NSB102 Mental Illness as Social Determinants Factor in Australia: Assessment Task 2 Answer
Health Care issue in Australia: Mental Health
Mental illness in Australia is widespread and other than the developed countries, there is a substantial impact on the mental health at this level related to personal, social and economic factors. According to 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing as conducted by Australian Bureau of Statistics or ABS, it has been noted that 1:5 people belonging within the age group of 16 to 85 years generally experience any common form of the mental illness. Some of them are anxiety, effective and the substance per disorders. It is observed in the year (Standing Council on Health, 2013). The percentage rate would vary across the lifespan and it is found as the highest within early adult years. Within this age group, people are mainly established with their families as well as other independent working lives. Prior, it has found from the survey among the children and adolescents who are falling under the age category of 4 to 17, that there are 14% are affected with mental illness and it is conducted in the year 1998 (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014).
Thus almost 4 million people have suffered from the mental illness within the given year (Alegría, Álvarez, & DiMarzio, 2018). It is thus found that in almost half of the Australian population are found to suffer from mental disorder at least once in lifetime. Depression, substance use disorders, anxiety are the most common mental disorders.
The anxiety disorder is thereby considered as the most common type of mental illnesses where 14.4 % of the Australians having age between 16 to 85 get experienced with an anxiety disorder in each year (Government of Western Australia Department of Health, 2017). There is more than twice rate having a depressive disorder rate. In most of the cases, it has found that mental illness has been experienced at the adult life. From the childhood, they use to face some irregularity for which they feel irritating or they may not happy. It is hereby noted that two-thirds of the population have examined mental health have the age below or equal to 21 years of age (healthdirect, 2019).
This report thus elucidates the type of health care taken and delivered at its primary stage and the underpinning values of the mental health. The report has analysed the reason for the mental illness as the social determinants factor and the standards as imposed by the Australian Government for curing the mental health issues.
2.1 Types of Health care delivery
In Australia, there is a complex system in health service package in terms of varieties of funding, health management and other regulatory systems. The complexity is thereby added with the services as it has been provided through the number of level government. It also includes federal, state and the local governments together with the private as well as not-for-profit organizations. In this case of the federal government, the health insurance scheme has been set as the type of Medicare (White, 2015). The main objective of the Medicare is that they have helped the user in making the health care at an affordable rate with the free and highly subsidised health care service. It is therefore accessible to all the Australians as per the ability of giving payment. The Medicare Benefits Schedule or MBS lists have been covered in this respect as the medical practitioners will provide services to the hospitals with primary and secondary levels. It has been found that the necessary pharmaceuticals are subsidised with the Pharmaceuticals Benefits Scheme or PBS. Therefore, the primary care services are provided within the hospitals and other community services as those are accredited by counsellors, chemists, dentists, psychologists and other social and welfare workers. Mainly 46% of the total population is Australia have utilised these health services from the year 2007 (WHO and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012).
2.2 Types of Health Care Delivery in Mental Health and their underpinning values
Primary mental health nursing (PHN) and the long term National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) has been delivered in Australia for curing the mental health care service (PHN Primary Mental Health Care Flexible Funding Pool Implementation Guidance , 2017)
The primary mental health nursing care is necessary as it has played a positive role under the provision of support services in a broadways among the people affected with a severe mental illness. They are said to undergo the program like Partners in Recovery or PIR. Government has focussed on these types of programs by the help of a flexible funding pool (Mossialos, Djordjevic, Osborn, & Sarnak, 2017).
In the year 2016-2017, the mental health nursing is thereby expected to start for developing and delivering services to young people who generally are found at the risk of severe mental illness (The Commonwealth Fund, 2019). The commission of mental health found in the nursing services will support coordination in the clinical care with the people affected with severe mental illness. It ensures the service which continues in order to exist as the MHNIP clients. It is also found these new services will be developed within the areas as per its allocated growth (The University of Western Australia, 2016).
In the longer term, PHN is expected to inform the lessons from the PHN lead sites, as it can make over and go for the commission clinical mental health services which support requirements of the people in order to have severe and complex mental illness for which it can be best managed in respect to primary health care (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2019).
It is needed to promote the usage related to the single multiagency care plan where the people would have a severe as well as complex mental illness. This long term scheme thereby helps to link with the providers across the multiple service centres as it is involved with the individual care for promoting the medical home approach.
Other than this, the National Disability Insurance Scheme has been rolled out by NDIS and it is commenced on the 1st of July in the year 2016. PIR and D2DL programs thus can be extended within three years for ensuring the service as it is continued in the service within the transition period for supporting NDIS roll out (Kohn, Saxena, Levav, & Saraceno, 2016).
2.3 Social Determinants of Health: Poverty
It has been found that the social and the economic disadvantage have increased the risk of mental disorders and consequently its adverse effect as well. Therefore, WHO has mentioned the Mental Health Action Plan in the year 2013-2020 and it focuses on the disadvantaged groups (Isaacs, Enticott, Meadows, & B., 2018). The poverty or the income disadvantage has been found directly in relations with psychological distress and the mental health issues. The poorer communities would expect better risk factors as per the psychological distress together with the mental disorder issues, like violence, crime and homelessness and the fact of unemployment. The poor communities thus have a tendency to affect with mental disorders more related to the well-to-do communities (Flèche & Layard, 2018).
It is observed that the financial hardship can be referred as the “financial stress” or “financial distress”. In an actual format, it refers towards the reactions taken from poor financial people. This includes the inability for paying the bills as well as for repaying the debts. Hence, financial hardship and the unsecured debt can be seen as a strong association with the symptoms, like psychotic disorders, depression, drug dependence or suicide (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2019). It is further observed that the likelihood can be developed with respect to the mental disorder appeared for increasing the unpaid debt by amount. So, the problems related to finance would be addressed the symptoms in the form of psychological distress. It is noted that there is the tendency for decreasing severe mental disorders if the financial condition becomes better. Hence, a better financial position can indicate a lesser amount of psychotic symptoms as well as people can lead to a better quality of life (ACOSS National Conference, 2011).
Besides this, income inequality has referred to the situation as per the degree of the uneven distribution of the income among the population in Australia. As income inequality increases, the distress level also increased among the lower end of that economic ladder which has the tendency of growing faster (ACOSS National Conference, 2019).
Australia is supposed to be a high-income country and there is a well-developed mental healthcare scheme in respect to policy terms and it is under the coverage of all types of Australians. Population studies based on the mental healthcare delivery thereby has identified the substantial as well as the unevenly distributed gap in the treatment. For this reason, the Government has started Medicare subsidized specific to the mental health services have been delivered by the General Practitioner (Funk, Drew, & Knapp, 2012).
2.4 Cultural safety and person-centred care: Apply Codes and standards
In most of the cases of Indigenous children it has been seen that racial discrimination becomes the cause of the mental health problem. The racial discrimination mainly causes the mental health outcomes, like anxiety, low self-esteem, suicide risk, depression etc. It is also seen that there is a relationship within racism and sleep difficulties and for which the mental health issues are coming into action.
Another factor of mental health issues is the discrimination due to ageism. In the three forms it has been included that there are negative attitudes which are due to the older people and old age for the ageing process. The discrimination has been treated unfairly for the older people. The people of Australia are sometimes found that they have been affected with the discrimination, stress and the poorer mental health outcomes due to the racism, sexism and also due to the homophobia (Bodner, Palgi, & Wyman, 2018).
In this respect the Crisis Competence theory or CCT can be applied for the people who mainly experience the discrimination due to sexism or ageism. There are many women who have encountered the sexism throughout their lives. As per CCT, it is readily prepared to encounter the ageism. There are possible moderating factors which links the ageism with mental health. Moreover, the older group of period has been exposed to the ageism than the younger-old aged people who may be encounters the ageism for the first time (Lycons, Alba, Heywood, Fileman, & Minichiello, 2017).
To prevent the discrimination, in Australia, it has been found that there various code of conducts are in nursing. The commission of nursing has performed a strong commitment in order to promoting, supporting, encouraging the safety along with the quality related with the mental health services. In the year 2011, the mental health team in Australia can be established in order to ensure an integrated focus among the commission programs. Thereafter, the commission has been established by Mental Health Advisory Group in the year 2014 and the commission provides experts in curing the issues based on mental health (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014). All the group members can include the representative with the national consumer as well as the carer organization with all the mental health sectors.
The national safety and its quality health service standards can be provided to the user as a complete guide. In this respect, the key roles of the Advisory Group members in solving the issues are given below:
1. They can provide advice to the components related to the Mental Health program and it includes the revision as well as the implementation of NSQHS Standards.
2. The Group has to review the resources and tools.
3. The Group also provide their advice in perspective of the strategies in supporting the implementation of the work which includes in which form they need to inform, educate as well as engage as relevant to the stakeholders ( ACSQHC, 2019).
Also, the membership is found to comprise with all the individuals as relevant to the expertise and the present clinical experience in the case of diagnosis, thorough treatment and better management for this condition.
On the other hand, the code of ethics for nurses (the ICN code) follows four various types of principal elements as per the outline depending on the standards of the ethical conduct.
For nursing, thus primary responsibility is needed to check with the people as required for mental health care. Practices of Nursing are based on the human rights values. It is also depending on the spiritual beliefs and can be checked for the individual and family respectively. In curing the mental health issues, this ICN code of ethics provides the guidelines for nursing and its practices (International Council of Nurses, 2012).
Also, in 2018, the new code of conduct has been published by NMBA (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia) and there are much more effective steps are taken in curing the mental illness problem in Australia (AHPRA, 2019).
As the summary, it can be said that the primary focus of this report is to emphasis on the code of conduct and the health issues policy taken for the mental health policy. The mental health policy in Australia has been discussed within this report. It has been further concluded that there is a relatively better policy taken in Australia than any other developed countries. Much other ethical codes of conduct have been implemented in the nursing practice which refers that Australia takes an excellent procedure incurring the mental illness within the country. The impact of poverty somehow has found to affect the middle and lowered earned community and people. But, at the same time, the Australian Government regulates some Medicare policies which help these communities in curing the mental illness problems.