|Subject Code and Title||PUBH6006: Community Health and Disease Prevention|
|Assessment||Assessment 1: Essay - Working with Communities|
|Learning Outcomes||This assessment address the following learning outcomes:|
In this Assignment, you will explore the connection between helping groups and communities to gain empowerment through capacity building and community action. As a current or future public health practitioner, you will continually be called upon to identify the common needs and shared concerns of a community in the management of health programs.
Over the next two Modules you will complete a multi-part assignment.
To prepare for this assignment:
Write a 2,000-word paper that uses your professional judgement and the evidence provided in the Learning Resources in Modules 1 and 2 to address the following:
Part 1: Identify a preventable health concern in which you are interested, such as dengue fever or type 2 diabetes. Using Laverack’s ladder of community-based interaction as a guide, describe three key strategies that you might use to engage with a community to implement a program to address this health concern (Module 1).
Part 2: Discuss how you could use the core domains of capacity-building identified by Liberato et al (2011) to support the journey to community empowerment and ownership of a prevention program for your chosen health concern (Module 1).
Part 3: Describe the models and approaches of health promotion (such as the health belief model or the education approach) that you would use to motivate and educate the community about your chosen health concern, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model/approach (Module 2).
Submit the entire 2,000-word Assignment 1 at the end of Module 2.
*General Assessment Criteria:
PUBH6006: Community Health and Disease Prevention
The assignment will take the initiative of exploring the connectivity amongst the helping groups and communities for gaining empowering through the building of capacity and actions within the community. The preventable health issue selected for the task is Type 2 Diabetes and application of Lavarack’s Ladder of community will be taken into consideration for determining three key strategies, which will be used for engaging with the communities for addressing the health concern effectively. The assignment would also reflect upon the domains of capacity building for supporting the journey towards the empowerment and likewise initiate the ownership of the prevention program for treating Type 2 Diabetes. Lastly, the application of health belief and educational approach will be considered for motivating and educating the communities regarding Diabetes. The pros and cons of each models will be analyzed for appropriate application of models and approaches for treatment of Diabetes 2.
Identification of the health issue (Type 2 Diabetes)
Type 2 Diabetes refers to a chronic medication which starts affecting the ways through which the body is metabolizing sugar, which is determined as one of the essential body fuels. Donath & Shoelson (2011), states that with the onset of Type 2 Diabetes the body starts resisting the impact of Insulin- referring to a hormone which takes the initiative of regulating sugar movements within the cells. At times, it also refrains from production of sufficient insulin for maintaining the normal level of glucose effectively. Previously, it was assumed that individuals within the middle ages are more prone towards Type 2 Diabetes, however, presently children and teenagers are also developing the chronic disease which could mainly be due to the enhancement of the childhood obesity. There is no total cure available for the disease, however the disease is controllable and preventable upon consideration of lifestyle changes and proper intaking of medications needed (Lindstrom et al., 2006).
Laverack’s ladder of participative approach emphasizes towards interaction within the community and also signifies the fact that empowerment within the community serves as one as a key factor for treating Type 2 Diabetes effectively (Laverack, 2007). The conceptualization is subjected to interpersonal as well as contextual basis for managing a healthcare concern within a community. It provides the connectivity amongst the capacities of individual controlling and societal aspects. In regards to Laverack’s concept Leadership plays a pivotal role in community-oriented interactions, thus assisting in initiating health prevention program for treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (Laverack et al., 2007). In this context, the governmental authorities should take active participation in encouraging communities for participation in initiation of health prevention programs so that awareness is created amongst the individuals suffering or at the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes. Upon application of Laverack’s concept of community related interactions, individuals who are powerless can work in a coordinative manner for having more control over the conduction and initiation of health care events.
The three effective strategies that should be implemented for managing Type 2 Diabetes are Policy making, building of leadership and initiation of community oriented developmental programs. Policy making can prove to be advantageous as it is subjected to governmental initiatives. It refers to a step where the makers of policies work in a coordinative way for effective intervention of Type 2 Diabetes. The interests associated with the makers of policies and that of the country itself has a huge influence on proper initiation of policies (Satterfield et al., 2003). The Federal government and Word Health Organization could serve as the responsible authorities for management of Type 2 Diabetes. The policies of health care should be favoring participative approach and effective leadership which are essential for empowering of communities. The policies would assist in creating awareness and taking preventive measures for individuals suffering from Diabetes. Implementation of the above-mentioned policies would assist initiating programs of community development. The primary activity would be getting in touch with the municipalities for setting mobile clinics of Diabetes care on site for addressing the health requirements of individuals. The second priority would be initiation of an awareness program which would assist the individuals to become knowledgeable about the symptoms of Diabetes and preventive measures that needs to be taken for controlling them effectively (Bakkar et al., 2003). The third phase would emphasize on participation within the communities and encouragement of empowerment through effective building of leadership. Unless, empowerment comes into effect, it is not possible for members of the community to execute the needful measures for treating Type 2 Diabetes effectively (Davis et al., 2017). For initiating empowerment within the individuals, there is an essentiality of considering capacities of building and enabling of societal actions as a preventive measure of controlling and managing the health concern. On an overall note, it could be stated that all the above-mentioned strategies are interrelated to each other for effective prevention of Type 2 Diabetes within the communities.
The core domains associated with the building of capacities can be utilized for promotion of awareness regarding Type 2 Diabetes and preventing the disease depending on the application of participative as well as empowerment programs for assisting the community members (Liberato et al., 2011). Communication plays a pivotal role in treating Type 2 Diabetes as it assists in spreading awareness and disseminate important information as a prevention initiative. Most of the individuals are unaware of Type 2 Diabetes and by the time the disease becomes chronic, it comes into light. However, effective communication can aware a patient regarding the symptoms related to Type 2 Diabetes and the necessity of taking medical advice when needed. Proper dissemination of information can assist individuals in resolving issues related to Diabetes care as well as incorporate preventive measures such as life style changes, self-management tactics and intaking of medicines as per requirement. It is the responsibility of every community members for indulging in proper communication and they should also take the initiative of understanding the influence of human actions towards proper management of Diabetes care.
As far the initiation of programs is concerned, the message sender refers to the hospital. The communicator or the medium is subjected to a digitalized context with likes of brochure or social media context (Heinemann et al., 2019). The messages which would be communicated should be transferred by the hospital itself for assisting the patients in proper dealing of Type 2 Diabetes and further assisting in spreading awareness regarding the preventive measures that needs to be initiated. The preventive measures could include intaking of medicines, insulin, increasing physical exercises, following a diet chart etc. If the process is followed properly, it will be effective in building a strong system which would be facilitating in increasing awareness within the members of the communities. The advancement of technology in the medicinal field has also been rapid in Diabetes care. Health care clinics and hospitals should take active participation in using advanced technical measures such as Bio artificial Pancreas for effective management of Type 2 Diabetes. Effective utilization of social media will assist in building a stronger unit as it has a mass audience reach and have enhanced chances to implementing a successful program for effective management of Type 2 Diabetes (Heinemann et al., 2019). As far the empowerment programs are concerned, primarily the community members need to become aware of the symptoms, causes of the disease and the preventive measures that needs to be incorporated for treating the same (Tol et al., 2015). Likewise, a group discussion can be held, where every community member will indulge in decision making regarding the necessary steps that needs to be taken for initiating a Diabetes Healthcare Program. During discussion, various opinions will result in knowledge enhancement of the community members. Each member should take necessary initiatives of initiating the health care program through a coordinative approach, which would ultimately result in proper management of Type 2 Diabetes.
Dehghani-Tafti et al. (2015) defined health belief model as an approach used by the medical professionals to predict, guide and create awareness about different diseases and their prevention measures. The primary goal of the experts is to generate consciousness among the citizens about the health conditions and preventable measures. The scholar identified six parameters to define the model and its success rate. Perceived susceptibility is one of the major factors that affect medical behavior of the person, whereby the patients do not engage in altering their lifestyle unless the individuals personally perceive to be at risk. Diabetes II slowly damages the kidneys, eyes, escalates chances of heart failure and impairs nerve functioning. The model attempts to promote the dangers of diabetes II to the people, thereby creating awareness (Ayele et al., 2012).
Dehghani-Tafti et al. (2015) stated that perceived severity is the possibility that an individual will tend to bring changes in their life to prevent the horrid consequences due to the severity of the ailment. Diabetes mellitus is a prolonged clinical condition that if aggravated leads to terrifying results and slower death and painful death. Gradually different parts of the body are damaged and the person suffers from various other complications such as hearing impairment, grave infections, Alzheimer’s, coronary trouble and kidney failure. Perceived benefits aids in motivating the individuals in bringing change to their lifestyle if the person feels that the alteration will infuse betterment or reduce the severe consequences of the ailment. Vazini & Barati (2014) opined that bringing certain lifestyle changes such as increasing physical activity, avoiding carbohydrate and junk foods, maintain a sleeping pattern will aid in monitoring the sugar levels in the diabetic patients, which will further enhance their longevity and ensure better life. The clinical experts believe that the disease cannot be fully cured but completely managed that will ensure healthy life.
Vazini & Barati (2014) highlighted that perceived barriers prevent the persons in incorporating changes in their lifestyle as it is being considered to be more costly in terms of psychologically and physically. The patients do not like to curb down their food habits and may feel too lethargic to do physical exercise. Cues to action considers the signals external to the individuals that influence the people to make modifications in their health behaviors. Blood testing camps help the individuals in understanding and knowing about their sugar levels, which further creates awareness and influences to monitor the sugar levels. Self-efficacy is the psychological condition whereby the change van only be brought of the patient wants to. Unless the diabetic patients are, understand the severity of the disease and believe in modifying their health patterns, positive results cannot be evident (Vazini & Barati, 2014).
Educational approach to diabetes mellitus offers knowledge and information to the patients about the symptoms, clinical consequences, preventing measures, controlling mechanisms and heath patterns about the disease. The approach aims at generating awareness about the ailment. According to the medical experts, the major symptoms include fatigue, excessive weight loss or gain, recurrent urination and increased thirst (Kashfi et al., 2012). The individuals are encouraged to infuse certain lifestyle modifications in order to prevent and control the sugar levels, such as losing excess weight, circumventing sedentary life, increasing physical exercise, lowering down the intake of fatty foods and eating more of green vegetables, fruits and whole grains and avoiding late nights. Baghianimoghadam et al. (2012) added that self-management is the most important aspect of regulating diabetes mellitus, where the individuals should adhere to the doctor’s suggestions and strictly follow the diet to keep up their health and try to maintain a normal level of sugar in their body.
The main advantage of health belief model is that it distributes and concentrates on creating awareness of the individual through six categories. These aspects involves the person in controlling and managing the disease along with the medical team by making the individual understand about the various dynamics of diabetes II. Dehghani-Tafti et al. (2015) highlighted that the theory focus on influencing the patients in bringing the change. However, the main limitation of the approach is appropriate explanation to the patients and lack of financial help for the persons. Furthermore, it do not consider the attitudes and personality of the individual that has great impact on their health behavior. The chief benefit of education approach is that it enlightens the individual about the sickness and creates awareness for change from the initial stage. Additionally, it permits the health care experts to design appropriate service for the patient. Conversely, the model do not concentrate on comprehending the prevalent situations of the communities and offer both relevant and extraneous data to the patients, creating more confusion (Baghianimoghadam et al., 2012).
While concluding it could be stated that Type 2 Diabetes can be managed more effectively upon proper implementation of programs for addressing the health issues, the implementation of policy making, building of leadership and programs of community development are the opted strategies for managing Type 2 Diabetes. Emphasis is also given on implementation of participative and empowerment programs for better community engagement in treating Diabetes. Lastly, the educational approach and Health Belief model is considered for motivating and educating the community members