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NSB102 Mental Illness as Social Determinants Factor in Australia: Assessment Task 2 Answer

NSB102

Professional Practice and Cultural Safety ASSESSMENT TASK 2

Assessment Task 2

Assessment name:ANALYSIS

Length:Total: 2000 words; +/- 10%
Weighting:60%
Individual/Group:Individual
Authentic Assessment:YesNo
Formative/Summative:Formative and Summative
How will I be assessed:7-point grading scale using a rubric
Task DescriptionDrawing on relevant items from the required weekly reading program for this unit, the resources detailed below in the questions and further research, you will undertake an analysis of a current topical health care issue in Australia following the detailed steps below.
You must examine the issue with reference to the principles of person-centered care, cultural safety, and professional codes relevant to regulatory requirements.
The assignment includes an analysis of the impact of socio-political issues on health and of consumers’ experience of health services by considering the impact of dominant values, assumptions and processes shaping health care in Australia.
Learning outcomes assessed1. Apply knowledge of regulatory requirements and ethical and practice standards that underpin the nursing profession, and explain how they relate to the provision of person-centred care.
  1. Apply knowledge of historical, social, and political issues to explain the socio-political context of healthcare and the impact of these structures on human health and consumer experiences of health systems.
  2. Identify and analyse the dominant values, assumptions, and processes that shape health systems, care delivery models, and nursing practice in Australia.



Preparation
Read the Criterion Reference Assessment sheet for this task.
CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING HEALTH CARE ISSUES: DEMENTIA/AGEING OR MENTAL HEALTH

INTRODUCTION (300 words +/- 10%) PREPARATION

To prepare for writing your introduction undertake research by following this link to the Australian Institute of Health andWelfare to get a beginning understanding of the topic chosen. Undertake further research by accessing the QUT LibraryCatalogue.
TASK G
Write an introduction for your essay based on your reading and research overviewing the health issue you have chosen. You will briefly describe:
  • The issue and the proportion of the population affected
  • Whether it affects some parts of the population more than others [e.g. based on class, gender, cultural identity, citizenship]
  • Whether the issue is more prevalent in some locations compared to others.
  • Finish with an overview of the rest of the essay.

BODY OF THE ESSAY (1500 words total +/- 10%) BUT please note the words allocated to each of the sections below and stick to them.

 TYPES OF HEALTH CARE DELIVERY (200 words +/- 10%) PREPARATION
To prepare for writing this part of the body of your essay, gain an understanding of Australian Health Services in the Australian Health Care System by looking at the following** report by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016). Australia’s Health 2016.
Undertake further research on your topic using library data bases or government health services’ website documents.
TASK G
Choose 1 of the major types of health care delivery [e.g. health promotion and disease prevention; primary care and community services; secondary and tertiary services; long-term and continuing care) available in Australia.


Clearly identify which you have chosen and then explain the assumptions about people and their wellness/illness which underpin that type of health care delivery.

TYPES OF HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN DEMENTIA/AGING or MENTAL HEALTH AND THEIR UNDREPINNING VALUES (300 words

+/- 10%)

[use the heading dementia/ageing or mental health according to which topic you chose at the beginning]

PREPARATION

Undertake research using library data bases or government health services’ website documents on the services available for the health issue you have chosen.

Review the unit’s required readings to revise the principles of cultural safety and of person-centred covered in this unit’s lectures, tutorials and readings.

TASK G

In one sentence, identify two [2] types of health care in the Australian HCS offered to those experiencing the issue you have chosen being sure to cite your evidence.

Then identify the values underlying the two [2] types of health care you have chosen and discuss how the values and principles underlying these services in the Australian health care system support and/or could present barriers to cultural safety and person- centred care in nursing practice.

SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: POVERTY (400 words +/-10%)

PREPARATION

It is well known that poverty is an important social determinant of health [i.e. historical, social and political factors impacting on health]. Undertake research using the QUT library catalogue on the relationship between poverty and the health care issue you chose.

TASK G

Based on your research and citing evidence, describe and discuss how poverty impacts on those living with the health care issue you chose.

CULTURAL SAFETY AND PERSON-CENTRED CARE: APPLY CODES AND STANDARDS (650 words +/- 10%)

PREPARATION

Nursing in Australia is underpinned by cultural safety and person- centred care [CS and PCC] as in the Code of conduct for nurses


[NMBA 2018) and Code of Ethics (ICN 2012). Re-read these documents.
Read the 2017 National Standards for Quality in Health Servicessection on ‘partnering with consumers’.
Complete further research for the task using one the following search strategies [use the one related to the health issue you chose above] using the QUT Library catalogue Quick Search
Australia + racism + health + care Age + discrimination + health + care
Mental + discrimination + health + care
TASK G
Consider your findings on consumer experiences of discrimination in health care [discrimination includes racism, ageism, sexism and other gender issues]. You can keep the focus on the issue you chose at the beginning or you can approach consumer experiences of discrimination more generally.

Based on your findings write an analysis of how the material you found on discrimination fits and/or does not fit with relevant aspects of the following three [3] items:
Relevant aspects of these three [3] documents and items from your search, MUST to be included in your answer and be cited properly as always.
3. Write a conclusion to your essay (150 words +/- 10%) G TASK G
Write a brief conclusion which summarises the main points in your essay.
Presentation requirements:This assessment task must:
  • Have a cover sheet as the first page of your document with the assessment title, your name, student number, tutor name and total word count
  • Include a ‘footer’ on each page with your name, student number, unit code and page number
  • Use 3 cm margins on all sides, double-spaced text
  • Times new roman, font size 12
  • Be written in third person
  • Be written as an essay using full sentences [no dot points]
  • be submitted in electronic format via Turnitin
Word Count 
counts include everything in the body of the assessment (including citations, quotes) and exclude the reference list, provided headings 
• enter your word count AFTER EACH STEP 
Referencing 
• enter an in-text citation for all items used  
• you must read and refer to material from your required reading program and from extra research i.e. from text books, any other set readings, research articles 
• materials from government and reputable non-government organisations’ websites are acceptable  
• reference to lecture notes are not acceptable-these are to guide you towards further study and research 
• un-authored and undated internet sources are not acceptable e.g. Wikipedia is NOT acceptable 
• your essay is not evaluated on the number of sources used [no number is specified] but on how well you answer the set task as assessed using the CRA at the end of this document 
• you must provide a full reference list, properly formatted in APA  style, on a separate page at the end of the assessment of all items  used within the paper  


Answer

Health Care issue in Australia: Mental Health

1.0 Introduction 

Mental illness in Australia is widespread and other than the developed countries, there is a substantial impact on the mental health at this level related to personal, social and economic factors. According to 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing as conducted by Australian Bureau of Statistics or ABS, it has been noted that 1:5 people belonging within the age group of 16 to 85 years generally experience any common form of the mental illness. Some of them are anxiety, effective and the substance per disorders. It is observed in the year (Standing Council on Health, 2013). The percentage rate would vary across the lifespan and it is found as the highest within early adult years. Within this age group, people are mainly established with their families as well as other independent working lives. Prior, it has found from the survey among the children and adolescents who are falling under the age category of 4 to 17, that there are 14% are affected with mental illness and it is conducted in the year 1998 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014). 

Thus almost 4 million people have suffered from the mental illness within the given year (Alegría, Álvarez, & DiMarzio, 2018). It is thus found that in almost half of the Australian population are found to suffer from mental disorder at least once in lifetime. Depression, substance use disorders, anxiety are the most common mental disorders. 

The anxiety disorder is thereby considered as the most common type of mental illnesses where 14.4 % of the Australians having age between 16 to 85 get experienced with an anxiety disorder in each year (Government of Western Australia Department of Health, 2017). There is more than twice rate having a depressive disorder rate. In most of the cases, it has found that mental illness has been experienced at the adult life. From the childhood, they use to face some irregularity for which they feel irritating or they may not happy. It is hereby noted that two-thirds of the population have examined mental health have the age below or equal to 21 years of age (healthdirect, 2019). 

This report thus elucidates the type of health care taken and delivered at its primary stage and the underpinning values of the mental health. The report has analysed the reason for the mental illness as the social determinants factor and the standards as imposed by the Australian Government for curing the mental health issues. 

2.0 Discussion

2.1 Types of Health care delivery 

In Australia, there is a complex system in health service package in terms of varieties of funding, health management and other regulatory systems. The complexity is thereby added with the services as it has been provided through the number of level government. It also includes federal, state and the local governments together with the private as well as not-for-profit organizations. In this case of the federal government, the health insurance scheme has been set as the type of Medicare (White, 2015). The main objective of the Medicare is that they have helped the user in making the health care at an affordable rate with the free and highly subsidised health care service. It is therefore accessible to all the Australians as per the ability of giving payment. The Medicare Benefits Schedule or MBS lists have been covered in this respect as the medical practitioners will provide services to the hospitals with primary and secondary levels. It has been found that the necessary pharmaceuticals are subsidised with the Pharmaceuticals Benefits Scheme or PBS. Therefore, the primary care services are provided within the hospitals and other community services as those are accredited by counsellors, chemists, dentists, psychologists and other social and welfare workers. Mainly 46% of the total population is Australia have utilised these health services from the year 2007 (WHO and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012). 

2.2 Types of Health Care Delivery in Mental Health and their underpinning values 

Primary mental health nursing (PHN) and the long term National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) has been delivered in Australia for curing the mental health care service (PHN Primary Mental Health Care Flexible Funding Pool Implementation Guidance , 2017)

The primary mental health nursing care is necessary as it has played a positive role under the provision of support services in a broadways among the people affected with a severe mental illness. They are said to undergo the program like Partners in Recovery or PIR. Government has focussed on these types of programs by the help of a flexible funding pool (Mossialos, Djordjevic, Osborn, & Sarnak, 2017). 

In the year 2016-2017, the mental health nursing is thereby expected to start for developing and delivering services to young people who generally are found at the risk of severe mental illness (The Commonwealth Fund, 2019). The commission of mental health found in the nursing services will support coordination in the clinical care with the people affected with severe mental illness. It ensures the service which continues in order to exist as the MHNIP clients. It is also found these new services will be developed within the areas as per its allocated growth (The University of Western Australia, 2016). 

In the longer term, PHN is expected to inform the lessons from the PHN lead sites, as it can make over and go for the commission clinical mental health services which support requirements of the people in order to have severe and complex mental illness for which it can be best managed in respect to primary health care (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2019). 

It is needed to promote the usage related to the single multiagency care plan where the people would have a severe as well as complex mental illness. This long term scheme thereby helps to link with the providers across the multiple service centres as it is involved with the individual care for promoting the medical home approach. 

Other than this, the National Disability Insurance Scheme has been rolled out by NDIS and it is commenced on the 1st of July in the year 2016. PIR and D2DL programs thus can be extended within three years for ensuring the service as it is continued in the service within the transition period for supporting NDIS roll out (Kohn, Saxena, Levav, & Saraceno, 2016). 

2.3 Social Determinants of Health: Poverty 

It has been found that the social and the economic disadvantage have increased the risk of mental disorders and consequently its adverse effect as well. Therefore, WHO has mentioned the Mental Health Action Plan in the year 2013-2020 and it focuses on the disadvantaged groups (Isaacs, Enticott, Meadows, & B., 2018). The poverty or the income disadvantage has been found directly in relations with psychological distress and the mental health issues. The poorer communities would expect better risk factors as per the psychological distress together with the mental disorder issues, like violence, crime and homelessness and the fact of unemployment. The poor communities thus have a tendency to affect with mental disorders more related to the well-to-do communities (Flèche & Layard, 2018).

It is observed that the financial hardship can be referred as the “financial stress” or “financial distress”. In an actual format, it refers towards the reactions taken from poor financial people. This includes the inability for paying the bills as well as for repaying the debts. Hence, financial hardship and the unsecured debt can be seen as a strong association with the symptoms, like psychotic disorders, depression, drug dependence or suicide (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2019). It is further observed that the likelihood can be developed with respect to the mental disorder appeared for increasing the unpaid debt by amount. So, the problems related to finance would be addressed the symptoms in the form of psychological distress. It is noted that there is the tendency for decreasing severe mental disorders if the financial condition becomes better. Hence, a better financial position can indicate a lesser amount of psychotic symptoms as well as people can lead to a better quality of life (ACOSS National Conference, 2011). 

Besides this, income inequality has referred to the situation as per the degree of the uneven distribution of the income among the population in Australia. As income inequality increases, the distress level also increased among the lower end of that economic ladder which has the tendency of growing faster (ACOSS National Conference, 2019). 

Australia is supposed to be a high-income country and there is a well-developed mental healthcare scheme in respect to policy terms and it is under the coverage of all types of Australians. Population studies based on the mental healthcare delivery thereby has identified the substantial as well as the unevenly distributed gap in the treatment. For this reason, the Government has started Medicare subsidized specific to the mental health services have been delivered by the General Practitioner (Funk, Drew, & Knapp, 2012). 

2.4 Cultural safety and person-centred care: Apply Codes and standards 

In most of the cases of Indigenous children it has been seen that racial discrimination becomes the cause of the mental health problem. The racial discrimination mainly causes the mental health outcomes, like anxiety, low self-esteem, suicide risk, depression etc. It is also seen that there is a relationship within racism and sleep difficulties and for which the mental health issues are coming into action. 

Another factor of mental health issues is the discrimination due to ageism. In the three forms it has been included that there are negative attitudes which are due to the older people and old age for the ageing process. The discrimination has been treated unfairly for the older people. The people of Australia are sometimes found that they have been affected with the discrimination, stress and the poorer mental health outcomes due to the racism, sexism and also due to the homophobia (Bodner, Palgi, & Wyman, 2018). 

In this respect the Crisis Competence theory or CCT can be applied for the people who mainly experience the discrimination due to sexism or ageism. There are many women who have encountered the sexism throughout their lives. As per CCT, it is readily prepared to encounter the ageism. There are possible moderating factors which links the ageism with mental health. Moreover, the older group of period has been exposed to the ageism than the younger-old aged people who may be encounters the ageism for the first time (Lycons, Alba, Heywood, Fileman, & Minichiello, 2017). 

To prevent the discrimination, in Australia, it has been found that there various code of conducts are in nursing. The commission of nursing has performed a strong commitment in order to promoting, supporting, encouraging the safety along with the quality related with the mental health services. In the year 2011, the mental health team in Australia can be established in order to ensure an integrated focus among the commission programs. Thereafter, the commission has been established by Mental Health Advisory Group in the year 2014 and the commission provides experts in curing the issues based on mental health (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014). All the group members can include the representative with the national consumer as well as the carer organization with all the mental health sectors.

The national safety and its quality health service standards can be provided to the user as a complete guide. In this respect, the key roles of the Advisory Group members in solving the issues are given below:

1. They can provide advice to the components related to the Mental Health program and it includes the revision as well as the implementation of NSQHS Standards.

2. The Group has to review the resources and tools.

3. The Group also provide their advice in perspective of the strategies in supporting the implementation of the work which includes in which form they need to inform, educate as well as engage as relevant to the stakeholders ( ACSQHC, 2019). 

Also, the membership is found to comprise with all the individuals as relevant to the expertise and the present clinical experience in the case of diagnosis, thorough treatment and better management for this condition. 

On the other hand, the code of ethics for nurses (the ICN code) follows four various types of principal elements as per the outline depending on the standards of the ethical conduct. 

For nursing, thus primary responsibility is needed to check with the people as required for mental health care. Practices of Nursing are based on the human rights values.   It is also depending on the spiritual beliefs and can be checked for the individual and family respectively. In curing the mental health issues, this ICN code of ethics provides the guidelines for nursing and its practices (International Council of Nurses, 2012). 

Also, in 2018, the new code of conduct has been published by NMBA (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia) and there are much more effective steps are taken in curing the mental illness problem in Australia (AHPRA, 2019).

Conclusion 

As the summary, it can be said that the primary focus of this report is to emphasis on the code of conduct and the health issues policy taken for the mental health policy. The mental health policy in Australia has been discussed within this report. It has been further concluded that there is a relatively better policy taken in Australia than any other developed countries. Much other ethical codes of conduct have been implemented in the nursing practice which refers that Australia takes an excellent procedure incurring the mental illness within the country. The impact of poverty somehow has found to affect the middle and lowered earned community and people. But, at the same time, the Australian Government regulates some Medicare policies which help these communities in curing the mental illness problems.

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