PUBH6003 Health Systems and Economics in Ghana: Assessment 2 Case Study Answer
Case Study 2
Public spending within Ghana is observed to be the healthcare that could help ensure support in the health needs of the normal public (De Savigny, 2009). As healthcare services are expensive and cannot afford, by the normal people, as the country is known to be economically and financially weak, hence the government needs to improve and focus on the efficiency of healthcare services. It is also how to boosts health outcomes, and ensuring support for a robust health financing system. It is the most vital and the topmost priority defined in the countries globally (Afedzi, 2016). At the same time, it is also important to increase the health expenditure that would equally be challenging considering the weak financial state of the economy. As Ghana, is relatively a low prosper country, faces a high volatile economy and has a frequent economic recession along with the rising healthcare costs, the government needs to support the economically indebted people. The economy comes under the parameters of the low defined income countries, faces the public healthcare spending and also has to experience a low performance in terms of applying the policies and integrating the funding.
. The public health system is both organized and funded
Ghana has adopted a universal health care system and it is due to the extensive support of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHISwhich secures people, as most of the Ghana people live in poverty and cannot afford the normal health care needs to support themselves in their illness.
It has recently been observed, that Ghana has experienced tremendous economic growth (due to the findings of the oil reservoirs), which has boosted the economy indefinitely. It has a sudden experienced and invested in large spending on health. It has been observed, that in comparison to the past years, the country has invested only 11% in public healthcare spending in comparison to the recent years, which has risen to 15% higher along with the large support of the increase in government revenues. As of now, there has been a tremendous population growth which has shown, an actual of 65% of the population rising and belonging to the urban dwellers by 2030. It has also been estimated with the growth in population that has signified with the tremendous ageing, showing incredible rapid urbanization along with experiencing an increase in adoption of sedentary lifestyle, which has created a sudden rise in the communicable diseases (CD) with comparison to the non-communicable diseases (NCD), that has put pressure over the scarce healthcare resources(McKim, 2017).
The country performs in terms of the WHO’s key building blocks of the health system
As per the past health care outcomes, there has been time period from 1995 to 2014 in Ghana, that has shown how there has been Infant that are under-5 mortalities which have declined by 50 and 25%, respectively, in comparison to 2014, that have shown an increased life expectancy that has risen from 60.7 to 64.8 years. Other factual findings are of the private spending focused on health, and it has shown an increased pocket payment, which has declined ever since from the WHO findings. It has also suggested a financial threshold.
Another finding would be based on Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that have shown an increase in the healthcare costs that have led to cascading impacts due to the healthcare expenditures in the future. Another way to find out how there has been an investment in the government’s sector on the healthcare that has shown positive results and there has also been an improvement in the health outcomes that is due to the increased health expenditure.
Potential health system reform
Looking into the potential health systems reforms current projections of Ghana’s healthcare expenditure that has unprecedented been increasing and, the government has started to invest majorly in the large sector of healthcare. It has started to fund and also provide extensive support in the increased healthcare expenditures which would require enhancing the acquisition that could be helpful in better hospital resources which can improve healthcare (Modern Ghana, 2018). As observed, from the statistics, there has been a vast healthcare expenditure along with the growing health outcomes (for example, there have been many infant mortality rates, showing incredible under-5 mortality along with experiencing a life expectancy problems.
To improve weaknesses in the system
But the Ghana economy as a whole has to work over the improvement in maternal health, needs to focus on providing national health insurance along with showing reformed healthcare systems, that have also largely influenced the health outcomes (National Health Insurance Scheme, 2013).
It has also largely been due to the (1) inadequate financial investments that have also been largely being due to the health outcomes (2) it has to also focus on improving the limited health workforce along with facilitating the facilities. It would also be facing a significant problems due to the (1) establishing new health institutions along with focusing on expanding an existed ones; (2) It also has to provide an incentives that would also discourage the exodus of health workers; (3) It would have to face a versatile problems due to the predictive, preventive along with the isolated problems caused due to the personalized medicine (PPPM) that needs to be treated in NCDs; and (4) At the same time, it also has to focus on improving the alternative insurance schemes that could be focused on the vulnerable groups. Ghana's government has to focus on curbing the misappropriation of funds, which would help derive better health outcomes.
Ghana has a little public healthcare spending which is done through the help of insufficient tax revenues along with the support of the internal and external loans along with facing necessary restricted foreign grants. The other problems, which the country faces in terms of public health funding are in the form of the lack of healthcare funding sources and also experiencing relatively low private or out-of-pocket payments and also experiencing high fee-for-service charges and the private health insurance schemes (McCusker, 2015)