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MKT01906 Annotated Bibliography Related to Tourism Impacts Assessment 2 Answer

MKT01906 International Tourism Systems

Assessment 2: Annotated bibliography


Complete an annotated bibliography of literature related to tourism impacts and your MKT01906 destination.


1. Locate, summarise and evaluate six (6) articles (three (3) academic journal articles published between 2005 and 2019, and three (3) non-academic ones) relating to tourism at your MKT01906 destination (see Question 5 instructions for Assessment 3). 

2. Use the Academic Skills Quick Guide 'Writing an Annotated Bibliography' on MySCU site produced by SCU Centre for Teaching and Learning.

• Provide a heading for each article with full bibliographic details arranged in alphabetical order, following the Harvard format. • Describe the contents of each article and analyse each in relation to Questions 4 (destination development), 5 (tourism impacts) or 6 (policy implications). (see Assessment 3). What is the article about? What are key ideas in the article? • Provide a statement on the relevance of each article to the MKT01906 destination. Do key ideas relate to study destination? How?


SL no.Article nameBibliographyContentsStatement of relevance
1Impacts of Tourism Activities on Environment and Sustainability of Pattaya Beach in Thailand. Khan, H.R., 2017. Impacts of Tourism Activities on Environment and Sustainability of Pattaya Beach in Thailand. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism (JEMT), 8(8 (24)), pp.1469-1473.

Tourism is the most diversified and substantial industry. It has a huge impact on the environment as well.
The paper states that global tourism is one of the most growing sectors and is considered to be a sustainable sector. Tourism helps to achieve sustainable development by playing a major role in the development of socio-economic and cultural development. Tourism is contributing heavily to the economy of Thailand.

Development of tourism sector depends upon the natural resource of the country as well as the cultural and social environment. Tourism thrives in a sustainable environment. Tourism, in turn, supports economic uplift, but tourism is also affecting the environmental sustainability of Bangkok and Thailand. To develop and implement a tourism project, various activities are needed to be initiated like building hotels to provide accommodation to the tourists, developing high-end infrastructures. Each of these activities has many consequences like soil erosion, the decline in the fertility of the soil, reduction in water storing property of the soil, change in architecture and a mass weight of the soil and increased density. The conceptual model includes three main components of development. They are the economy (prosperous society), ecology (environment) and society (happy society). The development of eco-friendly tourism will have a very positive effect on economics as well as the tourism sector of the country.
People must be made aware of the consequences of tourism activities. People must be taught the need to cooperate to conserve and protect. Some scientific strategic plan should be implemented such that tourism and sustainability go hand in hand. Stakeholders must carry out some major research on tourism activities and should correlate research finding on cultural, socio-economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Thailand. 

2Addressing the benefits and consequences of Tourism in ThailandKomen, N., 2019. Addressing the benefits and consequences of Tourism in Thailand. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28th Apr 2019]

The article has provided an estimate that nearly 32 million tourist visit Thailand every year and tourism sector makes 20% of the GDP of Thailand. The tourism sector is also offering 6.1 per cent of the total jobs available in the country. Therefore, it can be seen that the Tourism sector is contributing heavily to improve the economy of Thailand.

The article has provided the impact of tourism on Thailand with a different perspective. Thailand faced the wrath of the 2004 Tsunami. Tourism helped the nation to recover from the post-tsunami effect and since there was a high need for funds and jobs and thus luxury hotels were up and running very soon. Thailand also has seen a boom in medical tourism. It is owing to the fact that Thailand has a very low cost of medical treatment. Thailand was ranked third in the list of destination for medical tourism in 2016. But Bangkok is also seeing an upsurge in Sex tourism. Prostitution is outlawed in Thailand from long back, but still, it is estimated that nearly 70% of male tourist visit the country for sex tourism.
Unfortunately, the tourism industry also has affected the environment. It is estimated that full moon beach parties at Ko Phagan itself generate nearly 12 tons of waste daily. These waste are dumped into the ocean or landfills. Thailand infrastructure is not able to support the high influx of tourism. 
The planning, however, is going on to address the issue. There are many groups who are working to highlight the issues which will help to create a suitable process to deal with environmental impact and tourism. US Environmental Protection Agency is also working with other organisations in Bangkok and Thailand to address the waste issues and environmental issues and is also working to safeguard the environmental laws.

3Best Things to do in Koh Samui, Where to Stay and Places Visit

Loveandroad, 2019. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28th Apr 2019]
Tourism is one of the most valuable and fastest growing industry. It has been contributing effectively towards the Thai economy. It also affects the economy of the communities. It also has fulfilled the role of life save for many communities.

The tourism sector has helped to earn an income which is not possible what rural people have managed to do so all these times. This has resulted in a decline in agricultural practices and traditions. Rural homes have been replaced by modern day buildings. This can be proved by the fact that Coconut cultivation in a popular tourist destination Koh Samui village and traditional farming practices in Ayuttha village which has beautiful backwater scenes have declined drastically. There is even concern that developing a place as the tourism destination will result in losing the cultural identity of that place. These negative effects of tourism should be controlled, and it should be measured against the benefits that tourism brings.
Planning and implementing tourism policy has a more positive attitude and if a community is involved, it will be better. This community has a more positive attitude. Sustainable tourist development means the development of the community.

4A comparative analysis of Thailand residents' perception of tourism's impacts. McDowall, S. and Choi, Y., 2010. A comparative analysis of Thailand residents' perception of tourism's impacts. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 11(1), pp.36-55.

Tourism generates tax revenue, employment and creates economic diversity. This article analyses the impact of tourism from the perspective of the residents. 
This paper aimed to be the voice of the local Thai people. This paper also asserted that resident’s perception of economic, environmental and cultural impacts of tourism needs to be included in the tourism policy. It also suggested arresting cultural and environmental degradation.

The attractiveness of a tourist destination also depends upon the attitude of the residents towards the tourists. While tourism gets affected by how well the tourists are received by local people but tourism helps to develop the status of the residents. It helps to improve the quality of life of the residents. Thailand is famous for its hospitality. Tourism has helped residents by providing employment and increased income. Thus, tourism has contributed a lot towards economic and social development in Thailand.
Tourism has both negative and positive impact on Thailand. On the one hand, it improved the economy of the local. But local residents feel that it had a negative impact too. Because of tourism, there was a significant surge in drugs, prostitution, alcoholism etc. Tourism also has resulted in chaos, traffic jams, poor quality of life. It also has resulted in the degradation of culture as well as the environment.
Residents feel that the tourism policy should be formulated and implemented while keeping in mind the concerns of the locals and with their consultation. Previous research also has revealed that when there is a conflict between the local value and concerns with the tourism policy then it hardly succeeds. Thus in order to create an effective tourism policy government must include the local residents as well as business owners in the policy planning, creation and implementation.

5Better air quality brings Bangkokians out in force to celebrate Chinese New Year.The Nation, 2019. Better air quality brings Bangkokians out in force to celebrate Chinese New Year[online] Available at: [Accessed 28th Apr 2019]

This article aims to observe the impact of the development of tourism in Bangkok and to evaluate the social impact of tourism development in Bangkok. The planning, however, is going on to address the issue. There are many groups who are working to highlight the issues which will help to create a suitable process to deal with environmental impact and tourism.

Thailand is a very beautiful country and attracts a large no of visitors every year because of its beautiful beaches, historical sites, diversity and rich culture. But the tourism sector is often criticised because authorities have been working on expanding it by the quantity and not by quality in order to generate huge revenues which have resulted in serious repercussions.
Thailand attracts one of the highest numbers of tourists in South East Asian countries. However, Thailand took a hit as it is also considered as the second most unsanitary and polluted nation after India. Uncontrolled planning and tourism have also taken a toll upon the environment. Dumping the waste into the ocean and river have degraded the area, beauty of the beaches and have endangered the marine life too. Pollution in Thailand has also affected the tourism sector to some extent. Recently there was some doubt over the celebration of Chinese New Year in Bangkok as Bangkok was covered in smog at the moment.
People of Thailand also perceive that tourism is responsible for culture decline. They feel that some ceremonies, rituals and customs have been commercialised and have been turned into a kind of show business. Many perceive that this is directly or indirectly link to tourism.
Bangkok has carried few initiatives to develop a constructive relationship with the tourists like promoting cultural tourism and welcoming ASEAN in 2015. TAT is also directed to look for an operational criterion targeted on quality.

6Government regulation of urban tourism system: Problems and limitations of efficiency (Case of Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand).Ushakov, D., 2014. Government regulation of urban tourism system: Problems and limitations of efficiency (Case of Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand). Актуальні проблеми економіки, (6), pp.301-310.

It’s a case study of Bangkok Metropolitan city. The articles analyse the path taken by municipal and states corporation to regulate the tourism industry. The article discusses the hurdle faced by Bangkok tourism and why the income from tourism is not near to the world average. This article briefly covers the impact of tourism on Bangkok, how Bangkok is evolving to attract the tourists and what it lacks and needs to improve and what policy it needs to implement.

Currently, the profitability of the tourism sector is growing. It is because of growth in footfalls of tourist and improvement in infrastructure. Tourism sector and in particular International tourism helps to stimulate the various economic sector, improves the capacity of the local market, and attracts manufacturers, investors and sellers. But it also affects some sectors adversely like increase in the price of residential and commercial properties, goods and services. It creates chaotic traffic problem and sometimes even growth in the crime rate. City authorities are responsible to create sustainable tourism development program.
The city can be readied to compete globally. It can be achieved by improving the urban environment attractiveness and productivity for both the public as well as businesses. Also, the availability of location-specific factors helps to cast a positive economic effect for the city. City marketing can be used to efficiently promote the city and to attract potential tourists and business residents.
To improve the mobility, accessibility as well as, a livelihood for the Bangkok Metropolitan area Intermodal service integration can be implemented. It will help to improve and develop the urban tourism industry and will help to increase the footfalls of the tourists in the city, it will help to enhance the image of the city and will promote it. It will also help to improve the diversification of urban tourism product foreign demand.
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