PHCA9516 Tobacco Use And Lung Cancer: Assessment 2 Answer

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Summarise and critically evaluate research that identifies the predictors of behavioural lifestyle factors related to ONE form of cancer, drawing on individual and social perspectives.


These will be used for marking. Your assignment should comply with the following criteria:

• Provides an accurate and clear explanation of the lifestyle behaviours associated with ONE form of cancer and critically discusses the factors predicting behavioural outcomes. Incorporates evidence from individual and social perspectives.

• Provides evidence of a thorough and appropriate search of the literature for relevant papers via Databases like PUBMED, PsychLIT etc.

• Uses evidence to support assertions and clearly documents the strength and weaknesses of this evidence

• Uses a logical structure that includes an introduction, summary of evidence, evaluation, well-formed arguments and a conclusion

• Complies with academic standards of legibility and referencing and avoids plagiarism at all costs

• Uses clear presentation with accurate spelling, grammar, sentence and paragraph construction

• Complies with word length (3000 words)


• Participation in exchanges on the DISCUSSION board. All students are encouraged to log on to subject discussion board and exchange thoughts about the course content. The purpose here is for you to have a meaningful exchange with each other with a focus on exploring the course content and any questions it may raise for you. Participation in this component is worth 10% of your final grade. All comments made between 4

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Answer :

Tobacco use and lung cancer


Cancer describes as any one of a huge number of diseases categorized by the growth of irregular cells that split uncontrollably and possess the capability to penetrate and impacts healthy body tissue. Malignancy frequently has the capability to transfer throughout the body. Malignancy is identified as the second-leading source of death in the globe (Miller, Siegel, Lin, Mariotto, Kramer, Rowland, & Jemal, 2016). One of the illustrations of malignancy is lung malignancy which initiates in the lungs. The lungs are the two spongy type of organs in the chest that takes the oxygen in when people inhale and discharge CO2 when exhale. People’s Lung malignancy is the source of malignancy expiries in the US, amongst both males and females (Schumacher, & Schreiber, 2015). Particularly In 2015, nearly 131,452 new cancer cases have been diagnosed in Australian regions (71,959 men and 59,493 women). In 2019, it is projected that nearly 144,713 fresh cases of malignancy will be identified in Australian states (78,081 men and 66,632 women). In 2019, it is projected that the threat of people being identified with malignancy will be one in two for both men and women (Melaku, Appleton, Gill, Ogbo, Buckley, Shi, & Fitzmaurice, 2018)Signs and symptoms of different type of cancers are differ based on what region of the person’s body is impacted. Certain common signs and symptoms linked with, however not precise to, cancer, comprise: Fatigue, Swelling or area of congealing that can be sensed beneath the patient’s skin, Weight alterations, counting unintentional loss or gain, changes in the Skin for example yellowing, blackening or skin redness, sores that cannot be heal, or variations to present moles, Alterations in habits of bowel or bladder, Tenacious cough or breathing issues, Trouble in swallowing, and Hoarseness (Crane, Scott, O’Hara, Aranda, Lafontaine, Stacey, & Currow, 2016). In this particular essay, the role of tobacco uses in causing cancer will be critically discussed.


Tobacco is the product that is consumed in a different form and becomes the main source of cancer among its users. The tobacco widespread is one of the major communal health risks, the globe has ever confronted, results in the death of more than eight million individuals a year. Higher than seven million of all those expiries are the outcome of nonstop use of tobacco whereas about 1.2 million are the consequence of non-smokers who are being unprotected to second-hand smoking (Fucito, Czabafy, Hendricks, Kotsen, Richardson, Toll, & Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence (ATTUD)/Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) Synergy Committee, 2016). Nearby 80 per cent of the 1.1 billion tobacco smokers globally live in the low- and medium-income nations, where a load of tobacco-associated disease and decease is heaviest. The Tobacco comprises the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, and the harmala alkaloids. Dry leaves of tobacco are mostly used for smoking the cigarettes in and cigars, and other forms like a tobacco pipe, and seasoned shisha tobacco. They can similarly be used up as snuff, tobacco that can be chew, dipping type of tobacco and snus (Amato, Hyland, Reed, Mahoney, Marshall, Giovino, & Nwogu, 2015). The Tobacco consumers who die in advance withdraw their relatives of income, increase the charge of healthcare and impede economic growth. In some nations, kids from poor families are regularly working in tobacco agricultural to deliver family revenue. These kids are especially susceptible to "green tobacco illness", which is initiated by the nicotine which is engrossed the individual’s skin from the management of wet leaves of tobacco (Fucito, et al., 2016).

Types of Lung cancer

Lung cancer is divided into two main types centred on the presence of lung malignancy cells beneath the microscope. The two common types of lung malignancy include Small cell lung cancer. SCLC (Small cell lung cancer) happens almost completely infrequent smokers and is less likely than NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer). Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC (Non-small cell lung cancer) is the single term for numerous kinds of lung malignancies that perform in a comparable way. The Non-small cell lung malignancies comprise squamous cell carcinoma, the adenocarcinoma and the large cell carcinoma (Zappa, & Mousa, 2016).Nonetheless, The important constituent to this particular model is the behavioural intent; behaviour purposes are prejudiced by the assertiveness about the probability that the activities will have the predictable outcome and the personal assessment of the dangers and welfares of that consequence

Lung malignancy can cause difficulties, such as:

Breathing difficulties; Individuals with lung malignancy can face shortness of breathing if malignancy develops to lump the main airways. Lung malignancy can similarly cause the liquid to accrue nearby the lungs, creating it tougher for the exaggerated lung to enlarge fully when the patient inhales. Coughing up blood; the Lung malignancy can source bleeding in a patient's breathing airway, which can source patients to spit out blood (hemoptysis). Occasionally bleeding can turn into severe form (Athey, Walters, & Rogers, 2018). Pain; Progressive lung malignancy that transfer to the lung’s lining or to an additional part of the patient’s body, for example, a bone, can source pain. The liquid in the patient’s chest (pleural effusion); The Lung malignancy can trigger liquid to collect in the space that positively surrounds the impacted the lung in the trunk cavity. Fluid collecting in the trunk can cause breathing issues. Cancer that transfer to other portions of the body (called metastasis); Lung malignancy frequently transfers (metastasizes) to additional parts of the patient’s body, for example, the brain and different bones (Walter, et al., 2015). 

How tobacco causes cancer 

Chemicals for example tar and the formaldehyde inside tobacco smoke enter the body cells and harm DNA. This may cause destruction in genes that regulate the subtle process of cell development and separation: genes that indorse separation may become overactive, and the genes that spread over the brakes to escaped separation may misplace their grasp (Bialous, & Sarna, 2017). By itself, the harm to genetic encoding can source usual lung cells to become cancerous, however, the procedure gets the main contribution from an additional impact of smoking tobacco: inflammation (Amato et al., 2015) The Inflammation is a share of the resistant system’s reaction to disorder or tissue injury. A group WBCs, some hormones, and additional ingredients decant into the exaggerated area to contest trespassers, eliminate dead or damaged cells, and sort repairs. The procedure is important to curing wounds and repairing impaired tissue. However, it can similarly be a dynamic potency for malignancy (Malhotra, Malvezzi, Negri, La Vecchia, & Boffetta, 2016). The baneful impacts of DNA harm plus swelling have been established in many research readings. In one, investigators exposed the mouse lungs to the tobacco chemical (cancer-causing substance) unaided, or in mixture with another ingredient that encourages lung swelling. The mixture enhanced the growth of lung malignancies that supported a mutation in the KRAS gene which is the common characterizations of many human lung malignancies (Swanton, & Govindan, 2016).

The genetic injury formed by cigarette smoke happens all over the genome; it is no additional probable to happen in a malignancy- associated gene than a common gene with no contribution in malignancy. However, by generating damage so comprehensively, it upsurges the likelihoods that gene alterations will ascend in carcinoma-associated genes. Each time a people smokes, all three billion base pairs of the DNA in the lung cells are unprotected to toxic substances. There is a less chance of these base pairs to be changed, or mutated, is little (Sveen, Kilpinen, Ruusulehto, Lothe, & Skotheim, 2016). However chronic contact to smoke increases the threat that an occasion will occur in a cancer-associated gene. The lengthier and more regularly one smokes, the advanced the threat (Swanton, & Govindan, 2016).

The Theory of Planned Behavior was started as Theory of Reasoned Action in the year of 1980 to predict a person's objective to involve in behaviour at a particular time and location. This specific theory was planned to describe all behaviours on which individuals have the capability to employ self-control. The important constituent to this particular model is the behavioural intent; behaviour purposes are prejudiced by the assertiveness about the probability that the activities will have the predictable outcome and the personal assessment of the dangers and welfares of that consequence (Alanazi, Lee, Dos Santos, Job, & Bahjri, 2017).  

The TPB theory has been applied positively to forecast and elucidate a wide variety of well-being behaviours and purposes counting smoking, drinking, well-being services use, breastfeeding, and the material used, amongst others. The TPB is included of six concepts that together represent an individual's definite control over the tobacco use behaviour (Jalilian, et al., 2016).

Attitudes; this denotes to the rate at which an individual has a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of the tobacco use behaviour. It involves deliberation of the consequences of smoking tobacco products like cigarettes. Behavioural intent; this discusses the encouraging factors that affect the smoking behaviour where the sturdier the purpose to perform smoking, the more probable the smoking will be achieved. Subjective standards; this mentions to the certainty related to whether maximum individuals approve or condemn of the smoking behaviour (Montano, & Kasprzyk, 2015). It narrates to an individual's beliefs for whether the peers and individuals of importance to the tobacco user think he or she must involve in the health depriving behaviour.  Social standards; this denotes to the normal codes of smoking behaviour in a collection of individuals or larger social setting (D'Avanzo, Halkitis, Yu, & Kapadia, 2016).  Social standards are measured normative, or ordinary, in a collection of persons. Perceived control; this denotes to the apparent presence of aspects that might enable or impede presentation of smoking behaviour. The Perceived power subsidies to an individual's perceived social regulation over all of those aspects. The Perceived behavioural regulation; this denotes to an individual's awareness of the comfort or trouble of carrying out the tobacco consumption behaviour. The Perceived behavioural mechanism differs across circumstances and activities, which outcomes in an individual having changeable insights of behavioural control reliant on the condition (Roncancio et al., 2015)

The TPB has exposed more usefulness in public well-being than the Health Belief Model, however, it is still restrictive in its incapability to reflect environmental and financial effects. Over the previous numerous years, investigators have used certain concepts of the TPB and additional other constituents from the behavioural theory to create it an additional incorporated model. This happens in reaction to certain of the boundaries of the TPB in dealing with public health difficulties (Oluka, Sun, Komlan, Sun, & Zhang, 2017).

Health belief model 

The prolonged Health Belief Model or HBM has been applied lengthily to comprehend cancer inhibition and control behaviours, counting screening. For numerous cancers, investigators have recognized the effect of apparent risk of the malignancy in addition to perceived advantages of, apparent barriers to, and the self effectiveness for identification (CarterHarris, Ceppa, Hanna, & Rawl, 2017). As the HBM model expects, persons can contribute in cancer identification if they consider: if they are a possibility for a malignancy (apparent risk); identification will decrease the significances through initial recognition (perceived welfares); assistance to contributing in screening overshadow the perceived barricades; and if they can achieve the tasks essential to complete the diagnosis or screening procedure (selfefficacy). For the behaviour change to happen in longstanding smokers connected to lung malignancy screening, persons must believe that they are actually a possibility for having lung malignancy and that receiving screened can positively benefit them. The determination of HBM is to discover long-standing smokers' insights of lung malignancy, lung malignancy risk aspects and lung malignancy (Skinner, Trio, & Champion, 2015).

Factors that encourage tobacco use

Physical dependence 

The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization have categorized nicotine addiction as a psychological disorder (Fucito, et al., 2016). These establishments’ characterizations of dependence comprise a sturdy desire for a material and difficulty monitoring use; physiological extraction when use is clogged or reduced; an indication of tolerance; and tenacious use despite an understanding of troubles. The Smokers who are without cigarettes face withdrawal and be inclined to compensate for stages of deprivation by growing consumption when tobacco products become obtainable; such type of compensatory action controls the nicotine intensities in the blood circulation (Miller et al., 2016)

Psychosocial Factors


Many females smoke in reaction to unfavourable life experiences. Though both males and females might smoke to decrease stress, they face different pressures. For instance, in the past few years, females have entered the labour force in large figures, however, they still shoulder the most of baby care, elder upkeep, and household duties. Females in the labour force also commonly hold lower-level facility or manufacturing occupations, which deliver a slight sense of independence or control and might upsurge stress (Melaku et al., 2018).


The occurrence of tobacco usage has been established to be advanced for individuals having mental problems or disorders for example schizophrenia, the mania, personality disorders issues; depression; or the panic disorders. Smokers who are depressed are more probable to be dependent on tobacco products and less probable to quit smoking. Some smokers who experienced depression related issues similarly have an advanced risk of deterioration after a cessation effort. It has been described that the smoking cessation reasons more penetrating depressed attitudes among smokers with past experience of depression, leads to lower achievement degrees for cessation (Weinberger et al., 2017).

Demographic factors 

Demographic aspects, for example, gender and civilization, might also impact well-being behaviours. Women are more probable than men to practice defensive health behaviors, while man gender is an important predictor of tobacco initiation amongst teenagers (Crane et al., 2016) Though ethnicity might also be a significant factor in tobacco consumption behaviours, most of the studies have been accompanied with smokers found that the White teenagers were more probable to use tobacco products like cigarettes than the non-white teenagers. In overall, however, slight is recognized about the effects of gender and culture on smoking activities, mainly among adolescents (D'Avanzo, Halkitis, Yu, & Kapadia, 2016).

Injury, Fierceness and Victimization Events

Injury, Fierceness and Victimization Events and Tobacco Usage Within security-related queries, not applying seat belts while driving while consuming tobacco, and fighting seemed independently linked with tobacco use actions, with the additional substances in that set delivering relatively terminated associative info. The straight link amongst these rather violent actions and tobacco use is slightly unclear, though these activities do propose elements of threat taking and/or feeling seeking, which possesses been recurrently exposed to be linked with tobacco use (Iredale, et al., 2016). Use of tobacco among youth was linked with gender and ethnicity. The relations with sex are rather complex. Adolescents’ men incline to use tobacco products less than their woman complements but consuming cigars and smokeless higher. The consumption of tobacco products has been also increased among the women also in the past few years which ultimately increases the number of cancer identification among women (Weinberger et al., 2017).

Genetic factor

Genetic influences have been projected to responsible for nearly half of the alteration in threat for unsuccessful smoking termination, and with dependence level, genetic alternates can similarly alter the efficiency of pharmacologic termination therapies. In a randomized controlled trial conducted on smoking behaviours found that smokers along with increased-risk genetic alternates were 3 times more probable than tobacco users with a reduced-risk variant to react to the nicotine patches, some nicotine lozenges, or the bupropion alone (Kubota, & Yokoyama, A2018). 


Cancer is the life-threatening disease which is characterized by the multiplication of the cells abnormally which spreads to other areas of the body and infect them also. Cancer can be divided on the basis of its location such as throat cancer, kidney cancer, lung cancer, bone cancer, liver cancer and neck cancer. n overall, however, slight is recognized about the effects of gender and culture on smoking activities, mainly among adolescents. Lung cancer is one of the life-threatening cancers that affect the patient’s lungs and reduced its ability to breathe effectively. Particular in Australia nearly 131,542 new cases of cancer has been diagnosed. Tobacco products like cigarettes are considered as the leading cause of deaths among patients suffering from lung cancer. Symptoms associated with lung cancer include bre4athin difficulties, coughing up blood, pain, liquid accumulation ion the chest, and metastasis. The chemical like tar and formaldehyde present in the tobacco products reach the lungs and destruct the lining of the lungs and cause cancer. Theory of planned behaviour is used to identify the behaviours that encourage to smoke or consume tobacco products. Some of the concepts involved in TPB are the attitude of the user, behavioural intent, subjective standard, social standards, and personal behavioural regulation. Health belief model can also be used for predicting the factors involved in the outcome of tobacco products. This model can be helpful in comprehending the cancer inhibition and regulate the behaviours including diagnosis. There are some factors that trigger people of consuming tobacco products includes physical dependence, psychological factors like stress, depression, and past experience of any distressing event like injury separation, demographic factors, and victimization. Some of the investigators also identify that lack of physical exercises, and unhealthy diet habits like eating street food, junk food, not consuming fruits and green leafy vegetable also enhances the probability of lung cancer. Although the people with healthy habits also diagnosed with cancer but the intensities of prevalence is lower among them compare to the tobacco users.