Abc Assignment Help

PUBH6012 Project in Public Health: Rates of Obesity Among Australian Adults Capstone B Assessment Answer

ASSESSMENT BRIEF
Subject Code and TitlePUBH6012: Capstone B: Applied Research Project in Public Health
AssessmentAssessment 1: Report
Individual/GroupGroup
Length5,000 words
Learning OutcomesThis assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

  1. Integrate and apply their knowledge and skills in public health
  2. Apply research skills to a public health issue
  3. Analyse the results of data collected from research, taking into consideration prior evidence and theory
  4. Understand the ethical implications for conducting a piece of public health research
6. Create a final research report
SubmissionDue Sunday following the end of Module 5 at 11:55pm AEST/AEDT*

Instructions:

The final assignment for this subject will be the write-up of the findings of your research into a final report. This will be comprised of the following parts:

  1. Abstract
    1. Summary of your report
  2. Introduction
    1. Introduction to and justification of the topic area, drawing upon your literature review (from Capstone A)
  3. Research design and methods
    1. Summarise your research design/methods
    2. Explain how the organization/individuals were approached
    3. Briefly explain the ethics procedure/considerations.
  4. Results
    1. Report the results of your findings, e.g. key themes if a qualitative study, results in table format if a qualitative study
    2. Clearly explain key figures, tables and graphs
  5. Discussion: Analysis and interpretation of your results
    1. Place your results in the context of your literature review (from Capstone A)
    2. Analyse the results in light of the academic literature in public health and discipline specific concepts and tools covered in the MPH course
  6. Conclusion
    1. Conclusions from this study
    2. Limitations of this study
    3. Recommendations for future research or policy change based on feasible solutions
  7. Supplementary material
    1. Reference List
    2. Appendices
    3. Ethics approval

This research report format has been based on the standard format for a journal article, and thus may be submitted to a journal in the future if the student is interested (however, due to the time constraints around submission and peer review, a submitted article will not be required as part of this subject). If you wish to develop a journal article, you may seek advice on how to do this at the end of the Capstone.

Assessment Criteria:

  • Clear executive summary/abstract which condenses the findings of the report (10%)
  • Clear justification and outline of the significance of the topic (15%)
  • Justification of the research design (15%)
  • Clear presentation of results, with transparency of findings (20%)
  • Comprehensive analysis and interpretation of results: Results integrated into the context of previous studies/theory (20%)
  • Identification of the limitations of the study, with recommendations for future research (10%)


  • Discussion leading to logical conclusions or recommendations (10%)

Answer

Rates of Obesity Among Australian Adults

Capstone B: Applied Research Project in Public Health 

Summary

Globally, obesity has become a public health problem as it leads to increased chances of developing chronic diseases, disability, overall poor health quality and burden for health care costs (Rodriguez-Hernandez, et.al. 2013; Samper-Ternent & Al Snih, 2012)

Australia also indicates similar patterns and trends with respect to the obesity rates. The percentages of adults who are overweight or obese have been significantly rising and this poses a grave concern for the health, social and economic life of the affected individuals (Sainsbury, et.al. 2018).

This research study aims to compare the rate of obesity among Australian adults within three different states i.e. Tasmania, Queensland and South Australia. This comparison will be in terms of obesity rates as well as various determinants among them. Through this, one of the goals of the research study is also to fulfill the gap in already available research and literature review related to this topic as this kind of state wise comparison in terms of rates and determinants has not been done before and is relevant.

This research study will be conducted based on a quantitative design with a view to get suitable and effective information regarding the obesity issue within the Australian adults. The main source of the secondary data collection is from the Public Health Information Development Unit of Australia (PHIDU, 2018). Hence, data considered for this study provides an almost accurate view of the obesity problem that is being faced by the Australian people.

The sampling of the above mentioned data is done according to the diverse states of Australia and their obesity rates within the country. The data is also analyzed basis age, gender etc. 

The research study will conclude the results and also provide recommendations for further research studies as also steps that can be taken to control the obesity rates in the studied Australian states.

Introduction

Overview

Across the world, the obesity rates have witnessed steep increase such that it has increased by almost threefold since 1975. The impact of obesity is tremendous and can be understood through statistics as given by the World Health Organisation; as of 2016, as many as 39% of adults aged 18 or older were overweight and 13% were obese (World Health Organisation, 2018). Globally, obesity has become a public health problem as it leads to increased chances of developing chronic diseases, disability, overall poor health quality and burden for health care costs (Rodriguez-Hernandez, et.al. 2013; Samper-Ternent & Al Snih, 2012)

Australia also indicates similar patterns and trends with respect to the obesity rates. The percentages of adults who are overweight or obese have been significantly rising and this poses a grave concern for the health, social and economic life of the affected individuals (Sainsbury, et.al. 2018). Some research studies have also found association between obesity and various socio demographic factors, such as education, physical activity and remoteness (Thurber, et.al. 2018)

Therefore, it is very important to address the obesity rates in different state, as obesity is a serious health problem in Australia and comparison with rates and determinants is essential to assess the situation in different states.

Aim of the Research 

This research study aims to compare the rate of obesity among Australian adults within three different states i.e. Tasmania, Queensland and South Australia. This comparison will be in terms of obesity rates as well as various determinants among them. Through this, one of the goals of the research study is also to fulfill the gap in already available research and literature review related to this topic as this kind of state wise comparison in terms of rates and determinants has not been done before and is relevant.

Research Questions

This research study aims at answering following research questions:

  1. Among the three different states, i.e. Tasmania, Queensland and South Australia, which state has the highest prevalence of obesity among the Australian adults?
  2. Are determinants of obesity directly related to increase prevalence of obesity among Australian adults?
  3. Are there any differences within the rates of obesity among men and women?

Literature Review

As discussed earlier, the issue of obesity has become a global concern as it leads to chronic diseases, deteriorates health and research also indicates that it has implication for social and demographic factors. Even in Australia, the issue of obesity has become rampant due to steep increase in obesity rates across Australian adults.

Causes of Obesity

Obesity generally results from the sustained energy imbalance among the people. According to Obesity in Australia (2018), almost 63% of the Australian adults have the problem of obesity, and the rate is further rising rapidly within the country. Further, the rate of severe obesity is also increasing rapidly. The rate of severe obesity in Australian adults was approximately 5% in 1995 and it jumped to 9% by 2015 (Veitch et al., 2016). In the words of Jih et al. (2014), the obesity among the Australian people is considered to be 7% of the total health burden in the country.

In the view of Bennie et al. (2015), appropriate weight for a person not only provides healthy physical look but also for internal wellbeing of the body. The obesity occurs in an individual, whether a child or an adult, when there is hormonal imbalance or some other issue such that the food consumed gets saturated within and further creates numerous health issues.

According to Powell et al., (2015), the foremost reason for increasing rates of obesity amongst Australian adults of today is the lifestyle and food habits of the people. With the change in time, people have become so busy such that limited time is available for cooking healthy food or even consuming food in timely manner. Due to the irregular and improper diet system, obesity occurs.

As per Creatore et al., (2016), food is a vital aspect that deals with obesity among human being. Food habits of the people have changed over the years and due to that, various diseases have also evolved. There is a definite association between these diseases and the obesity among the people. In the words of Hardy et al., (2017), people from the different states of Australia have almost the same obesity ratio because the entire country is virtually eating the same foo and has the same food habits. It is the fact that people are facing severe health problems due to their weight and improper food habits.

Measurement of Obesity

The obesity is generally measured with the help of BMI calculator that is the process where their height divides the weight of the human being. Typically, a healthy person would have the BMI ranging from 18.50 – 24.99 and if the person has the BMI over 30, then they have obesity (Poston et al., 2016).

According to Chan et al. (2017), the BMI calculation segments obesity in three classes, namely, Class I overweight, Class II overweight and Class III obese. Class III is the most severe case of obesity that demands immediate attention of impacted individuals so as to reduce their weight.

Impact of Obesity

According to Foundation (2018), obese people generally die 3-4 years earlier as compared to the healthy living people. This happens typically because obese people tend to attract numerous health issues like heart disease than other health problems. Further, the obesity among the people has an enormous impact on the self-confidence level and other working activities of the people.  


Research Design and Methods

Research Objectives

This research study aims to compare the rate of obesity among Australian adults within three different states i.e. Tasmania, Queensland and South Australia. This comparison will be in terms of obesity rates as well as various determinants among them. Through this, one of the goals of the research study is also to fulfill the gap in already available research and literature review related to this topic as this kind of state wise comparison in terms of rates and determinants has not been done before and is relevant.

Research Methods

This research study will be conducted based on a quantitative design with a view to get suitable and effective information regarding the obesity issue within the Australian adults. 

Since this is a quantitative research, an appropriate method for the research paper is considered to be correlational design whereby, data will be collected from secondary sources. The data mainly comprises of various statistics related to obesity in the three states of Australia. 

Data Type

The main source of the secondary data collection is from the Public Health Information Development Unit of Australia (PHIDU, 2018). In turn, the PHIDU gets the information by analyzing the population of the country with the help of qualitative and the quantitative research. The PHIDU develops their database through analysis of medical history, health related statistics, etc. of Australian citizens. This data is gathered mainly through online survey, especially for those with a medical condition or a disease. Further, the data is also analyzed basis age, gender etc. Since this data is collected directly by the Australian government through primary sources, the data is highly reliable and accurate and hence, provides a good basis for this research study. Hence, data considered for this study provides an almost accurate view of the obesity problem that is being faced by the Australian people.

Further, this data is readily available on the Australian government’s website such that anyone can access the information to gain further clarity. Also, the data is streamlined and available in an easy to understand format (Renzaho, Bilal, & Marks, 2014)

The sampling of the above mentioned data is done according to the diverse states of Australia and their obesity rates within the country. All the statistics were studied, and the data was gathered effectively to get the most valuable and understanding view on the facts. 

As mentioned earlier, the kind of data or the information that will be picked within the research paper is in the form of quantitative data. This type of data is the information regarding the quantities that can be easily measured with the help of statistics and the numbers. The research paper is on the rate of obesity among the Australian adults in three different states, and for this, the quantitative data is also gathered for the three different states of Australia (Gatti et al., 2015)

The data that is being collected from the secondary and the internet source needs to have a statistical view on the rate of obesity among the people in Australia. In the quantitative data, the variables are highly essential to measure the issue and the consequences of the facts. For measuring the obesity rate among the people of Australia, it is essential to gather the information regarding the obesity in males and females of the three different states of Australia. This variable is essential to provide a view on the activity that is being performed by the male and the female which is the root cause of obesity (Yurkovich, & Palsson, 2018)

In addition to the collection of data basis diversification of gender, the information can also be gathered basis diversification of the age brackets among adult people and their respective obesity class to understand the severity of the issue among the people. The change in status of the obesity rates over the years is also considered to be one of the variables to provide a valuable understanding of the facts for the development of suitable measures regarding the fact (Abildgaard, Saksvik, & Nielsen, 2016)

The selected data source for the data to be used for this research study will provide the yearly information and data on the rate of obesity among the males and the females of Australia as well as that within various age groups. This information is further available for each of the three states of Australia, viz Tasmania, Queensland and South Australia, that are being considered for this research study. The information on the various diseases that are being caused by obesity is also essential for the successful completion of this research paper. An effort shall be made to collect relevant secondary data as available in this regard and same will be analyzed.

Research Questions

Basis the data to be collected and objectives of this research study, following major research questions have been formulated:

  1. Among the three different states, which state has the highest prevalence of obesity among the Australian adults?
  2. Are determinants of obesity directly related to increase prevalence of obesity among Australian adults?
  3. Are there any differences within the rates of obesity among men and women?

Justification of the Study Design

The secondary analysis has been selected for this research paper, and this is one of the best ways to get information regarding the rate of obesity among the Australian people. This is because the information related to the rise of rates of obesity and corresponding impact is typically available through the health care unit of the government. Apart from ease of availability, such data is also very accurate as it is directly collected by the government through survey of Australian people (Brown et al., 2015)

Hence, for the purpose of this research study, all of such available data and entire information is being effectively collected from the public health information development unit of Australia where various health-related details are available on the government website. This information is mostly accurate and is suitable for analyzing the rate of obesity among the Australian adults. 

However, encompassing information related to the high growth rate of obesity could not be suitably achieved from the primary data because people generally do not have an accurate view of the entire country statistics on obesity (Alrushud, Rushton, Kanavaki, & Greig, 2017). This is the primary reason for selecting a secondary data source for the successful completion of the research paper. The use of secondary information allows the research to get a suitable and practical view of the facts.

The secondary data is suitable for this research paper because all the information is already available on the internet and the government website. This is the fact that research does not need to get the same data over and over again, but they can effectively analyses the existing data that are available on the government website (Kirchengast, & Hartmann, 2017). It can be seen that this information allows the researcher to develop their understanding regarding the facts and the figure and the condition of obese people within the country. In this research paper, secondary information is the vital aspect that could help the people to develop their information and working function regarding the research paper. 

The secondary sources provide information on the statistical view of obesity among the different states in Australia and also the number of people affected due to the obesity in the entire country (Felisbino-Mendes et al., 2014). To gather all these information through the primary data collection methods implies investment of huge amount of time and money. Furthermore, even primary data collection will lead to same information and data that is already available through secondary sources. In fact, the primary data may be skewed or not as reliable due to limitations of time and sample size. Hence, the best way is to use the secondary data for the successful completion of the research paper. A wide variety of information is available on the internet, but the government and the statistical data that are associated with the Australian adult about obesity is the only one being selected for the analysis process so as to ensure high levels of accuracy and reliability.

Plan to analyze the Research 

The data related information that is being collected is mainly from the database repository of the Australian government and data selected is related to the obesity among the people. The information available regarding the topic is very vast and hence, efforts were made to select and utilize only the most relevant information such that the analysis process results in effective output. The main technique used will be percentage data analysis (Felisbino-Mendes et al., 2014). Percentage data analysis is the procedure that is used to represent the raw stream of data as the term of percentage to understand the collected information in the better way. In this analysis process, the information would be expressed as the set of data or the value that provides the percentage of the entire facts. Percentage data analysis is one of the most simple and effective analysis techniques that help to maintain the vast data with a suitable value. This analysis system allows the researchers to understand the data and provide a valuable outcome in term of a proper process for the successful completion of the paper.

The research paper will be discussing the three states of Australia and the information on the obesity of people which needs a valid comparison to understand the outcome of obesity in these locations. Then there are also statistical data that is regarding the severity of obesity among the people of Australia. As discussed earlier, there are three classes of obesity, namely, Class I obese, Class II overweight and Class III overweight. 

The selected data consists of the three variables, and for that, the proper test to get a practical view of the information and to analysis is the one-way ANOVA test. It is the one-way analysis of variance test that is being utilized to determine the statistically significant difference within the mean of the two or more independent group.  In this test, the data collected are distributed among the interval dependent variable, and the proof is done to provide suitable and sufficient information regarding the dependent variable broken by the level of the independent variable (Mrkvicka, Hahn, & Myllymaki, 2016). This test is the right test to figure out the comparison in the rate of obesity among the three different states of the country.

Since this research study focuses only on Australia and the rate of obesity among Australian adults, there is a high probability that here might be a relationship among the information collected from the three different states of Australia. It is the most effective and essential part of the research paper to provide valuable information for the analysis of the data. There are numerous other relationships also that could come out once the data is analyzed which can in turn, form basis for further research in the area. 

In order to understand the relationship between the variables, it is essential to perform the Regression analysis because it is a powerful statistical process that helps to examine the relationship within the two or more variables of interest. This test is generally used for the prediction of the outcome of two or more variables (Di Nardo, Alshahwan, Briand, & Labiche, 2015). In this test, various data can be fed at a time to achieve the proper and effective outcome for the process and also provides the valuable understanding regarding the rate of obesity among the Australian adults in the three different states. This is also considered to be the best test as it helps to gain the relationship of obesity with food habit, lifestyle and other activities. 

The analysis also needs to be effectively done regarding the various diseases and the health problem that is being caused due to the obesity among the people. The investigation will be done on the different classes of obesity and their impact on the health condition of the people (Epitropakis, Yoo, Harman, & Burke, 2015). This information will eventually help the researcher to provide their outcome in the most suitable and the valuable way. It is the fact that the people in the recent years are suffering from various health issues primarily due to obesity which, in turn, is related to the lifestyle and food habits of the people. The analysis will be effectively done on the process of providing their understanding regarding the poor health condition of the people in Australia and the primary reason behind the health issue of the people. The result will effectively help the people to provide their valuable view on the process and the information on the facts regarding obesity among the people. 

Results

Firstly, data for various states was gathered basis the population, age groups and genders. Then, the percentage data analysis technique was applied to analyze the collected data. The data so collected and analyzed can be presented as follows:

Pie-Chart showing Total population between 3 states

As can be seen in the above pie chart, between the three states, Queensland is the largest state in terms of total population and accounts for as much as 68% of the total population in consideration for the research study. This is followed by South Australia that accounts for as much as 25% of the total population in consideration for the research study. Lastly, Tasmania accounts for 7% of the total population in consideration. 


Hence, the results of this research study will be greatly impacted by the data for Queensland as it accounts for more than two thirds of the total population in consideration.

Graph for total population in three states

As can be seen in the above bar graph, the graph presents break up of total population of the three states in terms of various age groups ranging from 0-14 years till 85 years and above age group.

It can be seen that the maximum population in each of the states, that is, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania is concentrated in the age group of 25-44 years. The next concentration is in the 45-64 years age group which is almost similar in case of South Australia and Tasmania.

Hence, we can see that the majority of population in these states is at the peak of their careers where they are bound to be busy in achieving their professional goals such that they will have very less time to focus on healthy lifestyle and/or healthy food eating habits.

The following graphs will present a picture for each of the states:

Queensland Population: Male vs Female

It can be seen in the above bar graph that when the Queensland population is younger, say 0-14 years of age or even 25-44 years of age, the male to female ratio is almost 50%. However, as the population ages, the male to female ratio declines which, in turn, may indicate higher longevity for female population.

South Australia Population: Male vs female

It can be seen in the above bar graph that when the South Australian population is younger, say 0-14 years of age or even 45-64 years of age, the male to female ratio is almost 50%. However, as the population ages, the male to female ratio declines which, in turn, may indicate higher longevity for female population.

Tasmania Population: Male vs female

It can be seen in the above bar graph that when the Tasmanian population is younger, say 0-14 years of age or even 45-64 years of age, the male to female ratio is almost 50%. However, as the population ages, the male to female ratio declines which, in turn, may indicate higher longevity for female population.

Hence, from the above three bar graphs, we can conclude safely that female population has higher longevity which is depicted through almost same male to female ratio in younger age groups but the male to female ratio decline in older age groups indicate something towards longevity. Now, this may be due to a host of factors such as healthier lifestyle of female population as compared to male population, better food eating habits of female population as compared to the male population, more career-oriented mindset of male population as compared to the female population, etc. 

The following graph presents education related information:

Education level (% of total population)

It can be seen in the above bar graph that in Queensland, a very high percentage of total population has either attended no school or left school at very early age and the figure stands at 21.3% of the total population. Similarly a large part of total population is involved in vocational education or training (17.8%). This indicates relatively lower level of education in the state that might impact the understanding and knowledge of the individual regarding healthy lifestyle and food habits.

The corresponding figures in South Australia and Tasmania are very low. In South Australia, 6.5% of total population did not attend school or left school early while the corresponding figure for Tasmania is only 3.2%. Similarly, in South Australia, 4.5% of population is involved in vocational education while the corresponding number for Tasmania is only 1.6%.

Education level (%of corresponding age population)

The above graph represents the percentage of 16 year old population that participated in secondary school education and the percentage of 17 year old population that participated in higher school education. 

It can be seen in the above bar graph that in all the three states, the participation in secondary school education is quite high, with South Australia leading at 86.7% and Queensland following closely at 83.2%.

However, in all the three states, the participation in higher education is quite low with Queensland at 30.6%, South Australia at 28.9% and Tasmania at 26.5%. 

This indicates that out of the corresponding age groups, majority tends to participate in secondary school education however, very few of those continue with higher education participation. This indicates relatively lower level of education in the state that might impact the understanding and knowledge of the individual regarding healthy lifestyle and food habits.

The following set of graphs will help to understand obesity rates in three states:

Male Population: Obesity rate

Female Population: Obesity rate


From the above graphs, we can understand the obesity rates in the three different states divided into two categories: overweight and obese. Further, the two graphs indicate data for male population and female population, respectively.

Among the male population, the overweight population percentage is maximum in Tasmania (21.2%), followed by Queensland (19.9%) and South Australia (18.3%). The obese population percentage is maximum in South Australia (19.7%), followed by Tasmania (18.8%) and Queensland (18.3%). In total, almost half of the male population is either overweight or obese in any of the states with Tasmania being the worst at 50.8%.

Similarly, among the female population, the overweight population percentage is maximum in South Australia (30.4%), followed by Tasmania (27.9%) and Queensland (26.3%). The obese population percentage is maximum in Tasmania (23.0%), followed by Queensland (20.6%) and South Australia 18.8%). In total, almost 40% of the female population is either overweight or obese in any of the states with Tasmania being the worst at 39.9%.

The above analysis indicates dismal state of affairs in all the states, particularly Tasmania. It also indicates that female population is better off as compared to the male population as there is lower percentage of impacted population. This may also explain the higher longevity in females as discussed earlier.

The following graphs represent waist measurement of people in the three states such that the size indicates high risk of developing chronic diseases:

Waist size indication chronic disease risk

From the above graph, we can see that the risk of developing chronic diseases due to the increased waist size is the highest in Tasmania irrespective of the gender. The next worst off is Queensland followed by South Australia. Interestingly, this parameter suggests that more females are at risk of developing chronic diseases due to increased waist size as compared to males, especially in South Australia where there is a huge gap between male and female population. This may indicate that in coming years, even female population will be as badly inflicted as the male population with regard to obesity rates.

The following graphs represent number of adults who have been diagnosed with psychological distress and/or high blood pressure or other health disorders:

Disease (% of population)

The above graph indicates the two main diseases that are directly a result of obesity, psychological distress and high blood pressure. It can be seen that Tasmania reports maximum cases of high blood pressure (20.2%), in line with the highest rate of obesity among the three states. Further, the psychological distress (9.6%) is also the second highest in the state. The remaining two states are no better with high blood pressure being reported at 17.4% for South Australia and 16.7% for Queensland. 

smokers (% population)

From the above graph, we can see that the maximum number of smokers is in Tasmania, irrespective of the gender. The next worst off is Queensland followed by South Australia. This parameter further reinforces the above findings.

Lifestyle (% population)

The above bar graph indicates various lifestyle related issues that impact the health of an individual and also disrupt diet system which can further lead to obesity. It is clear that Tasmania is worse off in all three scenarios, whether it is higher alcohol consumption (23.3%), lower population taking adequate fruit intake (55.7%) or no or low levels of exercise (41.3%).

This is not to say that the remaining two states are performing better as the percentage of population in all three states is really close.

An individual who is consuming more alcohol, less fruits and not exercising sufficiently is bound to be inflicted by diseases at later stages of life, obesity being only one of them. 

Conclusion

From the above data analysis, we can conclude that the lifestyle of people residing in Australian states of Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania has actually become unhealthy to an extent that it will definitely impact their health. 

This is particularly true for the male population that was worse off on every parameter as compared to the female counterparts. It was reflected in the male to female ratio in older age groups, waist size measurement that indicates risk of developing chronic diseases, habits such as smoking as also the obesity rates. Some of the data also indicated that if not controlled, even female population is set to be as worse as the male population.

Although all the three states, viz Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania seem to be badly inflicted with lifestyle related and food habit related issues, Tasmania seems to be the worst out of the three. The obesity rates are the highest among the three states; it has maximum population that smokes, drinks alcohol more than the average of two drinks per day, does little or no exercise and also does not eat adequate fruits as required for a healthy body. 

Given the above facts and also that the maximum population is in the age group of 25-44 years and 45-65 years of age, it is imperative to impart knowledge regarding the ill effects of such lifestyle. This concentration indicates that the maximum population is young and at a stage of life where career is of utmost importance. However, along with that, health is also equally important if not more. Hence, the point needs to be driven so that the Australian citizens remain healthy. 

Recommendations

Given the above discussion, it is clear that the three states considered for this research study have almost half the population which is either overweight or obese. This was reflected in increased chronic diseases such as high blood pressure and psychological distress as also the lifestyle led by the people.

Hence, it is imperative that steps are taken to control this situation from deteriorating further. Firstly, efforts should be made to impart knowledge to the people regarding healthy lifestyle and appropriate body weight that can be achieved through proper diet and exercise. This can be done through various media available, social media, newspapers, radio, television etc.

Secondly, to enable people to understand the gravity of the situation, some health camps can be setup at prime locations in the state such that people can visit and see for themselves the detrimental effect of obesity. They also need to be convinced that this can be controlled through adoption of a healthy lifestyle.

Thirdly, some weight loss and disease management camps and programs should also be run so that people can visit and enroll so as to control the damage and attain a healthy lifestyle.

Fourthly, the government can encourage a healthy lifestyle by slapping high taxes on junk food and unhealthy options such as cigarettes and alcohol. This will definitely discourage a part of population from consuming such things in large quantities. 

Fifthly, the government and various retail shops should ensure that healthy options for food are readily available such that even people with busy schedules are able to adopt the same.

Limitations 

This research study was limited to the three Australian states of Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania. Further similar studies can be conducted on remaining states so as to get an overview for entire Australian continent.

Also, the study relied on limited variables as the information available on the topic is very vast. Effort can be made to expand the scope of research to include more variables so as to make the study more comprehensive.

Additionally, apart from percentage data analysis, relationship and degree of dependence between various variables can also be studied so as to get a clearer picture of the state of affairs as also the relationship between various variables.


Customer Testimonials