of continuum comprising from complete dependence to complete independence is looked into generally. This assessment helps to determine which intervention will help in promotion of independence. At the same time, care is taken to negate any type of activity that might induce further dependence. This is often referred to as a cognitive approach of assessment thereby adding to the provision of care to the patient. Changes in care for the patient are channelized through proper assessment of the dependence-independence continuum that in turn accounts for the signs of improvement (if any) for the patient. Thus, this approach may be utilized as an effective part of the evidence-based practice that in turn will allow for addressing the patient’s condition through utilization of proper resources as appropriate interventions (Gultas 2017).

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 

Another approach that is followed extensively while attending to the patient in mental health nursing is that of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This essentially underpins the motivation theory put forward by Abraham Maslow in the year 1943, that implies for five interdependent levels encompassing basic human needs such as that of food, love, safety, self-esteem  that are required to be satisfied following a definite sequence beginning from the lowest level (Fallatah and Syed 2018). Thus, these needs will also be attended to alongside utilization of the Roper Logan and Tierney's activities of daily living model.

Person centered approach & Roger’s core conditions

Nowadays, the person-centered approach is followed extensively in clinical practice to attend to the patient condition (McCormack and McCance 2016). The basis of this approach is Roger’s core conditions that are believed to be necessary and sufficient to account for therapeutic change. The essential three core conditions that are crucial ion making positive therapeutic change through counseling in the patient are accurate empathy, congruence (genuineness, authenticity) as well as unconditional positive regard (nonjudgmental stance) (Greene 2017). Hence, apart from the theories and models that are in vogue in mental health nursing, these approaches also play equal and important crucial role in channelizing the treatment modality of the concerned patient systematically and will be used in synergy with the Roper Logan and Tierney's activities of daily living model as mental health nursing is not a discrete vocation. It will involve utilization of multiple theories and approaches with Roper Logan and Tierney's Activities of daily living model in the pivot. 

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