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PUBH6008 Impact of Smoking on Oral Health and Role of Dentists Assessment 3 Answer

ASSESSMENT BRIEF
Subject Code and TitlePUBH6008: Capstone A: Applied Research Project in Public Health
AssessmentAssessment 3: Research proposal
Individual/GroupIndividual
Length2,000 words
Learning OutcomesThis assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

  1. Integrate and apply their knowledge and skills in public health
  2. Develop research skills and apply these to a public health issue
  3. Conduct a small literature review which critically analyses key issues on a public health research topic
  4. Define and justify a research question, based on the literature/public health issue, and outline its significance
7. Understand the principles of ethics and apply these toa research proposal


Instructions:

By the end of Module 6, students will submit their full research proposal. This must include:

  • Introductory background including a statement of the public health problem
  • A background literature review
  • Aims of your research, including the research question or hypothesis
  • A rationale/justification of your research question or hypothesis indicating the significance of the project (research merit)
  • Research design, methodology and methods
  • A description of the type of data being gathered and from which sources.
  • Justification of your study design, including your methodology, methods of sampling and data collection methods
  • How you plan to analyse the research
  • Any relevant ethical considerations
  • How you plan to communicate and disseminate the research
  • A list of references used
  • Your GANTT chart describing the tasks and time-frames for your project

Assessment Criteria:

  • Clarity of research problem and rationale provided for its significance (15%)
  • Critical and comprehensive review of the literature (15%)
  • Justification of research design and methods, including ethical considerations (30%)
  • Logical and clear program plan using the GANTT chart method (10%)
  • Regular communication with and attendance at meetings with facilitator (10%)
  • General assessment criteria (20%):
    • Provides a lucid introduction
    • Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
    • Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic
    • Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts
    • Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
    • Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions
    • Provides a conclusion or summary
    • Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
      • Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list)
      • Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction
      • Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research

Answer

Subject Code and Title PUBH6008: Capstone A: Applied Research Project in Public Health Assessment 3: Research proposal

Topic: Impact of Smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in supporting people to give up smoking

Introduction

Smoking is a significant health issue, and it has many endangering and lasting impact on the oral health of people. Those who are addicted to smoking undergo a range of issues; the most pressing problem among these issues is oral cancer. Dentists have a role with respect to convincing their patients to give up smoking and support them in this journey as well. It has been observed that almost 90% of people are developing oral cancer due to smoking. Apart from that, smokers are also suffering from the loss of jaw bone, bad breath, accumulation of the tartar on the teeth, gum disease, leukoplakia and many more. As per the Journal of the American Dental Association, smokers are very likely suffering from the loss of the tooth and bone loss, which is the major complication (Jada. 2019). This research aims at investigating the underlying outcomes of smoking, as well as the role that dentists play in the context of smoking cessation. 

Problem statement

Smoking is really injurious to health as it leads to major health-related issues. The harmful effects of smoking can lead to oral cancer. The amount of tobacco consumed by an individual may eventually contribute to oral cancer. Regardless, it is not so that persons who are smoking are only having these problems, but non-smokers are also affected by this. Various problems have been noticed in people dealing with oral health. Another disease is the gum disease, which is very common for the smokers and chances are 2.5-3 times greater than the non-smoker (Hashim & Ismail, 2016). These problems are getting severe and can lead to death if not controlled.  

Background literature review

Smoking has become one of the major health issues in developing countries, and it has a serious impact on the oral health and general health. It is said that people who are addicted to smoking have to face problems related to oral health but is not quite so as oral health issues have been well seen in the non-smokers too. People smoking cigarettes or tobacco products are generally used to develop certain problems in their mouth. Symptoms that can be noticed on the smokers include tartar on teeth, loss of tooth, halitosis or commonly known as bad breath, discolouration of the tooth, white patches in the mouth or commonly known as leukoplakia and so on. These symptoms discussed above are some of the general signs that be commonly noticed on the smokers.

Theme 1: Smoking and its impact on oral health

The person who smokes cigarette can develop oropharyngeal cancer than non-smokers. Chemicals which are usually present in the tobacco affects the saliva present in the mouth, which helps bacteria to easily stick in the gums creating tartar in the mouth. Mouth cancer, lip and throat cancer are usually due to smoking of tobacco. People smoking cigarettes die at a younger age if compared with non-smokers. In the view of  Macy et al. (2019), tt usually shortens the lifespan of women by 11 years and in case of a man by 12 years. There is a high mortality rate of the people due to smoking. Necessary steps are to be taken in order to control this. So the person must visit the doctor and took his advice as he recommends to the person. Various diseases can be occurred due to smoking, and few have been described below:

Leukoplakia: It is the most common disease for the smoker.  As per Van der Waal (2017), white patches grew on the upper surface of the tongue or mouth floor or in any place inside the mouth.  There are various reasons for leukoplakia, such as HIV, AIDS, lips expose in the sun, but the most significant reason is smoking.

Gum disease: According to Patel & Steinberg, (2016), another most common disease is the gum disease which needs to prevent at the early stages. In this disease, the gum bleeds continuously, and a bad odour comes from the mouth. Reasons are many, but the common one is smoking. Gum disease basically happened due to the accumulation of the bacteria within the mouth, which causes the inflammation of the gum.

Oral cancer: Another most deadly disease is oral cancer which occurred due to the smoking, and  As evident from Figure 1, oral cancer has the most common and widespread prevalence, which can be broadly attributed to smoking. 

 Health issues related to smoking

Figure 1: Health issues related to smoking

(Source: Awan, Hammam & Warnakulasuriya, 2015)

Theme 2: Role of dentists in the smoking cessation

Dentists play a major role in the prevention of smoking and encouraging his patients in order to quit smoking. Any changes occurring in the mouth can easily be detected by a dentist. While checking the teeth, he also checks soft palate, tongue and cheeks of the patient so the patient can also be aware of certain changes which are taking place in the mouth of the individual. According to McClure (2018), some of the common methods suggested by the dentists to quit smoking include NRT, which is basically known as Nicotine Replacement Theory, behavioural theory and pharmacological management of tobacco. These therapies are usually applied to the patients based on the level of addiction. Behavioural theory is applied to those patients who are slightly addicted to the consumption of smoking. NRT or Pharmacological therapy is applied to patients who are moderately addicted to smoking. And all three theories can be applied to treat serious addiction. 

Activities are undertaken by dentists as a part of smoking cessation programs

Figure 1: Activities are undertaken by dentists as a part of smoking cessation programs

(Source: Hashim & Ismail, 2016)

Apart from the direct treatment dentist should also have to spread the awareness to stop smoking and need to facilitate free treatment or checkup camp especially in the crowded area of the city where smoking rate is very high. In the view of Tanner et al. (2015), it is evident that most of the cases smokers avoid the dentist in the early stages of their oral infection, which in future become a fatal one. For this purpose, the door to door survey will also be effective to reduce the oral infection and dentists should have to take a vital responsibility in this case.

Theme 3: Effectiveness of smoking cessation programs

 There are certain effects of the smoking cessation programs on people. As per Stead, Carroll & Lancaster, (2017), through self-help intervention, it has been observed that the success rate has reached up to 24% and through the help of group behaviour therapy 98% of the success has been achieved. Physician’s advice, as well as nurse’s advice, can heal up to 84- 66% of the problems related to smoking. In the view of Berlin, Cutter & Battaglia, (2015), through these smoking cessation programs, there is seen a downfall in the mortality rate of the people. Therefore by summing up everything, it can be said that these programs put certain effect in the mind of smokers, so they try to quit smoking by realizing the certain impacts it has on health.

Knowledge of smoking cessations among dentists and dental students

Figure 3: Knowledge of smoking cessations among dentists and dental students

(Source: Awan, Hammam & Warnakulasuriya, 2015)

From the above discussion on the topic, it may be established that if this habit is not eliminated in the early stages, then it also leads to death. Stead, Carroll & Lancaster (2017) highlighted that proper medication and advice from dentists are to be taken to cure the impact of smoking on health. Dentists have got many therapies to cure the patient based on the level of the addiction. Many smoking cessation programs are also held, which can help people to quit smoking. However, it may be noted in this context that certain smoking cessation programs have not been proven to be quite successful as a result of neutral to a low response from the patients. Additionally, the role of the dentist is limited to advising. Conducting motivational and information sessions by dentists have not been observed in this regard, it is to be mentioned that smoking is dangerous for both general and oral health. It can lead to certain serious problems like oral cancer and periodontal diseases. 

Aims, objectives and research questions

The aim of this research is to identify the key impacts of smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in helping people in quitting smoking. Following are the research objectives.

  • To identify and analyze the specific impacts of smoking on the oral health of people 
  • To determine the role of dentists in helping people to quit smoking
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation program and the role of dentists in that program

The research questions are as follows.

  1. What are the specific impacts of smoking on the oral health of people?
  2. How effective is the smoking cessation program as promoted by dentists?
  3. What are the recommended strategies and programs to be introduced by dentists for increasing awareness about the ill-effects of smoking on the oral health of people?

Methodology

Research design

The research project is to be carried out to meet all the necessary requirements needed in the project through a descriptive design which would be concerning the smokers with poor oral health and the roles of the dentists in this context. The analysis of the research is done on the basis of the existing ethics. 

Justification

The descriptive design of the research would be helping the researcher to explain the impact of smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in supporting people to give up smoking. All points and theme are well executed to focus on the issues related to smoking.  

Data type and sources

Data sources can be commenced through two fundamental ways that are secondary and primary data collection. Primary data collection basically collects the data through the survey, interviews, whereas the secondary data comprises information taken from websites, journals, books and research publications (Kumar, 2019). In this research project, secondary data will be used to collect the information. Accuracy is important while collecting data in order to achieve positive outcomes in the research. Sources and data type are well-chosen in accordance, as the sources are firstly verified by the researcher for reliability and validity of the information and data on the subject matter before and are then used to analyze the certain source.

Justification

The use of secondary sources could be helping the researcher to save time, money, resources and energy that could have otherwise devoted if he is going to conduct primary research. Moreover, the secondary research will be helping the researcher in gaining more existing information as summarized by various researchers in the field.

 Study design, data collection and sampling

The descriptive design for this particular research study includes detailing of data which is collected in order to meet the aims and objectives of the project. Research design has been made earlier so that accuracy can be fulfilled related to the research proposal. Secondary data collection is performed in the research project so that important, relevant points can be focused easily. Data validation is also taken into account to present accuracy of the research project. 

Data analysis 

There are two types of method to do the data analysis one is quantitative, and the other one is qualitative (Mackey & Gass, 2015). Qualitative data analysis is to be undertaken on the data and information gathered from the secondary sources. The secondary sources for the topic would be the Government websites depicting oral health policies and programs, oral health magazines, case studies of patients suffering from oral diseases due to smoking.

Justification

Here, qualitative analysis is to be implemented to analyze the topic in the project, and these results in the relevancy of the positive outcomes for the research. Additionally, qualitative data analysis provides an opportunity to identify gaps in the existing research and provides scope for future research on the subject. 

Ethical considerations

The researcher has to undergo various research papers, journals, books, news articles in order to collect the data related to the research topic. The researcher here thus abides General Protection Regulation Act 2010 while doing the research project. Abiding of the data helps in the security of the information related to the research topic.

 Communication and dissemination

The communication of the results of the research can be critical for the success of the project.  The main reasons behind the impact of smoking on oral health and the role of dentists in it are taken into account in order to focus on the topic.  People are getting affected due to smoking as it results in the downfall of their health as well as serious problems like oral cancer can be detected. The dissemination of the knowledge is gained from the research and serves equal importance for the research topic 

Gantt chart

 Week
Tasks123456789101112
Topic Selection/ Approval            
Literature Review            
Research Methodology selection            
Secondary Data Collection            
Qualitative Data Analysis            
Findings            
Conclusion/ Recommendations            
Submission            

Table 1: Gantt chart

Source: Created by author

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