|Subject Code and Title||PUBH6006: Community Health and Disease Prevention|
|Assessment||Assessment 3: Emergency Response Plan – Non-communicable Disease Prevention|
|Learning Outcomes||This assessment addresses the following learning outcome:|
5. Apply theoretical frameworks to develop effective health promotion interventions
Prepare a community engagement and mobilization strategy for an emergency response plan for an outbreak of the Ebola virus. Your strategy should clearly state a step-by-step approach that ensures that communities are engaged to have an active role alongside authorities and health agencies in the plan to rapidly respond to the threat of the spread of the disease. The strategy should use headings for each stage of engagement, consultation, participation, organisation, capacity building, action and possibly empowerment. Explain your decision to use either a top-down and/or bottom-up approach.
COMMUNITY HEALTH AND DISEASE PREVENTION
Assessment 3: Emergency Response Plan — Non-communicable Disease Prevention
Community Health and Disease Prevention
The assessment focuses on developing an emergency response plan for the prevention of a non- communicable disease outbreak of the Ebola virus. For developing the strategy effectively. a systematic approach is taken into consideration for ensuring that besides health agencies and authorities, communities are engaged for performing an active role in the plan for responding rapidly to the risk of disease outspread. The paper involves demonstrating different approaches, model and theories on health emergency and literature on preventing Ebola disease spread.
The critical issue and related literature
Ebola Virus Disease or EVD is often a severe and fatal disease triggered by the Ebola virus. Initially. it was named Ebola haemorrhagic fever. It includes five species. The natural introducer of Ebola vinis is fniit bats sith spates taking place within other species containing gorillas, forest antelope and chimpanzees at times. From 1976, over 20 documented epidemics of EVD have been there in Africa. Though there is a sign of one Ebola species is present u ithin the animal group in some regions of Asia, up to 2014. no report regarding human infection of
EVD was there in the outer part of Africa. In 2014, the outbreak of EVD in West Africa was the biggest took place mainly in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia. Although no evidence of
Ebola virus is there in the animals of Australia, community preparedness is essential for fighting against the infection if it occurs in the country (QLD, 2019). Australia is highly prepared for preventing the Ebola virus from entering the country. The website of the Deparnnent of Health has offered a range of information and advice for the general population.
The symptoms of EYD is the sudden arrival of fever *ith headache, *eakness and muscle aches in the initial stage. The second stage includes diarrhoea, vomiting, kidneys and liver malfunction. rashes and sore throat. It may develop to multi-organ failure with prolific external and internal bleeding. In African countries. the rate of death caused by the disease is 50-90%
(QLD. 2019). However, dex’eloped countries like Australia can reduce the death rate by using better resources, equipment and plan for prevention and intervention.
Justification for selecting a bottom-up approach
The assessment involves implementing the bottom-up approach for preparing a plan for the prevention of the Ebola disease outbreak in Australia. Fedson & Rordam (2015) commented that unlike the top-down approach, the bottom-up approach focuses on details alongside engagement of the people at the bottom of the hierarchy for decision-making. Thus, it helps to build a relationship with the members and groups of the community and addressing the primary reasons behind a disease.
Hence. by applying the bottom-up strategy. a better emergency response plan can be developed.
Emergency response plan for an outbreak of Ebola virus
Engagement- For ensuring the communities are engaged actively in the planning of preventing Ebola to spread in Australia, community education pertains to EVD prevention is necessary, Community engagement is a planned method whereby council and community exchange information via different technique and take action for solving common issues, offering facilities making decisions. It helps in identifying cases of disease (WHO, 2019). Hence, it sill help in identifying the first case of EVD as soon as it occurs, so that prompt action can be taken. The educational program on EVD prevention will include the community leaders, religious leaders. primary healthcare staff, volunteers. community activists for providing them with the training on EVD. its symptoms and measures to be taken for stopping transmission of Ebola virus. The trainers will be asked to distribute the information on EVD prevention to the community members by directly talking to them or distributing brochures and posters. The trainees will be given a health kit comprised of some ñyers, posters, one soap, thermometer, t- shirt containing EVD message and a hand sanitizer.
Consultation- Next comes meeting. Consultation on how to execute the plan successfully by gaining active paiticipation of the society in responding to an emergency spread of Ebola virus in the community. The trainees are responsible for carrying out a consultation with the public and making them aware of the risk of EVD and the way it needs to be tackled during a sudden outbreak. Marston ci at. (2017) stated that the consultative process supports the increasing an inclusive action plan for preventing and controlling any disease.
Consultation with local journalists will also be carried out for spreading as areness on Ebola virus. its symptoms, prevention process, and so forth.
Participation - The bottom-up approach will play a more significant role in encouraging community participation in the plan @ asking for their ideas in making the project successful. As commented by Haldane ct al. (2019), community participation is considered to be advantageous to the preparation. execution and analysis of disease prevention plan widely. In this context, Abramowitz ct al. (2015) stated that inspiring communities to participate, to listen to their views and to gain their trust is essential in the development of the plan effectively.
The healthcare agencies and the communities will participate in the successful development of the plan such as interpositions for schoolchildren, developing child-friendly and child protection place, and so forth. The trainee will motivate members to work with the survivor, counselling them for addressing discrimination issues and informing them to stay clean fro avoiding EVD
Organication- Community members also requée training for understanding different facets of the response to be provided during an emergency outbreak of EYD. It will help them contributing efficiently and safely to averting the transmission of the fatal disease. It also requires organisation and coordination of standard working procedures. so that immediate response can be given to the disease outbreak by organising all the people involved in the plan
Community Health and Disease Prevention
dex’elopment. It w’ill help to improx’e the implementation of intemiption measures for transmission and prevention of EYD. Therefore, the organisation of every individual in contact eacing. social mobilisation and alert case report is necessary
Caj›acitp building- As per the ›’ieu’point of Traverso-Yepez et of. (2012), capacity building of community for disease prevention can be defined as the interaction of organisational resources, social capital and human capital present in a cix that can be influenced to resolve mutual problems and enhance and manage the wellbeing of the community.
Hence, for improving the preparedness of the people for preventing EVD to take place, community engagement and social mobilisation strategy must be incorporated. Gillespie ei ml. (2016) opined that the primary functions of social mobilisation and participation of comlnuniy are coordnuting efforts and developing an approach emphasising on main behaviours containing 5assessing and reporting in leading performance indicators.
Therefore, organisational resources of healthcare centres, social capital, community leaders and others w’ill come together for dev’eloping an effective solution to the prevention of EVD.
Action - For implementing the plan into effect, the healthcare and social organisations need working in collaboration w’ith ilie community and its members. so tlut the disease can be prex’ented most effectix’ely. It requires implementing modern technolo ' for collecting data and monitoring perfoimance of the people engaged in the execution of the plan. Hence. the focus will be put on collecting data on EVD, so that the possibili9 of its sudden occurrence can be measured accurately. Gillespie ct n/. (2016) commented that research is also an effective
» ay of implementing the plan successfully. Online sur› ey u ith the people, who have worked in such projects for stopping the transmission and prevention of Ebola, can be carried out for gaining their indii’idun1 opinions on professioiul experience.
Community Health and Disease Prevention
Based on the information and literature, it is decided to conduct an online survey with the experts and volunteers having experience *ith managing Ebola and handling its emergency occurrence. It will help in prioritising interventions during the sudden outbreak of Ebola in a region. They will also be asked to give some qualitative answers to the questions asked, so that an in-depth knowledge can be gained on EYD prevention.
Empowerment- Li ri al. (2016) Although different terminologies are used for defining working in partnership ›ith communities for attaining collective or individual change, social mobilisation and community engagement, the5e two terms are used interchangeably, It is a two-way method for idea and knowledge sharing containing social norms and applying a variety of communication techniques and other strategies. which empower people and communities to modify their behaviour and implement actions for improving lives.
Therefore. during an emergency outbreak of Ebola. social mobilisation can support change at several levels from promoting help to leverage and apply policies. to encouraging and mobilising civil society to empower communities = and households actively for identifying problems, giving solutions and acting upon them.
The social mobilisation and community engagement plan is considered as a practical approach for averting and fighting with the emergency spread of disease. Although different arguments are there on the effectiveness of the snate , it offers valuable information and support from the communities. Thus, it improves the overall efficiency of the plan. Based on the information and literature, the social mobilisation and community engagement plan is developed for controlling the transmission and prevention of Ebola virus in the community by providing necessary training. increasing awareness and empowering people to act actively in the successful execution of the plan.