MN621 Local Area Network Design and Setup Assessment Answer
- Project scope: -
The possibility and leeway of this project are to comprehend the needs of the network for the e-commerce used organisations. The essential of the network for any organisation can be considerate by congregation necessities and analysing the collected needs. After analysing the need of organisation need to make Network diagram on-base of it. The proposal of the network diagram is also we need to understand current requirements as well as also care about future scalability. This organisation network design also created on the base of many perimeters in which Security, scalability, easy understand, easy changes Etc.
- Project Hardware requirements:-
Implementation of any network we require some network devices and without it cannot possible. There are many networking devices for different features in which we can include router, firewall, switch, bridge, hub, access points server Etc. this all devices are used for a different purpose. This all devices categorised into 3 part 1. Network devices 2. Passive components 3. End devices.
- Network Devices: -
The router is working on a layer 3 device. it also works for traffic filtering and much more. There are many types of router are available in the market but the Cisco router is more easy to use and it has many high features compare to other vendors.
Name of manufacturer: Cisco
Series: Cisco ISR
Model No. : Cisco ISR 4331 
Ports: 2 x 1 Gigabit Ethernet (GE)
The switch is working on layer 3 as well as layer 2. Now days switch are have features same link router so the switch also performs as a router. There is some limitation in switch for the router feature. The switch is a more important device in networking for traffic forwarding.
Name of manufacturer: Cisco 
Series: Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series Switches
Model No. : 3850-24XU
Ports: 24 10/100/1000 ports with support of 8 X 10G SFP+uplink and 2 X 40G
Name of manufacturer: Cisco
Series: Cisco Catalyst 2960-X 
Model No. : 2960X-48TS-L
Ports: 48 multigigabit ports with support of 4 X 1G uplink
3. End Devices:-
The end device is the most important part of network devices in which at last network can be tested by these devices. This devices also use for client to workout. Without this device, the network cannot run.
|PC/Laptop ||Server |
Name of Manufacturer: Lenovo Specification: Operating System- Windows 10 Pro
Processor - 2.00GHz Intel Core i3- 6006U 6th Gen processor
RAM - 4 DDR4
Hard disk - 1000GB
Name of Manufacturer: Cisco
Specification: Operating System -
Any ( Linux / Windows)
Processor – Intel Xeon
RAM – 24 DDR4 DIMM
Hard disk – 3TB
- Network Diagram
- Network Design
As per the requirement details of e-commerce business organisation associated with network topology, the organisation is running with the long-standing network. This long-standing network is running smoothly there is no issue from the client to the network. As grow of the organisation they are integration two another office into a new building. The client will be enlarged after syndicate those two new offices so, the organisation must change their infrastructure and on the base of it should need to change network diagram with respect to users.
e-commerce business organisation wants to move in the new building which has more capacity and larger workspace area so that the client can easily work. The organisation makes new infrastructure design on the base of requirement in which they resolve to shift in a new building. The new structure consists of 3 Floors, in which ground floor, first floor and second floor correspondingly. In new building approximately having about 100 employees. In which ground floor have reception, foyer and warehouse sections in this all section organisation having different clients. Same as in 1st-floor organisation involves five offices and forty open plan office cubicles sections. And last 2nd floor involves three separate rooms and each room has four office cubicles in addition to two offices and thirty open-plan cubicles. In the other hand, the 2nd floor also allocates for the meeting room. So, this organisation structure appearance is strong.
As per new building construction organisation also allocate some basic arrangement on the base of future challenges. So, they design all floor with different section and also assign ports on the base of a user in segments. As per assignment details on the ground floor, they allocate reception, foyer and warehouse section, in this all section they need different data points in which Five data points in reception, two data points in the foyer and four data points in warehouse section. In conclusion of data points in all section, the organisation requirement two data points each and every client desk whether it’s an office, room cubicle or open plan cubicle. As per the calculation of data points on the ground floor, they need total 11, same as in the 2nd floor they need approximately 90 to 100 and last 2nd-floor organisation need around 88 to 95 in all floor sections.
Above all minutiae are necessities of the organisation in a new upcoming building in which they will combine new two branches with more user. This structure is also flexible and scalable for future orientation users.
Agenda and Ethics for intentional Network:
When going for buildup any network infrastructure that time organisation need to attentive of current issues and enterprise etc. so that can imaginable on the base of comparison of the current network and new upcoming network. The Internet can split into two portions in which the internet and intranet. Internet means any device can use everything and they can also reach everyplace by way of they want. In short the internet, there is no restriction on communication so traffic moves easily any fats. But when talking about intranet there is totally different from the internet in which clients can only communicate in our internal network. In an intranet, there are numerous restrictions on the base of organisation configuration. Users are not communicated with each other if they are in a different network and also they can not able to access exterior network or servers. Internet is fast In a comparison of internet and intranet because the traffic will flow only in the internal network it will not go outside of the organisation.
As per the requirements of the organisation, they don’t want only intranet design, they also essential to use outside servers and outside communication from intranet to the internet so, that in the network design startup ISP link is required. ISP means (internet service provider) they intelligent to reach any place any server. in short, the group of the intranet which connected to each other is known as Intranet. After getting WAN connection from ISP we persevered it into our internal router of organisation.
The router is a layer 3 device with additional intelligence, the router is used for diverse functions. In organisation network design router is also one of the filtering devices for intranet, because they not using any firewall for filtering persistence. The router we configured with different allow and deny traffic so, users cannot reach the restricted site in which we also can assign filtering on the base of protocols. So the router is sufficient device for manage intranet as well as internet traffic. For this organisation have more users and we can not give all users static IP because it will very time-consuming process and also we need to go each and every devices. There is DHCP (Dynamic host control protocol) which can able to handle all devices IP address and it gives as dynamically. Whenever a device is connected to an intranet IP address will automatically get because of DHCP. So this DHCP also configured in the router. DHCP provides an automated way to distribute and update IP addresses and configuration information on a network. A DHCP server provides this information to a DHCP client through the exchange of a series of messages, known as the DHCP conversation or the DHCP transaction.
Above process, ladders are showing the DHCP packets between the clients and DHCP servers. Achievement of this process end clients will get the IP address in automatic mode. This complete configuration is configured in the router.
Below is the IP poll, which is configured in the router for dynamically (DHCP) IP address.
IP address pool for Ground floor
|Usable host IP rang||172.31.168.1– 172.31.168.254|
|Network Address ||172.31.168.1|
IP address pool for the first floor
|Usable host IP rang||172.31.169.1– 172.31.169.254|
|Network Address ||172.31.169.1|
IP address pool for the second floor
|Usable host IP rang||172.31.170.1– 172.31.170.254|
|Network Address ||172.31.170.1|
Organisation core users now get an IP address and also they are also able to interconnect with each other but they can not connect outside of an organisation network. For the reason that the organisation entire network are using private IP address and the outside network is using the public IP address. The IP address has two categories 1st public IP address and 2nd is a private IP address. A public IP address is always used on the internet so whenever internet traffic needs to go outside at that time IP address should not be in private rang. And private IP address is only used in internal communication and only for intranet. Here, all users are using the private IP address for internal communication but for outgoing traffic need to convert this private IP address to pun=blic IP address. NAT (network address translator) is a feature in we can convert our private IP address into a public IP address. NAT is also configured in the router so whenever internal traffic will go outside at the time it will change IP from private to public.
As per Organisation network diagram after the router, we assign Core switch in primary ode and secondary mode. It means there are two switches in the core part and this is managing entire below all switch. Core switch in which we configured with VLAN. VLAN (Virtual local area network) is a switch feature in which only one switch can devise into multiple sections. For example, we have multiple sections in one office and organisation want to separate those all in to different as virtual so that can possible in only using VLAN feature. In this core switch also configured EtherChannel for link redundancy. EtherChannel is using for link redundancy if the primary link goes down the second link will come up and the user will not affect any connectivity issues. So EtherChannel is also vital for a secure and safe network. If the primary core switch will go down within a second secondary core switch will come up and it will transfer all traffic.
Core switch is redundantly connected with all floor access switch, access switch is connected with the end device where users will get connectivity. Access switch is also redundant with core, whenever any link will fail in core access switch will change its path and it will work in new came up core switch. Access switch in not require more configuration because its mostly work on layer 2. This organisation clients are mostly wired.
- Network Device Configuration commands
1. Internet router
Internet router belongs to the ISP side. In which ISP is already configured some basic rules inside this outer so 1st of all we change the hostname of the router. The organisation is using Cisco router so the command for changing the hostname is Router(config)#hostname SERVICE-PROVIDER after changing this hostname we need to assign an IP address to the router interface so for that, we need to go at particular router interface by giving command Internet(config)#interface ethernet 0/0 in this interface we assign IP address of our internet connectivity.
2. Edge router
In this router, we also define some configuration on the base of organisation requirements. In the edge router, we can assign IP address for internet connectivity with a public IP address and in intranet interface, we can assign out the internal private IP address. This below is a command for configuring NAT in the router for changing private IP into public IP. In this router, we also configured DHCP pool for dynamic IP address. So 1st of all we need to create a pool in the router. Ip DHCP Pool and the creating pool need to define default router IP address in which we can assign intranet interface IP address and then network IP address with the subnet mask.
internet (config-if)#ip nat inside
internet (config-if)#interface interface-id
internet (config-if)#ip nat outside
internet(config)#ip dhcp Pool e-commerce
internet (config-if)# network 172.31.168.0 255.255.255.0
internet (config-if)# default-router 172.31.168.1
3. Core Switch:-
Core switch is more vital for the configuration of the internal network. In the core, we need to configure many different things. In core switch also need to assign Hostname of the switch and that is the same command what we did in the router. In this organisation, we need to configure VLAN for different departments. For VLAN creation go to config mode of the switch and then type you VLAN ID for EX. VLAN 10. After adding VLAN, give name all VLAN on the same mode just give NAME command for assigning VLAN name. then we need to exit from this plan and we now going to assign an IP address to created VLAN. So, go to interface VLAN (VLAN ID) give your VLAN id and then hit enter after CLI will ask IP address for this VLAN assign IP in continuous command. By default, all interfaces are in shutdown mode so we need to go in that particular interface and give no shutdown command to enable it.
CORE-SWITCH(config)#int vlan 1
CORE-SWITCH(config-if)#ip add 172.31.168.1 255.255.255.0
In core switch, we also configure EtherChannel, EtherChannel is a port link aggregation port-channel construction used mostly on Cisco switches. It permits the traffic with one logical link where in reality there are two links but it will use as an only one link and it will balance traffic on all the link.
4. Access Switch
Access switch is always directly connected with End devices and this switch is mostly used for traffic passing, in this organisation we configure only Access and trunk in this switch.
Access port in which we can you that access vain id address from that particular port and trunk means we can pass the traffic from one port to another port. For configuration of an access port in which we give command on particular interface Switchport mode access and then we can assign VLAN Switchport access VLAN 1. So this two main configuration we can make on access layer switch for only End users. On base of Access and Teunk traffic will pass on next device or End devices.