Institute of Health and Management
Write a topic on "Pressure Sore Care" and covered the points.
Introduction: Clear explanation of the following:
- Background to the problem identified
- Clear statement of the research question(s) or hypothesis
- Relevance/significance of the proposal for nursing
- Conceptual or theoretical framework which underpins this proposed study
- Is the literature relevant to the problem identified?
- Is the review comprehensive and complete?
- Does the review include an objective analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the various studies related to the problem?
- Is the related literature a summary, report or synthesis of researched material?
- Does the review support the proposed study?
Research Design and Methodology:
- Method and design – adequately reviewed, argued and discussed about the chosen method and design
- Sampling – sample characteristics, rationale, criteria eligibility, how was the sample selected, bias if any; appropriateness of sample size, sampling strategy appropriate for the design of the proposed study
- Instruments to be used – clear description of the instrument(s) that will be used to gather data, quality of the instrument, reliability and validity of the instrument
- Data collection methods – clearly stated step- by-step and appropriate for the design of the proposed study, objectivity and consistency of the method employed
- Plans for storing and analysing data – clear description of the storage of dataEthical Considerations:
- Confidentiality and data security
- Inclusion of appropriate information/consent form
- Indication of safety issues where relevant
- Indication of any risks to subjects and/ or researcher
- Indication of other relevant ethical issues
- Indication of possible study limitations
- Potential impact of proposed study on wider community discussed
- Appropriate summary of the main emphasis of the proposed study
The entire study defines the different aspects that are related to pressure sore. In the first part of the study, it provides a brief detail regarding the background along with the objectives and questions that are related to the study. Along with that, it provides a proper significance of this entire study towards the nursing staffs.
Review of the existing literature
In the next half of the study, it provides a brief description regarding the different elements of the issue pressure sore. It provides a brief regarding the symptoms and the different ways through which the issue can be treated.
Methodology used for the proposal
After that the study provides the way through which the entire research would be done. It justifies the choice of research design, philosophy along with the approach. In addition to that it also defines the sampling technique along with the sample size. Along with that, the study also provides a clear image of the issues that might be faced by the researcher during the time of research.
Finally, the study provides a conclusion regarding the research proposal along with the limitations and a proper summary that manly defines the usefulness of this research proposal towards the healthcare professionals.
Background of the study
Pressure sores are considered as the damage to the skin or a tissue that mainly reside over a bony area of the body. The most common areas that can have the pressure sores are the knees, elbows along with hips, sacrum, and coccyx. According to Santamariaet al. (2015), the main reason behind the occurrence of the pressure sores is the ample amount of pressure applied to the soft tissue that mainly results in a complete obstruction to the blood circulation to that particular body part. The pressure ulcers or the pressure sores mainly developed in those persons who are rather bedridden or confined to a wheelchair. Rasmussenet al. (2015) said that, this has gradually becoming the issue of the society as near about 29,000 deaths have already been recorded due to this reason. Along with that, the percentage of pressure sores has increased from 0.4% to 38%. That is why this particular study would help the nursing professionals to gather an ample amount of idea regarding the entire fact.
Objective 1: To understand the concept of pressure sore
Objective 2: To evaluate the symptoms of pressure sore
Objective 3: To identify the different way of treatment for pressure sore
Objective 4: To evaluate the impact of pressure sores over a patient’s health
Objective 5: To find out the challenges regarding the treatment of pressure sore
Objective 6: To recommend some sort of solutions to the challenges regarding the treatment process
Research question 1 : What is pressure sore?
Research question 2 : What are the different symptoms of pressure sores?
Research question 3 : What are the different ways of treatment for pressure sores?
Research question 4 : What is the impact of pressure sore on a patient's health?
Research question 5 : What are the different challenges that a nursing professional may face while treating a pressure sore patient?
Research question 6 : What are the recommendations to the nursing professionals in order to treat the pressure sore patients?
H0: Pressure does not create any harm to the human body.
H1: Pressure sore creates harm to human body.
Significance of the study
As the study defines the different critical aspect of the pressure sore, therefore it can be said that it would help the nursing professionals to gather an ample amount of knowledge regarding the treatment of this disease. In addition to that, Yanget al. (2015) said that the nursing professionals would also have the ideas regarding the different symptoms of the disease. That can help them to identify the areas through which the particular disease is developed. Therefore, it can be said that this particular study would be very much help the different nursing professionals.
Concept of pressure sores
The pressure sore is considered as an injury to the skin that is caused by an immense amount of pressure. According to Sunet al. (2015), this particular disease mainly occurs while a person lies in bed for a long period or sits in a chair. Therefore, the amount of pressure that generates from those areas reduces the supply of bold to that area of skin. Therefore, it can cause the skin to get a break down and develop an open sore. The pressure sores are also known as the bedsores or the pressure ulcers.
The pressure sores can easily range from the red areas over the skin surface to the different tissue damage that spreads deep into the muscles and bones. The pressure sores mainly developed the bony areas and the places where the skin gets fold over itself. Along with that, Khan, Ansari & Ali (2015) said that it could also be developed in the areas where the different medical equipment puts an ample amount of pressure on the skin as the oxygen tube generates the pressure over the ears.
Therefore, it can be said that it is very much necessary for the nursing practitioners to look towards those people who are literally bed ridden and check their skin every day. According to Buttigieget al. (2017), if the professional thinks that pressure sore is developing, then they must take some suitable steps in order to treat the patient properly.
Reason behind the pressure sores
When it comes to reasons that mainly develop the pressure sores, the main and primary reason is the amount of pressure over the skin and tissues. Along with that, if a person slides down in a bed or in a chair, it can cause the skin to get fold over itself. That can also be considered as a reason behind the development of pressure sores (da Silva Ferreira, 2014). In addition to that, if a person is being pulled across the bed sheets or any other kind of surface, then it can cause friction burns. That can also cause the pressure sores. Moreover, the people having an excess amount of moisture also have the tendency to develop the pressure sores. As their skin is very much wet and they are vulnerable to break down and develop the pressure sores.
Figure 1:Reason behind the pressure sores
(Source: da Silva Ferreira, 2014)
Factors that can enhance the chance of getting pressure sores
There are different factors that can easily increase the risk regarding the development of the bedsores. One of them is the inability of a person to move. People having a spinal injury, coma or paralysis is not able to move frequently. Therefore, they have the chance to develop bedsore. In addition to that, the poor bladder or the bowel control is another factor that can be considered as a risk to develop bedsore or the pressure sore. Along with that, according to van den Heuvel, Niemeijer & Does (2013), if a person is not having a proper diet that includes the proper amount of protein can also cause pressure sores. Moreover, the reduced level of alertness that may develop due to the health issue or taking different medicines.
The people who are not alert enough are not able to take the different steps that can prevent the pressure sores. In addition to that, the age of the people is considered as another risk factor for the development of the pressure sores. As the people become older, their skins become thinner and less elastic and get injured more easily. Along with that, smoking mainly makes the skin dry and reduces the flow of blood to the skin. Therefore, it can also be counted as a risk factor (Scott et al. 2017). In addition to that, the disease such as diabetes can also develop the bed sores for people as it has a problem that mainly interferes with the healing of a wound.
Figure 2: Risk Factors
(Source: Scott et al. 2017)
Symptoms of pressure sores
The pressure sores can be easily identified by different symptoms. These are defined below.
Stage 1: It can be identified when a reddened and painful area over skin does not turn into white when it is pressed (Boyal & Hewison, 2016). This is considered as the sign that the pressure ulcer is forming regardless of the fact that the skin is warm, cool or soft.
Stage 2: The skin of that area generates an open sore. The area around the sore may get red and irritated.
Stage 3: The skin of the red portion then develops a crater that is an open and sunken hole in the skin. Then the tissue below the skin gets damaged. Then the person or the healthcare professional may able to see the body fat in the Carter.
Stage 4: The pressure ulcer becomes that deep that it hampers both the muscle and bones. Sometimes it also hampers the tendons and joints.
However, Pirouziet al. (2014) said that there are two more types of pressure sores that do not fit into the above-mentioned stages. The sores sometimes are covered in the dead skin. The dead skins mainly make it tough for both the person and the healthcare professionals to understand the depth of the sore. This is known as “unstageable”. In addition to that, the pressure sore that develop deep into the skin is known as the deep tissue injury. The area may become dark purple maroon. This particular type of skin injury can easily develop into the stage 3 or stage 4 pressure sore.
Treatment of pressure sores
The treatment mainly puts focus to prevent a sore from getting worse and making the skin healthy once again. Some steps can easily help the pressure sore to get heat. One of the primary steps is to take the pressure off from that skin area. Along with that, the patient needs to change their positions often. In addition to that, according to GARDNER (2013), the sore areas need to be kept clean and should be covered with a bandage. The health care professionals may provide the patients regarding the proper usage of the bandage. Along with that, keeping the healthy tissue around and make the area of pressure sore clean and dry. In addition to that, the person needs to have a healthy diet that contains enough amount of protein that can help the skin to be healed.
Diagnosis of pressure sores
The healthcare professionals can easily diagnose the pressure sore by examining it properly. The professionals may take some tests to those patients such as the blood test in order to check for any kind of infection or to review the fact that the person is having the proper amount of protein diet or not. In addition to that, the professionals may also take a skin and wound culture in order to identify the germs that can cause infection to the wound. Along with that, according to Butler & Manthorpe (2016), a skin biopsy can also be done if the professionals do not know the reason behind the skin problem.
Prevention of pressure sores
There are certain steps that can be taken into account in order to prevent the pressure sores. Ione of them is the changing the positions frequently. If the person is in a bed, then he or she needs to change the position after every 2 hours. On the other hand, if the person is in the wheelchair, then he or she needs to shift his or her weight after every 15 to 20 minutes. In addition to that, Hennesseyet al. (2016) said that the person or the healthcare professionals' needs to take proper care of the skin by keeping it dry. In addition to that, the choice of food items needs to be healthy that comprises with ample amount of protein. Moreover, the people need to avoid the habit of smoking in order to maintain a healthy life.
Research design and methodology
Research method and design
In order to carry out the entire research method, the researcher would choose the positivism philosophy as the study as it deals with the different scientific principles. In addition to that, when it comes to the research design, the researcher would choose the descriptive design because of the fact that an ample amount of data is already present regarding this factor (Kandlbinder, 2014). Therefore, it would help the researcher to understand the different areas that are related to the pressure sores. On the other hand, the researcher would choose the deductive approach in order to conduct the successfully. This particular approach would be chosen because it starts from a general point and terminates at a specific point that deals with the pressure sores.
Sampling techniques and sample size
The sample is considered as a small portion of the entire population. The researcher would choose the random probability sampling method. Along with that, the researcher would choose the sample size of 47 healthcare professionals regarding the different issues that are related to the pressure sore. In addition to that, their researcher would also conduct interviews in between three pressure sore patients.
The researcher instruments that the researcher would choose to analyse the data set is the survey in between proposed sample size. The researcher would design a set of questionnaire that would be supplied to the healthcare professionals in order to gather their view. The questionnaire would contain some demographic questions along with the questions that need to be answered through the Likert scale. Along with that, the researcher would also conduct the interviews from the people having the pressure sore.
The data can be collected from the different sources. According to Ho (2015), these are the primary and the secondary sources. The primary data would be gathered from the surveys in between the healthcare professionals. On the other hand, the secondary set of data would be gathered through the different books, journals, and websites.
Analysis of collected data
There are mainly two types of data analysis techniques. One of them is the quantitative and the other one is the qualitative (Pickton, 2016). The researcher would use both the quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques in order to analyse the gathered set of data properly.
Data security and confidentiality
Data security is considered as a critical aspect that can be taken into account while deriving the ethical considerations. The researcher would maintain the security regarding the data that they have gathered from the surveys and the interviews. Therefore, the researcher would maintain the Data Protection Act 1998 that can ensure the safety and security regarding the collected set of data (Righi, Saurin & Wachs, 2015).
Different safety issues
The data that has been gathered by the researcher would not make available for the privacy issues. Along with that, the researcher would also need to maintain the security because of the fact that the set of data should not get stolen.
The main risk factor that can be taken into account is the fact if the data goes public then anyone can use those data for their personal benefit. Along with that, it can also be used for the purpose of irritation for the people who have provided the data.
Other ethical issues
The researcher needs to maintain some other ethical issues also. According to Daneva (2015), one of them is the fact that there would be no exchange of money when the researcher opts for the data collection from the primary sources. Along with that, the researcher would not force people to take part in the survey process.
The study can provide an ample amount of knowledge to the nurses and the healthcare professionals regarding the different critical element of the pressure sore. In addition to that, the data set gathered by the researcher would also help the healthcare professionals to take proper decisions regarding the treatment of the pressure sore patients.
After summing up the entire study, it can be said that the researcher would provide some critical information to the healthcare professionals through whom they can easily make their way smooth in order to treat the pressure, sore patients. Therefore, it can be said that the healthcare professionals may get benefit from the research work of the researcher.