Pathophysiology And Pharmacology Of Cardiac Disease: Case Study Of Trevor Larkins Assessment Answer

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Question :

Written assignment - Science

Written Assignment Science: Pathophysiology & Pharmacology of cardiac disease 

Length: 750 - 1000 words 

Weight: 20% of total unit weighting 

Learning Outcomes

This assignment addresses the following unit learning outcomes 

1. Demonstrate an understanding of the cardiac system including related: Anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, Diagnostics, Pharmokinetics, pharmodynamics, Me quality use of medicines 

2. Demonstrate and apply comprehensive cardiac assessment and evidence based clinical reasoning skills in theory, clinical and simulated environments. 

3. Demonstrate the capacity to integrate and relate principles of ethical and legal practice within an intra and interprofessional team approach to person centred rare. 

4. Learn and apply reflective practice and professional communication strategies that facilitate the delivery of safe and effective culturally sensitive quality care across diverse settings. 

5. Plan and implement person centred primary health care and health promotion strategies related to cardiac health and wellbeing.

This assignment focuses on pathophysiology and pharmacology and will be marked by teaching staff from science.


 Discuss the pathophysiology and pharmacology of Heart Failure in relation to the case study of ',wrongs part of your answer you need to define and detail the pathophysiology of Heart Failure.
The case study of Trevor. Moodie follows Trevor as he encounters various cardiac issues. The focus here is on the heart failure which he experiences, you do not need to discuss any of his other health issues. Ensure that you relate Trevor symptoms and presentation to what would expected according to the pathophysiology.
Briefly outline We pharmacological treatments that Trevor is prescribed to treat this condition, and why he has been prescribed these medications. Ensure that you discuss the pharmacodynamics of the medications i.e. the effect of the medications and their mechanism of action.
Referencing You need to reference your responses appropriately. A minimum oft. recent evidence-based and peer reviewed resources is required for MD section of the assignment. APA is the required referencing style for assignments submitted in the School of Health. Follow the link on moodle for information and examples. 

Structure and presentation 

Use the short answer format for this assignment. It still needs to be in an essay layout, however, there is no need for an Introduction or conclusion. Make sure that you clearly differentiate between the pathophysiology and pharmacology sections, and share your word count between them appropriately.

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Answer :


The case study is about the patient Trevor Larkins who has been accompanies by his wife Susan in the general practitioner office or GP office. In the case study, the assistant of the practice nurse has conducted an assessment on the health of the patient. Upon the arrival of Trevor Larkins, the assistant asked him about his health. However, the patient informed that he is not unwell and visited the GP only because of the concern of his wide Susan. After being asked about the health problem, the patient reported that his wife is concerned because the patient feels breathless at some moments while going for a walk in the morning. Although, the couples do not engage themselves in power walking, still the breathing problem is persistent for Trevor Larkins. The patient also informed that he smokes one packet of cigarettes in a day. 

After assessing the health information about Trevor Larkins, the GP assumed that the patient is suffering from Ischaemic Heart Disease or IHD and therefore, recommended him to have tests on fasting BGL, serum cholesterol and HbA1C (Fisher,, 2016).  After conducting these three tests, after a month, it has been identified that the result of the fasting BGL is 9.6mm0l/L, HbA1C is 7.2%A and serum cholesterol is level 9.1mmol/L. That is it has been analyzed that the patient has been suffering from type 2 diabetes as well as IHD (Fisher,,2018). Therefore, he was prescribed to intake 20mg oral on a daily basis along with managing the diet. 

After 3 months of continuing this medical treatment, Trevor experienced an aching pain on his left side of the chest on a morning while going for a walk. He was then admitted to the local hospital. After assessing his situation, it has been identified that the patients was having strong peripheral pulses. Some of the signs were BP which was 152/92mmHg and HR whih was 127 beats per minute. For the purpose of treatment, he was prescribed to use sublingual 600mg glyceryl trinitrate and oral 300mg aspirin. After being monitored for 24 hours by provided the medication, the patient was discharged. Further, a stress test based ECG was conducted on him which identified the changes of ischaemic ECG on exertion. 

While in the holiday after 6 months of the treatment, the couple went for a walk around the beach for an hour. However, while returning back from the walk and taking a steep climb towards the hill, Trevor suddenly collapsed. This made him pale and sweated for a long time. He also felt that he was having pain in the middle of his chest. Then he was rushed to the local hospitals and he was then supervised by a paramedics. After assessing the situation, it was found the patient was having a patent airway and the peripheral pulses became weak. His BP rate became 102/71mmHg and the Heart Rate became 134 beats per minutes. He was administered with GTN of 600mg. After conducting the ECG and blood tests, he was prescribed to use medicines such as Aspirin 500mg oral and Clopidogrel 75mg oral. 

The GTN tablet consists of the glyceryl trinitrate and is regarded as the medicine known as nitrate. These tablets are used for increasing the capacity of the heart. Glyceryl trinitrate is also known as generic medicine (Khalifa & Awad, 2015). 

Aspirin is used for reducing the fever and to provide relief in case of moderate pain which includes muscle aches, common cold and toothaches. This medicine is also used to reduce the pain from headaches.. On the other hand, Aspirin is also regarded as the salicylate and NSAID drug. This is useful as it blocks some natural substances in the body of the human being which results in reduction of body pain (Kasmeridis,,2013).

 Clopidogrel 75mg oral medicine helps in reducing the risks of heart attacks as well strokes for the person who are suffering from various heart diseases (Bates,, 2011).. Even the people who had strokes or heart attacks in recent time can be protected from next attacks. Clopidogrel is used with the Aspirin in order to treat the pain in the chest and for opening the blood vessels to prevent the clotting of blood after cardiac arrests. In this process, the platelets are blocked and they are not allowed to stick together and this helps in preventing the harmful clots in the body of the patients. This is the reason why Clopidogrel is also known as the antiplatelet drug. This medicine also contributes in proper flow of blood in the body. 

GTN is known as the medicine which is given to the patients who are suffering due to heart failure and high BP. This medicine is also used for treatment of the chest pain due to lower flow of the blood into the heart (Horton & Schiefer, 2019). The treatment is also conducted with this medicine in case of chest pin which arises due to heart attack. This medicine is consumed by mouth or kept under the tongue of the patients. Even in many cases, this injection is also injected to the vein of the patients. However there are some side effects of this medicine as well. These include the headaches as well as low BP. Intake of the medicine is also considered as unsafe in case of the women who are pregnant. 

Metoprolol IV is known as the injection which is used for reducing the probability of deaths due to acute heart attacks (Morris & Dunham, 2018). This injection is mostly used on the patients who have previous experiences of heart attacks. This injection acts as the beta-blocker which helps in reduing the heart beats and for reducing the blood pressure of the human body. This increases the flow of blood and oxygen into the heart.

Heparin is the injection which known as an anticoagulant (Yang, et.a.l,2015). This is used for reducing the ability of the blood to clot and thus is helpful in prevention of the harmful clots in the blood vessels of the patients and act as the blood thinner.