|Subject Code and Title||PUBH6003: Health systems and Economics|
|Assessment||Assessment 1: Report|
Applying Systems Thinking in Public health
|Length||1,000 words (+/- 10%)|
|Learning Outcomes||This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:|
Public health professionals must work across various sectors and with key stakeholders such as other professionals and community groups in order to improve health outcomes. Often, these stakeholders have competing interests and conflicting ideas about health, and about what would be the most effective ways to meet public health needs and outcomes.
Stakeholders may not even share the same values related to improving public health. In some cases, using a systems thinking or intersectoral approach may pose many challenges for implementation.
To prepare for this assessment, choose one public health issue (e.g. obesity, a chronic disease) in any country for which it is obvious that a systems thinking approach has not been, or is not being, applied. Then in approximately 1000 words (+/- 10%):
Your report should follow the following structure. The word count includes the introduction, body and conclusion
|Recommendation||May be in bullet point or continuous writing|
|References||APA 6th Edition Style|
PUBH6003: Health systems and Economics
Assessment 1: Report Applying Systems Thinking in Public health
Obesity in Australia
The disease name Obesity refers to a medical condition, in this medical condition, a person carries excessive body weight and fat and which, as a result, adversely affects their health and well-being. According to 2014-15 statistics, 63.4% of the adults and 27.6% of children are obese in Australia. Paper discussed various stakeholders’ role in the prevention of obesity in Australia as well as offered recommendations as well.
The disease name Obesity refers to a medical condition, in this medical condition, a person carries excessive body weight and fat and which, as a result, adversely affects their health and well-being. Medical science uses a tool called BMI or Body Mass Index to measure if a person is carrying excessive weight based on their age, gender and height. When a person has a BMI measurement between 25 and 29.9, it indicates they are carrying the excessive weight and more than 30 BMI means the person is obese (Brazier & Olsen, 2020). In Australia, 63.4% of the adults and 27.6% of children are obese, according to 2014-15 statistics (Huse et al., 2018). Obesity initiates several health issues such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnea, gallbladder disease, and so on.
Roles of stakeholder and application of design thinking
Stakeholders are concerned with people who manage the implementation of various health programs in order to ensure a positive working healthcare system. These stakeholders can be physicians, healthcare professionals, policymakers, government and non-government organisations or community leaders of Australia, and so on.
Healthcare Sector: The entire healthcare sector stays operational because of various stakeholders such as physicians, nurses, other healthcare professionals such as dieticians, lab technicians, NGO representatives, healthcare facilities such as hospitals, nursing homes and so on. These stakeholders are also responsible for the prevention of obesity, as well. Hospitals and nursing homes provide healthcare infrastructure to healthcare professionals and patients in Australia, which, as a result, helps with the prevention of obesity problems (Witten, 2016). Furthermore, healthcare professionals such as physicians, nurses or lab technicians also play an important role as they conduct health check-ups, analysis of data and work collaboratively.
Other healthcare professionals such as NGO representatives work at the community level in order to drive awareness in the society as well as gather community BMI data for future actions. Based on this community-based data, policymakers, on the other hand, develops various goals and funds preventive and treatment camps in order to achieve those goals to help with the prevention of obesity.
Furthermore, the role of these stakeholders is not limited to the healthcare sector, and some of them also play an important role in other sectors as well. According to the WHO, these stakeholders make awareness programs in order to drive awareness among Australians about the complexity of obesity and its prevention as well. The Australian government has developed several policies to tackle obesity has 42 policy areas across Australia, where obesity prevention project teams work closely with the community (FPI, 2017). These project teams include nutritionists, healthcare professionals and other representatives to drive dietary awareness among the Australians. Furthermore, policymakers also drive awareness through various channels such as television, newspapers and the internet as well to reach the mass.
Food retail businesses are also monitored and regulated in order to ensure the packaged food items are healthy and fast foods are less unhealthy and contains a lesser amount of fat in them as well. Furthermore, the importance of regular work out is also communicated in order to prevent obesity influence as well.
Several roadblocks or obstacles create challenges for the prevention of obesity within the Australian communities. These are related to lack of awareness, unhealthy dietary, lack of physical activity, genetic factors, and so on. These obstacles are required to be overcome in order to facilitate a healthy and obesity free society.
Lack of awareness and Unhealthy diets: Even though various stakeholders are working with the communities to develop awareness among Australians about the complexity of obesity and various associated health complications. There are still gaps in this system, and as a result, Australians tends to consume more fast foods, fried foods or sweetened drinks. As these foods contain excessive calories, and these excess calories are stored as fat in their body, which is increasing the obesity issues in Australia.
Lack of physical activities: According to data published by the Department of Health, 2.6% of the disease caused among Australians is due to physical inactivity. Furthermore, they also reported that 30% of adult Australians are engaged in the low level of physical activity, while 14.8% had no physical activities at all (Gov, 2017). As in order to prevent obesity, physical activity is an important preventive measure, due to Australian people's reluctance towards physical activities, it is creating a challenge to prevent obesity.
Genetic factors: Obesity-associated gene called FTO is also responsible for obesity as well. Because of this gene, a person is more likely to become obese and thus requires increased preventive measurement from their end (Fairbrother et al. 2018). As genetic factors can only be contained through regulating the eating habits, this factor can only be tackled through community-based initiatives.
Recommendations for the prevention of obesity
Following are some recommendations to prevent obesity among the Australians based on the previous discussions:
In this paper, the author focused on the identification of the root causes of obesity among the Australians and how various stakeholders and stakeholder groups play their role in its prevention. As obesity is the cause of several associated diseases and increases the complexity of these diseases, based on the key findings, this paper has also offered some recommendations as well.