MGMT6012 Management Research Assessment: Business Decision Making Perspectives Assignment 2 Answer

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Question :

ASSESSMENT BRIEF 

Subject Code and Title MGMT6012 Management Perspectives 

Assessment Assignment Two: Management Research 

Individual/Group Individual 

Length 2000 Word Limit 

Learning Outcomes: Understand the nature of naturally occurring data and how this can be objectively analysed to inform your practice and influence your behaviour
• Analyse and discuss how the structure and characteristics of organisations can influence and constrain managers
and their decision making
• Identify the range of organisational stakeholders and explain how managers can manage effective relationships with them to motivate, manage and lead them to a preferred decision outcome
• Apply a range of techniques and strategies to communicate effectively to a culturally diverse range of stakeholders

Context:
The assessment suite in this subject is designed to provide students with a framework to understand organisational behaviour, politics and the dynamics of the business environment. The assessment suite aims to equip students with the necessary skills to understand the constraints managers and emerging leaders face in developing strategies to leverage advantages and overcome constraints and barriers in organisations.

Instructions: Following from the first assignment,students will create a personal SWOT analysis and comment on their fit with the organisation identified in the first assignment submission. The second assignment should include:

  • the use of three naturally occurring data (e.g. conversations, emails, corporate artefacts that regularly occur, etc.);
  • assessment of personal strengths and weaknesses as viewed by self and others (ensure you reflect on who is giving you what feedback, how you appear to be progressing, and how you fit within the organisation where you work, or want to work);
  • a critical assessment of how you are placed or misplaced within the chosen organisation; and
  • a discussion of self-improvement for continuous improvement.

The report is to be limited to 2000 words, exclusive of formal document sections (i.e. title page, executive summary, table of contents, references list, appendices, etc.), citations, tables and graphs. Students should submit one file through Turnitin.

There are a number of forms the report could take. The exact form of the report will depend on the additional research the student will undertake; students should aim for the demonstration of deep learning, founded on reflection, rather than on getting any aspect of the brief ‘right.’

Students should commence this assignment early, keep regular backups and ensure they submit the correct, final version. Students should use this brief as the instruction set for the assignment requirements. Additionally, the rubric below can be used to describe what unacceptable, functional, proficient, advanced and exceptional assignments might look like according to the criteria in the leftmost column of each row.

As this is a Masters level subject, students are expected to engage with high-quality academic journal articles, using the Torrens University Library. Textbooks, Wikipedia and, in general, anything that can be obtained through an open Google search page are considered supplementary material, unbecoming of a postgraduate.

Students should begin their reflection, if they have not already previously done it, by undertaking a Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator test. A free test that does not require sign-up is available here: www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp . Another option is the Gallup Strengths Assessment tool available that can be available by your facilitator.

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Answer :

Management Research


Introduction 

There are different activities that are included in business management and management of a decision-making process is one of them. It is very important for the organization to the importance of the decision-making process and its impact on the overall position of the organization. The main purpose of this report is to facilitate business managers in making the decision-making process more effective and efficient. This report will identify different stakeholders that should be involved in the decision making process and strategies that should be used for communication with them. This report will also identify some of the sources of data that occurs naturally in the business organization. This report is expected to have a positive impact on the overall decision-making process of a business organization. 

 Nature of naturally occurring data

In a business organization, naturally occurring data can be defined as the data that is generating on their own. These are the data that are not collected by a specific person and they are gathered during employees are undertaking daily operations in the organization. Some of the most commonly occurring natural data are as follows- 

Conversations- Conversation between different employees in the organization can create a large amount of naturally occurring data. This data can be very effective for a business manager to take important decisions in the organization. For example manager of the organization can easily identify personal skills and traits of an employee with the help of normal conversation. Management of the company can use this information while taking a decision in relation to the appointment of roles and responsibilities in the organization (Goldstone and Lupyan, 2016). This data also helps in developing an effective cultural environment in the organization. The conversation between employees helps in the development of an effective and efficient team that you will be responsible for achieving overall goals and objective. 

Emails- Constant data is exchanged between employees and management of the company on emails. These emails can also be very effective in taking decisions as a manager or an employee in the organization. Generally, formal data is communicated with the help of email, therefore it can be said that the authenticity of this data is much higher as compared to normal conversation. Level of accuracy and relevance in a decision made in accordance with this data would be higher as compared to other informal sources of data (Quinlan et.al, 2019).

Organizational artifacts -Organisational artifacts can be defined as the different type of formal documents that are prepared by the organization during or before the incorporation. For example policies and procedures developed by the organization for Ethical and professional behavior can be defined as organizational artifacts. It is very essential for a manager or employee to consider this naturally occurring data before making any kind of decision. For example, if a manager is analyzing a new business proposal then such manager should be considered the core believes and values of the company. If a particular business proposal is not in accordance with the normal values of the organization then it should not be accepted as it will have a negative impact on organizational culture (Hammer, 2015).

On the basis of this evaluation, it can be said that any kind of data that is relevant to the business organization for employees in the company should be considered while undertaking the decision-making process.

Impact of structure and characteristic of the organization

There are various internal factors in the organization that can have a significant impact on managers in a decision-making process. Following are some of the organizational characteristics that will affect the decision-making process-

Organizational structure- First and foremost organizational structure of a business organization will have a significant impact on the decision-making process. More specifically level of complexity in organizational structure will affect the decision-making process. If the level of complexity in relation to the roles and responsibilities of the employee is very high then it will have a negative impact. On the other hand, if there is a specific and clear relationship between employees then the decision-making process will be easy (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015). This is due to the fact that all the decisions in the organization cannot be taken by only one person. The decision taken by the business manager will be approved by different employees in the organization. 

It is considered that a functional organizational structure is most appropriate for the decision-making process in the organization. This is due to the fact that organizations divided into different categories on the basis of functions performed by them. The decision taken in relation to a particular department will be the responsibility of the manager of the sales department and final approval will be given by the CEO or board of directors. It can be said that the level of complexity in the functional structure is very limited which have a positive impact on the decision making the process by managers (Ashkenas et.al, 2015).

Policies and procedures- Strictness of policies and procedures is also an important characteristic of an organization that will affect to decision making process. For example, if there is a policy to take approval from each and every department before making any important decision in relation to any department then the time required for taking decisions will be increased significantly (Hogan and Coote, 2014). There is a probability that the projected benefits of a decision cannot be achieved due to delay in the decision making process. 

Quality and number of employees- Number of employees in the organization will also affect the decision-making process as management has to the impact of any decision on every employee of the organization. For example, if management wants to established new IT infrastructure then it has to consider various factors in relation to employees such as knowledge of employee in relation to Information Technology. Taking decisions in relation to the number of laptops required for establishing new infrastructure would also involve considering the quantity of employee in the organization (Bortolotti, Boscari and Danese, 2015). 

Organizational politics- This can also be referred to as organizational culture and relationship between employees in the organization. It is very common for different individuals and teams in the organization to influence organizational decision-making process to advance their career and increase their reward. Effective and efficient organizational culture will help employees of the organization to develop honesty and integrity towards the business organization. It will help in the development of the mindset in which employees will give preference to organizational interest as compared to their own interest (Winnubst, 2017). 

Stakeholder analysis and Management

First of all the manager of the organization is required to analyze the decision from the perspective of a stakeholder. Therefore the manager should identify possible negative impacts that a business decision can have on different stakeholders. This will help in analyzing different perspective of the decision (Eskerod and Vaagaasar, 2014). After this step, if the manager is convinced that decision under consideration will have a positive impact on business organization then the process of stakeholder management should be initiated. 

Following are some of the critical stakeholders that will be involved in the decision-making process of manager- 

Team members- Business organizations generally divided into different teams in accordance with the functions that they are performing in the organization. Therefore any decision taken for a particular department will definitely impact the employees that are working under such department. The manager will be required to analyze their needs and requirements and proceed with the decision making process accordingly. Before taking any critical decision manager is required to conduct team meeting and considered the feedback send suggestions provided by team members (Mok, Shen and Yang, 2015). These suggestions and feedbacks should be considered seriously in the decision-making process.

Board of directors- Final approval with respect to any decision taken by managers will be provided by the board of directors or CEO of the organization. Therefore it can be said that the board of directors are also important stakeholders in the decision-making process. For getting approval from the board of director it is essential that the manager is able to communicate the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed decision in an effective manner. The manager is also required to prepare a formal report and approval form for getting approval from the board of directors (Carroll and Buchholtz, 2014). This will help in providing a summary analysis of the decision-making process of the manager.

Investors and stakeholders- Decisions that are affecting overall investment in the organization will require approval at the annual general meeting from shareholders and investors. In such scenario these investors and stakeholders are also very important for Proposals that were presented to the board of directors might not work in this scenario as there is a possibility that investors and stakeholders have limited knowledge in relation to business management and economics. Therefore benefits and possible negative impacts of the decision should be communicated to stakeholders in a simple manner (Andriof and Waddock, 2017). 

Important clients and customers- consent should also be taken from important clients and customers of the organization if such decisions might have a negative impact on the client. For example, taking business from an organization which is an indirect competition of organizations biggest client can create a conflict of interest. In such a scenario it is important to consider the existing client’s perspective.

Techniques and strategies to communicate effectively with diversified stakeholders

Following strategies should be used by a business manager for stakeholder management in case of diversified stakeholders- 

Inclusive process - First of all management of the company should ensure that the process of decision making is inclusive and perspective of different employees is taken while making the decisions. It is also important to take the perspective of employees from a different age, gender, organizational hierarchy position, income, culture, etc. This will help in getting perspective of a large group of people. This type of decision making will also have a positive impact on the actual business environment.

Clear and specific- Communication process that is used for communication with diversifying and stakeholders should be clear and to the point. In addition to that manager should ensure that message is received by a stakeholder in a similar manner as intended to be communicated (Butt, Naaranoja and Savolainen, 2016). The ambiguous message you will definitely dissatisfied stakeholders and it can have a negative impact on business management. In short communication with stakeholder should be done in such a manner that works best for a particular category of stakeholders. For example, representatives can be assigned for each category of stakeholder so that a representative can communicate with stakeholders in a more effective manner. 

Understand the core values and believes of stakeholder- Generally, decisions taken by managers are in the best interest of the organization and in accordance with core values and beliefs of the organization. It is important for the manager to consider core beliefs and values of external stakeholders which might be different from business organization. Manager of the company should never make presentations and judgments about the beliefs and values of diversified stakeholders.

Post-decision meeting- Maintaining an effective relationship with stakeholders is very essential for management. Stakeholder meeting should be conducted by managers after the implementation of a decision that is taken by them (Turkulainen, Aaltonen, and Lohikoski, 2015). This type of meeting will help managers to ensure stakeholders that feedback given by them were included in the decision-making process.

Recording all the meetings and communication- All the communication done between stakeholders and managers should be recorded for future reference. This will help in the assignment of accountability in case of any conflict between stakeholder and management (Andriof et.al, 2017). This documentation will also help future managers to understand basic policies and procedures for stakeholder communication.

Conclusion 

It can be concluded that the decision-making process of a business organization is very critical and management of the company should give special consideration to such a process. This report has identified different aspects that should be considered by managers and business organization during the decision-making process. This report has evaluated that there are various natural occurring sources that should be considered by managers during the decision making processes such as email, company documents, and general conversations. Different stakeholders that should be involved in the process of decision making are also considered in this report. Some suggestions are also made with respect to strategies and policies to be included in the decision making process and communication with stakeholders.