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Minimizing the Language Barrier When Communicating With Clients

Type of Assessment

This summative assessment will enable your Assessor to make a judgement of competency based on the submission of your completed assignments against the requirements of this unit of competency.

Assessor Instructions

The Assessment Benchmark developed for each unit of competency is the evidence criteria used to judge the quality of performance (i.e. the assessment decision-making rules). Assessors must use these benchmarks to make a judgement on whether competency has been achieved and to determine if the participant has performed to the standard expected to meet the unit requirement and learning outcomes. Competency results for each unit are recorded in the Record of Assessment Form.

Assessment of this program of study is based on competency-based principles.

S=   Satisfactory

NS =   Not Satisfactory

Students who fail to perform satisfactorily for the assessment in the prescribed date may be assessed as ‘not satisfactory’.  You are required to be assessed as ‘Satisfactory’ on completion of Assessments assigned by your assessor for this unit of competency.

Research Topic 1

Infection control and prevention

(You may choose a different topic, but your educator must agree with the topic you have chosen.)

Topic 1 – Background
Read before starting your assignment
You are a new enrolled nurse working in a clinic located in a remote area. The clinic building is an older structure and lacks the use of clinical and client information, such as posters. It has been identified that many of the staff are efficient in their roles but have some out-of-date ideas in their nursing practice. 
The clinic manager has asked you to research the most current information about a specific topic, such as:

Infection control


Plan the research activity
  1. In order to complete this assessment, you need to identify TWO (2) areas related to the topic, where research can help support and improve your own practice as an EN.                           
            E.g topic: Infection control and prevention (or as agreed with your educator)
  1. Identify the reason(s) for undertaking your research from the list below. 
    • You may select several reasons. 
    • Provide a brief rationale for each.                            

E.g reasons: Comparison / hypothesis testing / trend identification / own knowledge extension / strengthen quality of own practice.
  1. Write a clear statement highlighting your research question or hypothesis, e.g. “Is there a difference between hand washing protocols and actual practice”.
It may include:
  • Nursing interventions applicable to the topic
  • Client perceptions of the provision of this topic
  • Models of nursing care that utilise the topic
  • Political issues confronting nursing practice and health care provision in relation to the topic

An example of a question (the student can NOT use this example), would be: 
Does hand washing among healthcare workers reduce hospital acquired infections? 

An example of a hypothesis (the student can NOT use this example), would be:
Hospital acquired infections are more likely to be passed on by hand washing with water than when hands are washed with soap.
  1. Establish and define the general research objective.                                    

Tips: 
  • A research objective summarises what is to be achieved by the study. 
  • Ensure your objective is S.M.A.R.T and relevant, logical, feasible, observable and measurable. 
  • The objective should be clearly phrased – use verbs, e.g. to assess, to establish, to determine, to compare, etc. 
  1. Identify ONE (1) other discipline that could be connected to this research activity. 
  2. Briefly explain your choice of discipline.                                                      
  1. In order to gather information about the research topic, you will need to access credible sources of data and evidence.                                         
  2. List two (2) sources you intend to use for this assignment.
  3. Copy the link address of the source and paste it next to the source’s name – this will provide the proof to your assessor that you accessed it.

  • Source 1:

  • Source 2:

HINT: This is a good time to contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
 Gather information for your research
  1. Evaluate and select a maximum of two (2) methods of gathering information you think would be most appropriate to answer your research question. 
  2. Briefly explain why you have chosen a particular method over another, e.g. more time efficient.
                                                                                    
Tips: 
Methods of gathering include search engine using correct key words, literature reviews, systematic reviews, interviews, surveys, seminars, and surveys.
  1. You are now to gather information for your research topic using a systematic approach.

Stages for your information gathering activity
  1. Statement of objective – you should have already completed that step 
  2. Data collection, i.e. a literature search
  3. Data evaluation – critiquing articles to include or exclude them from the review. 
  4. Analysis – comparing, contrasting, challenging & reflecting
  5. Presentation of findings

At this stage, select four (4) sources
Please find the hierarchy of evidence, below:
  1. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis
  2. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs)
  3. Cohort studies
  4. Case-control studies
  5. Cross-sectional surveys
  6. Case reports
  1. Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. 
  2. Briefly explain why one (1) piece of your information is particularly relevant according to your objectives and your workplace requirements.                                                                         
  1. In order to facilitate your analysis, organise the information you have found. 

 Tips: 
  • You may summarise each source of information using key words.
  • You may choose to order your articles in chronological order if your focus is to show an evolution of practices.
  • You may order your articles following the rules of evidence, i.e. RCT > case report.
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Analyse the information
  1. Prioritise information based on the research objectives. 
  2. Using questions 9 and 10 to help you, select only TWO (2) articles that you will keep for the rest of this assignment. 
  1. Compare and contrast your two (2) sources of information. 
  2. Use the table provided in Appendix A. 
  3. You must complete all the sections. 
  4. Instructions in italics are to be removed.                                                    
  1. You have now thoroughly analysed the information available to you. Now draw conclusions based on your findings.                                                                            
  1. As your findings may be used to establish evidence-based practice, identify one (1) impact your conclusions may have, in terms of duty of care requirements.        
  2. E.g. in order to do no harm to the clients and prevent disease transmission, all nurses should wear gloves when touching the client.
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Use information in practice
  1. Assess one (1) way in which different aspects of information may be used in your workplace.                                                                                               
  1. Using and reflecting on what you have learnt from your research 
  2. Identify one area for change in your workplace or current practice.                                           
  1. Identify issues that require further research and evaluation.                       
  1. Using one piece of A4 paper or PowerPoint (1 slide) (portrait format), develop a poster or a flyer to address outcomes of research, i.e. select a method to disseminate your findings. 
  2. You will be required to scan it and upload it on Blackboard with this assignment. 
  3. Refer to your learning activities 11 and 12 for more ideas about how to do a poster or a flyer using PowerPoint.                                                           

   Tips: 
  • Consider your audience, the time and resources available.
  • It is recommended you adopt a flyer or poster style with a mix of text and pictures – do not put in too much information.  
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your actions verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.



Article 1 – Harvard style referencingArticle 2 -  Harvard style referencing
Currency E.g. 2015E.g. 2015
Study findingsE.g. soap is better than hand sanitiserE.g. soap is better than hand sanitiser
Strength of studyRules of evidence – see the pyramid of evidenceRules of evidence – see the pyramid of evidence
Relevance to objectivesIs this article answering the question precisely?Is this article answering the question precisely?
Reliability To which extent the study can yield the same result on repeated trials?To which extent the study can yield the same result on repeated trials?
Validity
Assess how sound the research is.
Internal validity: flaws with study
External validity: to which extent can you generalise the findings?
Assess how sound the research is.
Internal validity: flaws with study
External validity: to which extent can you generalise the findings?
BenefitsBenefits associated with informationBenefits associated with information
RisksRisks associated with informationRisks associated with information
Feasibility associated with informationHow easily would you be able to apply that information to your workplace?How easily would you be able to apply that information to your workplace?
Conclusions Briefly sum up your conclusions.

Appendix A – Comparing and contrasting information 


Research Topic 2

Minimising language barrier when communicating with clients

Topic 2 – Background
Read before starting your assignment
You are a new enrolled nurse working in a public hospital located in a big city. A large number of the hospital’s clients do not speak English fluently and some of your colleagues find it difficult to communicate with those clients.
In order to improve communication with non-English speakers, your nurse manager has asked you to research ways to minimise language barrier in the workplace and to inform your colleagues about your findings. 


Plan the research activity
  1. In order to complete this assessment, you need to identify TWO (2) areas related to the topic below where research can help support and improve your own practice as an EN.                                                                                
Topic: Minimising language barrier when communicating with clients
  1. Identify the reason(s) for undertaking your research from the list below. 
  2. You may select several reasons. 
  3. Provide a brief rationale for each.                            

E.g. reasons: Comparison / hypothesis testing / trend identification / own knowledge extension / strengthen quality of own practice.
  1. Write a clear statement highlighting your research question or hypothesis.

It may include:

  • Nursing interventions applicable to the topic
  • Client perceptions of the provision of this topic
  • Political issues confronting nursing practice and health care provision in relation to the topic

An example of a question (the student can NOT use this example), would be: 
Does a ward communication tool is time efficient to communicate with CALD people? 

An example of a hypothesis (the student can NOT use this example), would be:
CALD clients are less likely to complain about pain than English speaking clients.
  1. Establish and define the general research objective.                                
Tips: 
  • A research objective summarises what is to be achieved by the study. 
  • Ensure your objective is S.M.A.R.T and relevant, logical, feasible, observable and measurable. 
  • The objective should be clearly phrased – use verbs, e.g. to assess, to establish, to determine, to compare, etc. 
  1. Identify ONE (1) other discipline that could be connected to this research activity. 
  2. Briefly explain your choice of discipline.                                                      

  1. In order to gather information about the research topic, you will need to access credible sources of data and evidence.                                           
  2. List two (2) sources you may use for this assignment.
  3. Copy the link address of the source and paste it next to the source’s name – this will provide the proof to your assessor that you accessed it.

  • Source 1:

  • Source 2:

HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
 Gather information for your research
  1. Evaluate and select a maximum of two (2) methods of gathering information you think would be most appropriate to answer your research question. 
  2. Briefly explain why you have chosen a particular method over another, e.g. more time efficient.
Tips: 
Methods of gathering include search engine using correct key words, literature reviews, systematic reviews, interviews, surveys, seminars, and surveys.
  1. You are now to gather information for your research topic using a systematic approach.

Stages for your information gathering activity

  1. Statement of objective – you should have already completed that step 
  2. Data collection, i.e. a literature search
  3. Data evaluation – critiquing articles to include or exclude them from the review. You may use the appraisal tools developed by JBI to help you http://joannabriggs.org/research/critical-appraisal-tools.html
  4. Analysis – comparing, contrasting, challenging & reflecting
  5. Presentation of findings
At this stage, select four (4) sources
Please find below the hierarchy of evidence:
  1. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis
  2. Randomised controlled trials
  3. Cohort studies
  4. Case-control studies
  5. Cross-sectional surveys
  6. Case reports
  1. Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. 
  2. Briefly explain why one (1) of your information sources is particularly relevant according to objectives and your workplace requirements. 
  1. In order to facilitate your analysis, organise the information you have found. 

Tips: 
  • You may summarise each source of information using key words
  • You may choose to order your articles by chronological order if your focus is to show an evolution of practices
  • You may order your articles following the rules of evidence, i.e. RCT > case report
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Analyse the information
  1. Prioritise information based on the research objectives. 
  2. Using questions 9 and 10 to help you, select only TWO (2) articles that you will keep for the rest of this assignment. 
  1. Compare and contrast your two (2) sources of information. 
  2. Use the table provided in Appendix A. 
  3. You must complete all the sections. 
  4. Instructions in italics are to be removed.    
  1. You have now thoroughly analysed the information available to you. Now draw conclusions based on your findings.                                                                            
  1. As your findings may be used to establish evidence-based practice, identify one (1) impact your conclusions may have in terms of duty of care requirements.        

  • E.g. in order to do no harm to the clients and prevent disease transmission, all nurses should wear gloves when touching the client.
Contact your educator and discuss your research topic and verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.
Use information in practice
  1. Assess one (1) way in which different aspects of information may be used in your workplace.                                                                                               
  1. Using and reflecting on what you have learnt from your research, identify one area for change in your workplace or current practice.                                             
  1. Identify issues that require further research and evaluation.                       
  1. Using one piece of A4 paper or PowerPoint (1 slide) (portrait format), develop a poster or a flyer to address outcomes of research, i.e. select a method to disseminate your findings.
  2. You will be required to scan it and upload it on Blackboard with this assignment. 
  3. Refer to your learning activities 11 and 12 for more ideas about how to do a poster or a flyer using PowerPoint.                                                                                                                      

 Tips: 
  • Consider your audience, the time and resources available.
  • It is recommended you adopt a flyer or poster style with a mix of text and pictures – do not put too much information. 
HINT: Contact your educator and discuss your actions to verbally gain confirmation that you and your partner are still on track.


Answer

MINIMISING THE LANGUAGE BARRIER WHEN COMMUNICATING WITH CLIENTS


Introduction 

In order to provide individualised care for patients, it is important to effectively understand the issues encountered by patients. In this context, it is important to ensure significant level of communication, which poses to be a difficulty in case the patient is a non-English speaker. Hence, in the present research paperthe two areas that have been considered include minimisation of language barrier and provide assistance in improving communication skill with patients. It is highly essential to overcome this problem in order to provide effective individualised care. The present study will diagnose ways for improving the communication with clients of non-English speakers. In order to conduct the research, a proper investigation on associates of hospital is necessary. 

Rationale 

Communication possess to be a critical aspect for providing effective nursing care since it is the major way of acquiring understanding regarding the requirements of the patients. Moreover, in order to relieve them from their ailments, it is important to convey the importance of the provided treatments and the other necessary requirements to ensure treatment success. Therefore, it is essentially important that focus is rendered on reducing language barriers within communication and thereby improve the quality of services being provided. Hence, the reasons for the selection of the topic included improving the quality of nursing practice and enhancing the knowledge regarding the potential communication barriers that tend to be associated while communicating with non-English speakers. 

Research Question 

  • Can a proper communication tool be helpful for minimising the barrier of language occurred between nurses and the clients?  

Research Objective 

To find out the proper communication tool for decreasing the language barriers 

S- Specific Communication tools have the potential of providing the required assistance in facilitating communication between nurses and non-English speaking patients. 
M- Measurable The level of ease achieved in communicating with non-English speaking individuals can be considered to be a measurable criterion.
A- Attainable Maintenance of weekly report regarding the performance level of the communication tool can aid in judging the effectiveness of the tool in reducing communication barrier. 
R- Relevance Non-English speakers need significant level of assistance in conveying their opinion along with understanding
T-  Timeframe4-6 months


Interlinking with another discipline 

The research is conducted to make sure that there is a free language barrier environment within the hospital. The present study can be effectively interlinked with communication psychology. The communication tool can be helpful to find out ways that can be helped for minimising the language problem faced by nurses and emergency physicians while handling any Non-English speaking patients. In ability to convey information tend to create negative psychological impact. Hence, the context of communication psychology can be benefited from the present research study. Moreover, there are types of language barriers and thus the proper use of a communication tool is highly beneficial. The proper selection of communication tool can be helpful for building a strong relationship between clients and nurses. Nurses will be helped by the communication tools for performing their daily jobs.

Listing of Sources 

Two listing sources are as follows: 

Data collection method 

In order to get the result, there is a requirement of highlighting the appropriate method which can be helpful to find out the relevance for proper analysis. Hence, for the collection of data, there is the use of literature review. The literature review is selected because it is highly helpful to showcase the importance of the previous research regarding the language barriers occurred in a hospital. Apart from the literature review, the selection of a systematic approach is done because it helps to collect the data which are relevant to the research questions. 

Systematic Approach

Statement of Objective 

The objective of the study is to identify and analyse the communication tool which can be helpful for minimising the language barriers. 

Data Collection 

According to Hsieh (2015), the facility of using professional interpreters in healthcare settings is an underutilised aspect. The perception regarding the benefits of having professional interpreters present in the premises still remains unclear. On the other hand, the opinions of Zamanzadeh et al. (2014) reflect that nurse patient communication tend to be influence by a multitude of factors and hence require attention in order to facilitate communication. In the view of Fatahi et al. (2015), incomplete information in radiology request form poses to be significant issue in communication between radiologist and clinicians. It has the potential to increase costs associated workflow. According to Lum et al. (2015), proficiency of English language is a critical aspect and has presented the challenges that are encountered in relation to oral communication using English language. 

Data Evaluation 

The opinions of Hsieh (2015) are presented in relation to the use of professional interpreters in healthcare settings and the factors that influence the process of choice. It has significance in being utilised as a communication tools for reduction of language barrier. Hence, it has close relevance to the present research topic and this therefore included in the present study. On the other hand, the view of Zamanzadeh et al. (2014) demonstrates the factors that can help for influencing communication between clients and nurses and hence can be considered for inclusion. It is due to the fact that in order to mitigate language barriers it is important to have knowledge regarding factors that impact the communication process. The findings of Fatahi et al. (2015) does not hold any relevance to the present study since the context of communication is between radiologists and clinicians in written format and is therefore subjected to exclusion. The views of Lum et al. (2015) highlights the importance of English proficiency for nurses which is not the issue identified in the present research context and hence is excluded. 

Data Analysis 

The findings of Hsieh (2015) reflect that selection of interpreters is significantly dependent on alliances of care along with the objectives related to therapeutic context. Moreover, functional complexity and impact on time are also considered vital. On the other, the views of Zamanzadeh et al. (2014) reflect that there are potentially three factors that tend to impact communication between nurses and patients. It includes culture that prevails within the care environment and patient-centred approach. These factors can also be deemed to be significant in the context of current study. 

Findings

Based on the analysis that has been undertaken, it can be stated that the studies conducted by Hsieh (2015) and Zamanzadeh et al. (2014) has demonstrated significant relevance to the current study and hence have been subjected to inclusion. On the contrary, the study of Fatahi et al. (2015) and Lum et al. (2015) have been excluded since relevance to the present research study cannot be established. 

Discussion regarding Relevance

The work of Hsieh (2015) has rendered focus on the utilisation of professional interpreter in the care environment and the various factors that tend to influence the choice of interpreter. The present research study focuses on identifying a communication tool that is capable of reducing language barriers while nurses communicate with non-English patients. Hence, role of professional interpreter holds significance and knowledge regarding influential factors are also important. 

Summary

AuthorYearTopicFindings
Hsieh, E., (2015)Not just “getting by”: factors influencing providers’ choice of interpreters. Selection of interpreters tends to dependent on alliances of care in association with the therapeutic objectives.
Zamanzadeh, V., Rassouli, M., Abbaszadeh, A., Nikanfar, A., Alavi-Majd, H. and Ghahramanian, A., (2014)Factors influencing communication between the patients with cancer and their nurses in oncology wards. Culture that prevails within the care environment along with patient-centred approach tends to be a vital factor in influencing communication between nurses and patients. 


Prioritisation of Information

The above presented summary, it can be stated that the articles by Hsieh (2015) and Zamanzadeh et al. (2014) have demonstrated relevance and hence is being considered for completing the remaining of the article. 

Comparison of two articles


 
Article 1 
Hsieh, E., (2015). Not just “getting by”: factors influencing providers’ choice of interpreters. Journal of general internal medicine30(1), pp.75-82. 
Article 2 
Zamanzadeh, V., Rassouli, M., Abbaszadeh, A., Nikanfar, A., Alavi-Majd, H. and Ghahramanian, A., (2014). Factors influencing communication between the patients with cancer and their nurses in oncology wards. Indian journal of palliative care20(1), pp.12-20.
Currency20152014
Study findingsFactors such as alliances of care as well as the therapeutic objectives tend to be the factors taken into consideration while selecting professional interpreters.Nurses should provide a proper training regarding communicating with the patients. 
Strength of studyAudio recorded interviewThe study minimises the barrier of communication in the aspect of cancer patients only. 
Relevance to objectivesProvides precise answer to the research topicThe study is less relevant to the objectives of the topic of the essay.
ReliabilityDiversity in sample size ensure comprehensive acquisition of dataThe study is less reliable.
ValidityComparative analysis using three coding phasesThe study is only valid regarding the cancer patient. 
BenefitsHighlights the importance of professional interpreter in care environment and factors that impact the choice of interpreter. Findings of the study will benefit cancer patient to communicate with their attendant nurse.  
RisksInterpreter availability has not been consideredThere is no risk regarding the information of the study
Feasibility associated with informationSpecificity regarding interpreter characteristics aid in determining effective of communication tool. Based on the findings of this study, nurses can be provided with proper training to properly and carefully communicate with the patients.
ConclusionsIt can be concluded that interpreter can pose to be a significant communication facilitator tool for reduction of communication barrier. In addition the knowledge regarding potential communication barrier can also be a significant support. 


Conclusion 

The research is based on the service of the patient's who are basically belonging to a non English background. An effective way regarding communication between nurses and patients should be established as misunderstanding can happen due to lack of seriousness among the parties. Hence, it can be concluded interpreter can be deem to be a significant option while considering the context of utilising a communication in order to reduce language barrier for facilitation of communication. Moreover, knowledge regarding the factors that needs to be considered while making the choice is also crucial along with information regarding communication barriers. 

Impact of Conclusion

During communication with patients nurses should be attentive. The lack of communication increase risk of committing error regarding the medication and it leads to a complications. The prescriptions are also written in English; hence it is difficult to understand for those who do not know English. However, a proper training to nurses regarding communication can decrease the risk of committing error by patients. Language barrier is affecting negatively almost every health care system. Moreover a primary care unit of bilingual staff along with professional interpreters will decrease the error in medicating and treatment of patients. Professional interpreter is capable of conveying the exact information without the meaning lost in translation. Hence, it can result in providing improved level of service by the nurses. Therefore, these factors will affect patient's satisfaction as well as the safety of the patient. It will improve communication skill between patients and physicians. However, only the language barriers do not always affecting the medical error, though they can be account for more cautious treatment as well. 

Utilization of information at workplace

The knowledge of communication barrier aids in minimising the issue by hiring bilingual staffs, and it improvement of service can be ensured in terms of saving the time, minimizing error in communication, this is the proper way to diagnosis. The strategy is to have a professional interpreter in the hospital during the communication, there can be a universal language codes which is known to both the parties. The hospital should have taken care of the thing that the written language which is provided by the doctors is understandable to the patients. Above all, the nurses should be more patient and concern with the clients. They should also try to carefully understand the issues and problems faced by the patients.

Reflection 

Being a nurse it is very difficult to face this kind of challenges while communicating with a non English patient. By handling this kind of patients I have learnt how to make them understand the treatment details. Regarding the medicine and test they cannot understand the language most of the time. That is why it affects our hospital’s reputation. Till now no mortality record has been recorded in this hospital for the communication gap. I tried my best to communicate with patients in their comfortable language but it is not possible all the time to communicate in regional languages. It is due to the fact that support of professional interpreter can provide me the necessary support in developing individualised care for the patient along with ensuring patient satisfaction. 

Scope of further research 

There have been a number of scopes for the further research in this area. 

  1. To investigate the mortality recorded in a hospital due to the communication gap.
  2. To investigate whether the written prescription are understand by the patient's.  
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