|Subject Code and Title||PUBH6002: Global and Environmental Health Issues|
|Assessment||Assessment 1: Report - Environmental Risk Assessment|
|Length||1,500 words (+/- 10%)|
|Total Marks||100 marks|
Choose a specific geographic region and one of the following environmental health issues:
Using the WHO (1999) DPSEEA framework: http://www.who.int/wssd/resources/indicators/en/ - Chapter 7
Assignments will be assessed in terms of the extent to which students demonstrate:
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT
The New South Wales are one of the largest cities in Australia, which is rapidly growing day by day. The quality of air is relatively good rather than other major cities in the country. The air pollution from burning fuels keeps a huge negative impact on the climate in Australia (Business, 2018). It causes s approximately 3000 deaths per year in new south ales. The overall climate change affects air pollution and causes global warming (ABC, 2017). The environmental variables including temperate, wind speed and direction of wind has been affected directly by this warming of the climate system (Business, 2018). The development, transport, chemical transformation and the disposition of the pollutants are influenced by these variables (ABC, 2017). Ozone and other particular factors regarding the warming of climate systems play an important role in climate change (IOP, 2018).
The quality of air regarding the health impacts plays a vital role to increase the variables of climate changing as well as the growth of the population in future aspects. The climate and geography issues keep impacts on several factors in the environment.
Impacts of climate change on the New South Wales environment
The nitrogen, methane and other organic compounds are produced by the photochemical reaction in the ozone layer. This reaction has been occurred between the sunlight’s and the environmental pollutants (Business, 2018). It is the main reason behind the increasing of the global temperature as well as the health risk (PHRP, 2018). The New South Wales is highly polluted region in the Australia where the exposure of ozone increases the risk of mortality within the environment. It depends on different factors including the region and the climate scenario (IOP, 2018). The increase of cloudiness indicates the decreasing of ozone layer in the future aspects (Business, 2018). It helps to reduce the radiation regarding the ultra violate ray to reduce the affect of the ozone layer (EHA, 2019).
Impacts of climate change in specific matter
The different specific and particular matters of various components have been influenced by the meteorically changes (EHA, 2019). The main components of this are sulphate aerosols, nitrate aerosols and the organic carbon, which affected the environment negatively (EDO, 2017). Several air pollutants have changed the balance of the climate, which is the main reason behind the climate changing as well as increasing the health related issues (EDO, 2017).
The important driving factors that influenced the climate and geographic health issues in New South Wales are
Hot weather: It keeps a huge impact on the death of people in New South Wales. Maximum number of people in this area is affected with the several diseases including the exhaustion of heat as well as the heat stress (ABC, 2017). Global warming is the main reason behind the hot weather, which creates huge health related problem whereas; some of people even die by the extreme level of heat (IOP, 2018). The heat waves are generally created with this factor, which is the main reason behind the admitted of the people in the hospital (IOP, 2018).
Natural disaster: This factor plays a vital role in change of climates or environment of the New South Wales (ABC, 2017). It is mainly lead with more tropical cyclones and the frequent storms. It is the main reason behind the illness and injuries of the people (ABC, 2017). The several types of mental health are affected by the natural disasters including the post-traumatic stress (IOP, 2018).
Air pollutants: The air pollutants play a major role in increasing the global temperature in the environment (ABC, 2017). These air pollutants are the main reason of several diseases and it reduces the lung capacity of people (PHRP, 2018). The air pollutants and the emission of the ozone layer have occurred the increasing of global warming as well as the green house effect in the environment (Sydney, 2018). The radiation of ultra violate ray coming from the sunlight are easily impact on the human body which causes several type of health issues regarding cancer and many chronically disease (EDO, 2017).
Quality and quantity of food: The high temperature in the environment reduce the quality of foods and the quantity of foods which increase the price rise in all over the country and people can live with lower nutrition (PHRP, 2018). It affects the social and economic communities of the New South Wales (PHRP, 2018).
The degradation of the environment has a significant impact on the Australian population that has crucially affected the population of NSW. It has been observed through the analysis that damage in the environment has deteriorated the standard of life in NWS population (ABC, 2017). The respiratory issues in people are increasing gradually among the population of NSW due to toxic gases of the environment (WHO, 2019). The population of NWS is blamed for environmental degradation and harmful chemicals have accelerated the probability of asthma and other diseases. Apart from this, it has been identified through the analysis of NWS environment that chances (EDO, 2017) of skin cancer have elevated among the population due to a massive amount of UV rays in the air (Environment & Heritage, 2019). The Ozone layer gap can be blamed as a significant factor behind this quality deterioration of the environment. Nevertheless, the increasing rate of natural disasters can be identified due to environmental issues in NWS (Environment and Heritage, 2019).
Figure 1: Increase in average temparature
(Source: Environment & Heritage, 2019)
It has been identified that the gradual reduction of environment quality can impact the health of the environment in an adverse manner (IOP, 2018). As observed in PHRP (2018), the climate in Australia has increased its temperature by 9oF within 5 years. Due to this reason, people in NWS are experiencing warmer compared to previous years (Sydney, 2018). Similarly, human well being has been affected in a negative manner due to the drastic enhancement of temperature (Sydney, 2018). People are losing their skin moisture and thereby skin dryness can be considered as a threat to the population in NSW. Likewise, due to the warmer ambiance, glaciers are melting rapidly and thereby chances of the flood have increased within the NSW context (IOP, 2018). The heat waves can be considered as a concerning phenomenon that impacts the health of people in NSW.
The climate in NSW has changed its nature massively within the last few years and thereby temperature has been increased rapidly. It has been projected through the study of the environment in NSW that the elevation of temperature can be resulted in 0.7oC by 2039 from 2020 (EHA, 2019). The massive change in the environment can damage the equity level in NSW and thereby healthy environment cannot be protected for future generations (EHA, 2019). It has been identified through the analysis of environment issue that communities are impacted significantly due to rapid change in the environment (EHA, 2019). The policies regarding environmental protection are emerging as vague and thereby adequate preservation of the environment has emerged difficult. Due to this reason, it is mandatory to commence cleanliness program among the society members to encourage the healthy development of the NSW environment (Business, 2018). Likewise, resource planning needs to be improved for the further improvement of the NSW environment (Business, 2018).
In order to prevent the gradual destruction of the environment, it is must to restrict the deforestation. It is important to understand the role of stakeholders during the business for the effective development of environment (EDO, 2017). Hence, it is mandatory for the people in NSW to maintain an ethical framework of business for the further improvement of the NSW environment (WHO, 2019). Similarly, unequal distribution among the population can be considered as another main result that may cause due to change in environment (WHO, 2019). Hence, imbalance in resources have created significant threats for the people and increasing rate of poverty can be observed within the NSW context due to this reason (Sydney, 2018). Most importantly, different hazards along with the resource ability can be affected due to the increasing rate of environmental changes (IOP, 2018). Hence, it is necessary to develop an effective framework against the changes for the improvement of the environment.
Based on the analysis of the current environmental situation and its driving factors, recommendations can be provided for improvement as follows:
It is mandatory to increase awareness regarding climate change and its impact on livelihood. Therefore, program needs to be scheduled for knowledge enhancement and thereby desired objectives can be fulfilled.
The application of the selected framework can be considered as an important solution in order to support the environment. Insights into the driving forces can be grabbed through the analysis. Similarly, factors that are increasing pressure can be identified and state of the environment can be evaluated. Moreover, exposure, effect and necessary action can be planned through the incorporation of this framework.
The promotion for environmental sustainability can be observed as another important solution for the current situation. The promotion can convey among the population about the benefits of environmental sustainability. Similarly, improved legislations can mitigate the gaps in environmental health. Hence, a sustainable framework can be developed through this technique.
From the above study, it can be concluded that the main reason of temperature increasing in the environment of New South Wales is the natural green house effect. The green house effect in the environment allows the sunlight to pass through and increase the heat level in the earth surface. The geographical and climate changes play an important role in the environmental pollution. The different types of health issues have been generated by this reason, which directly affects the social and economic conditions of the New South Wales.