|Subject Code and Title||PUBH6008: Capstone A: Applied Research Project in Public Health|
|Assessment||Assessment 3: Research proposal|
|Learning Outcomes||This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:|
By the end of Module 6, students will submit their full research proposal. This must include:
Subject Code and Title PUBH6008: Capstone A: Applied Research Project in Public Health Assessment 3: Research proposal
Topic: Impact of Smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in supporting people to give up smoking
Smoking is a significant health issue, and it has many endangering and lasting impact on the oral health of people. Those who are addicted to smoking undergo a range of issues; the most pressing problem among these issues is oral cancer. Dentists have a role with respect to convincing their patients to give up smoking and support them in this journey as well. It has been observed that almost 90% of people are developing oral cancer due to smoking. Apart from that, smokers are also suffering from the loss of jaw bone, bad breath, accumulation of the tartar on the teeth, gum disease, leukoplakia and many more. As per the Journal of the American Dental Association, smokers are very likely suffering from the loss of the tooth and bone loss, which is the major complication (Jada. 2019). This research aims at investigating the underlying outcomes of smoking, as well as the role that dentists play in the context of smoking cessation.
Smoking is really injurious to health as it leads to major health-related issues. The harmful effects of smoking can lead to oral cancer. The amount of tobacco consumed by an individual may eventually contribute to oral cancer. Regardless, it is not so that persons who are smoking are only having these problems, but non-smokers are also affected by this. Various problems have been noticed in people dealing with oral health. Another disease is the gum disease, which is very common for the smokers and chances are 2.5-3 times greater than the non-smoker (Hashim & Ismail, 2016). These problems are getting severe and can lead to death if not controlled.
Smoking has become one of the major health issues in developing countries, and it has a serious impact on the oral health and general health. It is said that people who are addicted to smoking have to face problems related to oral health but is not quite so as oral health issues have been well seen in the non-smokers too. People smoking cigarettes or tobacco products are generally used to develop certain problems in their mouth. Symptoms that can be noticed on the smokers include tartar on teeth, loss of tooth, halitosis or commonly known as bad breath, discolouration of the tooth, white patches in the mouth or commonly known as leukoplakia and so on. These symptoms discussed above are some of the general signs that be commonly noticed on the smokers.
The person who smokes cigarette can develop oropharyngeal cancer than non-smokers. Chemicals which are usually present in the tobacco affects the saliva present in the mouth, which helps bacteria to easily stick in the gums creating tartar in the mouth. Mouth cancer, lip and throat cancer are usually due to smoking of tobacco. People smoking cigarettes die at a younger age if compared with non-smokers. In the view of Macy et al. (2019), tt usually shortens the lifespan of women by 11 years and in case of a man by 12 years. There is a high mortality rate of the people due to smoking. Necessary steps are to be taken in order to control this. So the person must visit the doctor and took his advice as he recommends to the person. Various diseases can be occurred due to smoking, and few have been described below:
Leukoplakia: It is the most common disease for the smoker. As per Van der Waal (2017), white patches grew on the upper surface of the tongue or mouth floor or in any place inside the mouth. There are various reasons for leukoplakia, such as HIV, AIDS, lips expose in the sun, but the most significant reason is smoking.
Gum disease: According to Patel & Steinberg, (2016), another most common disease is the gum disease which needs to prevent at the early stages. In this disease, the gum bleeds continuously, and a bad odour comes from the mouth. Reasons are many, but the common one is smoking. Gum disease basically happened due to the accumulation of the bacteria within the mouth, which causes the inflammation of the gum.
Oral cancer: Another most deadly disease is oral cancer which occurred due to the smoking, and As evident from Figure 1, oral cancer has the most common and widespread prevalence, which can be broadly attributed to smoking.
Figure 1: Health issues related to smoking
(Source: Awan, Hammam & Warnakulasuriya, 2015)
Dentists play a major role in the prevention of smoking and encouraging his patients in order to quit smoking. Any changes occurring in the mouth can easily be detected by a dentist. While checking the teeth, he also checks soft palate, tongue and cheeks of the patient so the patient can also be aware of certain changes which are taking place in the mouth of the individual. According to McClure (2018), some of the common methods suggested by the dentists to quit smoking include NRT, which is basically known as Nicotine Replacement Theory, behavioural theory and pharmacological management of tobacco. These therapies are usually applied to the patients based on the level of addiction. Behavioural theory is applied to those patients who are slightly addicted to the consumption of smoking. NRT or Pharmacological therapy is applied to patients who are moderately addicted to smoking. And all three theories can be applied to treat serious addiction.
Figure 1: Activities are undertaken by dentists as a part of smoking cessation programs
(Source: Hashim & Ismail, 2016)
Apart from the direct treatment dentist should also have to spread the awareness to stop smoking and need to facilitate free treatment or checkup camp especially in the crowded area of the city where smoking rate is very high. In the view of Tanner et al. (2015), it is evident that most of the cases smokers avoid the dentist in the early stages of their oral infection, which in future become a fatal one. For this purpose, the door to door survey will also be effective to reduce the oral infection and dentists should have to take a vital responsibility in this case.
There are certain effects of the smoking cessation programs on people. As per Stead, Carroll & Lancaster, (2017), through self-help intervention, it has been observed that the success rate has reached up to 24% and through the help of group behaviour therapy 98% of the success has been achieved. Physician’s advice, as well as nurse’s advice, can heal up to 84- 66% of the problems related to smoking. In the view of Berlin, Cutter & Battaglia, (2015), through these smoking cessation programs, there is seen a downfall in the mortality rate of the people. Therefore by summing up everything, it can be said that these programs put certain effect in the mind of smokers, so they try to quit smoking by realizing the certain impacts it has on health.
Figure 3: Knowledge of smoking cessations among dentists and dental students
(Source: Awan, Hammam & Warnakulasuriya, 2015)
From the above discussion on the topic, it may be established that if this habit is not eliminated in the early stages, then it also leads to death. Stead, Carroll & Lancaster (2017) highlighted that proper medication and advice from dentists are to be taken to cure the impact of smoking on health. Dentists have got many therapies to cure the patient based on the level of the addiction. Many smoking cessation programs are also held, which can help people to quit smoking. However, it may be noted in this context that certain smoking cessation programs have not been proven to be quite successful as a result of neutral to a low response from the patients. Additionally, the role of the dentist is limited to advising. Conducting motivational and information sessions by dentists have not been observed in this regard, it is to be mentioned that smoking is dangerous for both general and oral health. It can lead to certain serious problems like oral cancer and periodontal diseases.
The aim of this research is to identify the key impacts of smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in helping people in quitting smoking. Following are the research objectives.
The research questions are as follows.
The research project is to be carried out to meet all the necessary requirements needed in the project through a descriptive design which would be concerning the smokers with poor oral health and the roles of the dentists in this context. The analysis of the research is done on the basis of the existing ethics.
The descriptive design of the research would be helping the researcher to explain the impact of smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in supporting people to give up smoking. All points and theme are well executed to focus on the issues related to smoking.
Data sources can be commenced through two fundamental ways that are secondary and primary data collection. Primary data collection basically collects the data through the survey, interviews, whereas the secondary data comprises information taken from websites, journals, books and research publications (Kumar, 2019). In this research project, secondary data will be used to collect the information. Accuracy is important while collecting data in order to achieve positive outcomes in the research. Sources and data type are well-chosen in accordance, as the sources are firstly verified by the researcher for reliability and validity of the information and data on the subject matter before and are then used to analyze the certain source.
The use of secondary sources could be helping the researcher to save time, money, resources and energy that could have otherwise devoted if he is going to conduct primary research. Moreover, the secondary research will be helping the researcher in gaining more existing information as summarized by various researchers in the field.
The descriptive design for this particular research study includes detailing of data which is collected in order to meet the aims and objectives of the project. Research design has been made earlier so that accuracy can be fulfilled related to the research proposal. Secondary data collection is performed in the research project so that important, relevant points can be focused easily. Data validation is also taken into account to present accuracy of the research project.
There are two types of method to do the data analysis one is quantitative, and the other one is qualitative (Mackey & Gass, 2015). Qualitative data analysis is to be undertaken on the data and information gathered from the secondary sources. The secondary sources for the topic would be the Government websites depicting oral health policies and programs, oral health magazines, case studies of patients suffering from oral diseases due to smoking.
Here, qualitative analysis is to be implemented to analyze the topic in the project, and these results in the relevancy of the positive outcomes for the research. Additionally, qualitative data analysis provides an opportunity to identify gaps in the existing research and provides scope for future research on the subject.
The researcher has to undergo various research papers, journals, books, news articles in order to collect the data related to the research topic. The researcher here thus abides General Protection Regulation Act 2010 while doing the research project. Abiding of the data helps in the security of the information related to the research topic.
The communication of the results of the research can be critical for the success of the project. The main reasons behind the impact of smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in it are taken into account in order to focus on the topic. People are getting affected due to smoking as it results in the downfall of their health as well as serious problems like oral cancer can be detected. The dissemination of the knowledge is gained from the research and serves equal importance for the research topic
|Topic Selection/ Approval|
|Research Methodology selection|
|Secondary Data Collection|
|Qualitative Data Analysis|
Table 1: Gantt chart
Source: Created by author