Due Date: 27th August 2018 9:00 AM
Length: 2,500 words +/- 10%
Format: Literature review
Weighting: 30% of total unit marks
Submission: Through Turn-it-In on the Black Board site.
Format: Word document only
Assessment number two (2) requires you to conduct an in-depth literature review of stakeholder engagement within the engineering and asset management sector as well as the literature pertaining to the actual parallel runway which was constructed in the late 1980s early 1990s, and other runway construction projects elsewhere in the world (eg: Brisbane’s current parallel runway project). This literature on actual runway projects will inform you of the expected reactions to the Sydney project if it was being proposed today. In other words, what have we learned as a result of the actual runway’s construction, and 25 years of operation that we would apply to a Stakeholder Engagement Plan for the project as if it was being proposed TODAY.
We expect that you will report on, and critically discuss the seminal works, the current academic research, case studies, as well as report on the important industry research that has been undertaken in these topic areas. You will need to identify the main issues that research and industry bodies have highlighted and identify where there are gaps in the literature. Some of the areas where gaps exist have been discussed in the lecture and tutorials.
Hint: In industry as well as academia, Masters Graduates are expected to be able to make evidence-based judgement and recommendations therefore, you will need to make clear statements of what has already been learned. This will lead you to make evidenced based judgements for your final assignment - the Stakeholder Engagement Plan for a parallel runway project at Sydney Airport as if it was being proposed TODAY.
The entire study is based on the needs and the impact of the stakeholders in the project development and in this regard, the study focuses on the New Parallel Runway project of Brisbane. For this purpose, the study pays attention on the introduction of the problem associated with the project development regarding the stakeholder engagement and empowering. Thereby, the main purpose of the study is to state the importance of the stakeholder engagement and different processes through which it can be possible to convince stakeholders such as regional and local government, community members, employees and others. Further, the study deals with the different strategies for overcoming the problems associated with the stakeholder engagement.
The research is undertaken to explain the construction of the runway project in terms of the stakeholders management plan. Stakeholders are very crucial for any company to manage the overall operational integration of the company. Stakeholders of an organisation help to influence the internal functions to boost up the productivity of the company. Every project has its own complexity and infrastructural environment in terms of development. In accordance to this context the New Parallel Runway (NPR) Project of Brisbane's will illustrated the problems regarding to the stakeholders in order to connect them and make them understand to come up with a mutual decision to construction the runway. The proper requirement of the problems and the total impact of the research according to mitigate the main issues of the stakeholders. The key factors of the development structure and design of the NPR project will engage the multiple stakeholders to enhance the progress of the projects. In order to analysis the project the company is required to understand the need of the stakeholders of the company and also stated their influence to design the financial infrastructure to start up the project in the initial stage. The research documents are required to describe the fundamental opportunities of the stakeholders to build up the issues and find the different way outs with the help of various tools of convincing. The engagement of the stakeholders is required to capture the collective data and respond according to the problems concern.
Identification of stakeholders: The proper engagement of the stakeholders can make the progress of the NRP project more effective and useful. Identification of the stakeholders are very crucial for an organisation. It helps to regulate the project in a periodic manner. The stakeholders of the NRP project including the Government and regulatory body of Brisbane, the construction team of the project, the investors of the project, the non- government organisations, the local community members of Brisbane and many more. The NPR project is required to go through from different phases of functions (Brisbane Airport, 2018). Those functions have generated in the initial stage of strategy making process. Moreover to formulate the content of the functions, some general topics have chosen to construct the departmental areas of the stakeholder’s i.e, research assessment of the project, engagement criteria, decision making process and planning the structure of the project. Since the project of the NPR construction is huge, hence the construction of the runway needs a multiple number of stakeholders. Furthermore it is very important to conduct several meetings to illustrate the vision of the company. It helps the stakeholders a clear view regarding management strategies and also helps to mitigate the miscommunication problem of them. The companies authorisation body is required to cut the different decisions of stakeholders and increase their mutual understanding of decision making process (Mok et al. 2015).
|Stakeholders||Stake in the project||Needs from the stakeholders|
|Government of Brisbane||Interest in all the issues regarding legal concern.||Government body of a country is important to set the rules and emphasize the function through legitimate the regulations to maintain the administrative infrastructure well organised.|
|Shareholders||Interest in the market shares of the company through which the capitalization of the overall project values are identified.||Shareholders are the owner of the company. As they play a crucial role for financing the project, control the function, operating the governing body of the company to create the impact of the profitability of the organisation’s project (Raithel and Schwaiger, 2015).|
|Project team management||Project team have interested in the total project portfolio and the management system of the project regarding construction.||The project management team are appointed for the main construction of the runway. They monitor the management standards of the progression of ongoing project (Jones et al. 2017).|
|Public of the local community||Public of the local community are one of the key factors of the project. As they are compensated by the government to give their support for disruption in their property.||It is very important to look after the needs of the local public where the project are constructed. As the interruption in their reguler living may cause of the social issues for the company’s future goals.|
|Customers and client||The client and the customers are the ultimate representative and the target audience of the company for whom the company provides services.||Customers are the target audience of the organisation. The service of the runway project is constructed for their utility purpose. So it is very important to deliver the the end product in a proper manner to meet the satisfaction level of them.|
|Architecture and designer||Interest in generating the structure of the project planning process.||To make the ultimate blueprint iof the runway structure and develop the internal infrastructures.|
|Authorised body of the company||The authorise body of the organisation maintain the overall programme of the internal as well as external operational processes.||To regulate the company’s different department in a selective manner to formulate the progress of the company’s development structure (Aerts et al. 2017).|
|Human resource management||Interested in the total human resource of the organisation in order to maintain and control them.||Developed and trained the existing workers about the work ethics and also recruit the skilled employees to add the value in organizational productivity.|
|Functional manager||Interest in the operating areas of the project.||The need of the functional managers is to enhance the operational department to regulate the overall progression regard project operation process (Feng et al. 2015).|
|Project sponsors||Provide the capital resources in according to achieve the profitability.||The need of the sponsors of a project is to raise the fund for the financial resources.|
|Employees and staffs||Employees are the assets for the company to increase the business by giving best of their potential as the productivity.||Employees and staffs provide their services in terms of both quality and quantity. The manpower of an organisation helps to integrate the total workflow of the operations.|
Influences of the stakeholders:
Influence of stakeholders had grown the activities of business in the early 21st century. Different community and social responsibilities had been integrated in a consistent manner and this had been influencing the findings of the company (Barnett, 2018). Employees, customers and communities are considered as one of the key stakeholder groups which helps in creating effective working facilities and maintain decisions and activities. In relating to the study as provided in the above points it will be easy to understand about the performances that will help in maintaining the performances like the clients and customers would need to be responsible enough to represent the targeted service providers. On the other hand Employees are considered to be the assets of a company which helps in increasing the business and produce as per the potential. In this context the different influences that stakeholders consist of are as follows:
Government and social responsibilities: Business government are established to look after the establishment of the missions and objectives that a company owner takes into consideration in a small business. Business are being made to incur maximum profits and focus on the government and community operations (Mitchell, 2017). On the other hand social responsibilities provide balances in social and environmental aspects of profits.
Customers and Community: Customers are considered to be the main aspect on which the performances of a company depend on. This is being done to take care of the wants and needs of the customers rather than earning profit. This is recognised as to provide satisfaction to the customers and relationships for a long term period (Ni et al. 2018). There are various companies who collect data from the customers and plan a process that will be the target of the company to achieve it without concerning anything.
Business partners: One of the main management process which is also known as supply chain management organisation in 21st century is used to collaborate relationship between suppliers and business. In collaborating with the distribution process companies look into different costs and strength the the focus of the customers value. The need of the functional managers is to enhance the operational department to regulate the overall progression regard project operation process (Neubert et al. 2016). In improving the environmental performance it would need to be necessary for the company to take control of the relationship between different key groups and trusted business organisations.
Stakeholder engagement at Brisbane parallel runway construction is widespread including the engagement with the individual members of the community, all levels of regional and municipal government and the industry as well. Hence, it is worth mentioning that the varying models of stakeholders engagement strategies that are adopted at Brisbane’s parallel runway construction includes both the internal and the external master planning process. Further, it can be marked that the parallel runway project operates in an environment where the societal expectations alter rapidly in accordance with the improved expectations of stakeholders regarding transparency and engagement thereby, the impact of neoliberalism can be evident as the adaptive governance models that influence the development of the project effectively and significantly.
Thereby, the adaptive nature of stakeholder management needs to be taken into consideration so as to engage stakeholders for progressing the design and the approval of the project. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that the stakeholders associated with the project development are needed to convince so that, it can be possible to align the stakeholder interests and alliances. Hence, different tools can be utilised so as to convince the stakeholders.
Performance management and appraisal: One of the most effective ways to convince the stakeholders such as employees and individual community members is the introduction of the performance management and appraisal. In this context, it can be stated that by maintaining consistency in the project deliverables and update throughout the lifecycle can influence the mindset of stakeholders. Further, with the help of individual performance management information, employees can be able to know their own performance criteria and feel valued.
Line of communication: A two-way communication process plays a major role in the development of stakeholder engagement by convincing them. Hence, use of direct communication with the Queensland government, local government, non-governmental agencies and one way communication by using project website and media announcement, it can be possible to develop effective relationship with the stakeholders. Hence, according to the viewpoint of Ramus and Vaccaro (2017), setting up of proper communication channels and feedback system, it can be possible to add meaning to the stakeholders’ interests in the project.
Power/dynamism matrix: The stakeholder dynamism matrix can be considered as an effective tool that enables the parallel runway project to visualise the power of the stakeholders. Hence, as opined by Voordijk and Adriaanse (2016), during the period of low dynamism as per the dynamism matrix, it can be helpful to predict the attitude of the stakeholders associated with the project and thereby, meeting the expectations can influence the stakeholders’ interests towards the project design and progression.
Engagement of stakeholders is considered to be a process under which organisation involved in the processes through which the decisions can be affected and also may influence the implementation of the decision taking procedures. Issues relating to engagement potential problem will be discussed in the following points:
Engagement may not be productive: A primary concern of company leaders is the increase in the productivity and innovation process. Unfortunately, satisfaction of employees and engagement of employees may be engaged without any proper training process and this may not be helpful for working procedures (Buhs et al. 2017. Emotional state may be more unfavourable and may be hard to understand about the formal measurement required to increase the productivity. These lower down the labour costs and will increase the value of output and innovation process.
Engagement may be said as to be the by-product: Every engagement may not be connected with the engagement of productivity, customer satisfaction and retention (Barton et al. 2015). There are different co relational studies provides knowledge under which the engagement scores are on the higher side and makes it easy to conduct with a high growth company rates and earning of the stakeholders returns. In this context on the other hand providing correlation as a proof which may cause effect in the logic consideration. Another explanation that may be taken into consideration will be connected with the engagement and productivity of the products made by the company. Improvement in the workplace may said to be as a factor that may help in increasing the engagement between the company and the customers. If the changes will be managed will be eliminated to pay and hiring freezes and will provide a better open communication and necessary training processes (Decker et al. 2015). But if this athen city will be elaborated in the further context it can be said that new product introduced by the employees will provide a better connectivity in the management process and resulting in increasing employment.
The return on investment may be low: With the use of different employment performances it may be hard for the company to take control of the surveys under which survey costs must be paid and taken into consideration and filling them on time. In this context the time spent in presenting and analysing the results may be significant and the fact that will help in improving engagement will be implemented in a widener and possibility resulting to this that the cost will be more beneficial (Bacio et al. 2017). In this regard, it is worth mentioning that the stakeholders associated with the project development are needed to convince so that, it can be possible to align the stakeholder interests and alliances.
Different outside factors may influence the engagement: Employee satisfaction may result in influencing the ratings. The unemployment rate and cost of living may be few but will help in influencing the employee relative feelings in context of the company. In different cases ‘circle of wagon’ and increase in the loyalty and engages in the making of the company engagement process. There is no one who may take direct credit to the external factors and improves it without any problem.
In the ever-awaiting conclusion part, it can therefore be concluded that the lack of proper resource management and stakeholder engagement has significant impact of the development of the parallel runway project. Thereby, the study has provided effective strategies such as setting up of direct communication, integration of the dynamism matrix and performance management and appraisal tool so that, it can be possible to convince the stakeholders so as to reach the ultimate goal and objective significantly and efficiently. Further, different kinds of stakeholder engagement strategies have also been stated in the study to improve the stakeholder management strategies in the concerned runway project potentially.