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PUBH6012 Prevalence of Asthma in Women and Initiatives for Its Control Assessment 1 Answer


ASSESSMENT BRIEF
Subject Code and TitlePUBH6012: Capstone B: Applied Research Project in Public Health
AssessmentAssessment 1: Report
Individual/GroupGroup
Length5,000 words
Learning OutcomesThis assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
  1. Integrate and apply their knowledge and skills in public health
  2. Apply research skills to a public health issue
  3. Analyse the results of data collected from research, taking into consideration prior evidence and theory
  4. Understand the ethical implications for conducting a piece of public health research
  5. Create a final research report

Instructions:

Part 1: Due Sunday end of Module 1 Week 1

Based on the feedback from your Capstone A Research Proposal, revise your research plan and GANTT chart.

Part 2:

The final assignment for this subject will be the write-up of the findings of your research into a final report. This will be comprised of the following parts:

  1. Abstract
    1. Summary of your report (as you would find in a published research article)
  2. Introduction
    1. Introduction to and justification of the topic area, drawing upon your literature review (from Capstone A), and including the knowledge gap your project addresses
    2. Your research question
  3. Research design and methods
    1. Summarise your research design/methods (from Capstone A) – what type of project did you do?
    2. How did you collect the data (ie search strategy and process/ policy consultation process)? If a policy consultation, explain how any organizations/individuals that you consulted with were approached
    3. How did you analyse the data (ie thematic analysis, systematic review process, consultation synthesis)?
    4. Briefly explain the ethical issues that should be considered
  4. Results
    1. Report the results of your findings, e.g. key themes if a qualitative study, results in table format if a quantitative study
    2. Clearly explain key figures, tables and graphs
  5. Discussion: Analysis and interpretation of your results
    1. Place your results in the context of your literature review (from Capstone A)
    2. Analyse the results in light of the academic literature in public health and discipline specific concepts and tools covered in the MPH course
  6. Conclusion
    1. Conclusions from this study
    2. Limitations of this study
    3. Recommendations for future research or policy change based on feasible solutions
  7. Supplementary material
    1. Reference List
    2. Any appendices

This research report format has been based on the standard format for a journal article, and thus may be submitted to a journal in the future if the student is interested.

NOTE: due to the time constraints around submission and peer review, a submitted article will not be required as part of this subject. If you wish to develop a journal article, you may seek advice on how to do this at the end of the Capstone.

Assessment Criteria:

  • Revised and approved project plan and GANTT chart (5%)
  • Clear executive summary/abstract which condenses the findings of the report (10%)
  • Clear justification and outline of the significance of the topic (10%)
  • Justification of the research design (15%)
  • Clear presentation of results, with transparency of findings (20%)
  • Comprehensive analysis and interpretation of results: Results integrated into the context of previous studies/theory (20%)
  • Identification of the limitations of the study, with recommendations for future research (10%)
  • Discussion leading to logical conclusions or recommendations (10%)

Answer

Subject Code and Title: Capstone B: Applied Research Project in Public Health

Prevalence of Asthma in women and the initiatives for its control in Australia


Abstract

The article is about the rising incidences of female asthma patients in Australian sub-continent and the measures adopted by the government body to control it. It is shocking to know that one out of each nine female Australian individuals is suffering from the attacks of asthma. The data collected during the study revealed that tendency of women suffering from asthmatic attack is more as compared to the males. Levels of different hormones especially progesterone and oestrogen in women are causes of asthma. Moreover, the disease can genetically descend from the ancestors and aggravate due to smoking. Descriptive secondary research will be conducted to collect data and thematic analysis of the information will be done in order to understand the complicacies of the disease.

The major contributing elements include the environmental conditions, hormonal changes, life style quality and socio-economic conditions. To cope with the rising number of asthma occurrence, both State and National government of Australia are initiating written action plans and conducting different programs and workshop for creating awareness. Different medications used for treatment include SABA and ICS. Various developmental and educational programs must be conducted in the schools and institutes to generate more consciousness about the disease. 

Background: 

The study will emphasize on the prevalence of Asthma amongst women and initiatives taken for controlling it in Australian context. Nearly one amongst 9 Australian women with a total of 2.7 million individuals suffering from Asthma (Asthma Australia, 2018). Furthermore, the prevalence of Asthma amongst Australian indigenous women is twice more than that of normal population, which needs to be considered with immediate effect. As per estimations, women suffer more from asthma as compared to male. While there is no scientific psychology for this cause, however, it is understood that the enhancing rate of Asthma in females is perhaps high due to their hormonal system where alterations in the progesterone and oestrogen level take active participation in triggering the attack of Asthma. While, both men and children are vulnerable towards the Asthma attacks, the tenacity of Asthma occurrence amongst the Australian women is increasing at an alarming rate. 

Drawing upon the literature review section, it could be estimated that the biological factors are responsible for the enhanced rate of Asthma attacks amongst the Australian women. Puberty, menstruation cycles and pregnancy are some of the key phases experienced by women during the in their daily life. As estimated by Asthma Australia, 2018), the level of Progesterone and Oestrogen tend to increase and alter at these phases. Several studies have revealed the fact that smoking of Asthma is one of the major reasons behind the occurrence of Asthma, which is not the only reason (Hlet et al. 2017). While the reason is effective by 75%, there are individuals who suffer from Asthma and not addicted to smoking. However, reality suggests that Asthma can also come into existence from the descendants. Increasing rates of flu and cold are the major symptoms suggesting prevalence of Asthma amongst Australian population.  

Irrespective of the increasing issues persisting amongst Australian women due to Asthma attacks, there are still shortage of resources and action plan for the specific disease (Grzeskowiak et al. 2017). Additionally, considering the resources which are available, having proper access to them is also a considerable challenge in some occasions. Demonstration of negligence also contributes to the increasing prevalence of Asthma amongst the Australian population. There is an essentiality for proper development of action plan and prevention techniques for mitigating the mortality rate arising from Asthma attacks. Advanced medications and effective diagnosis are essential for treating Asthma which is presently missing amongst the Australian communities. Lack of awareness regarding the prevention techniques and the need of medicinal treatments is also influencing the increasing rate of Asthma attacks amongst the Australian women, In this context, Therefore, the study would emphasize on understanding the underlying cause of Asthma attacks in detail and foster  effective techniques and interventions for mitigating further spreading of Asthma amongst Australian women.

The research questions in regards to the topic of selection are as follows: 

  • What are the primary reasons for increasing occurrence of Asthma amongst Australian women in comparison to men? 
  • How does social factors, habitudinal aspects and age influence the prevalence of Asthma amongst Australian women? 
  • What are the initiatives taken by Australian government till date for controlling the prevalence of Asthma? 
  • What are the suitable prevention and intervention techniques that should be proposed to reduce the prevalence of Asthma attacks amongst Australian women?

Methods: 

The study was taken into consideration with a broader perspective of the research project investigating the evidence based on application of health policies for prevention of Asthma amongst Australian women. 

Document Analysis 

Document Analysis has been considered as an essential aspect of the selected topic which emphasizes on critical analysis of health policies for preventing the prevalence of Asthma amongst the Australian women (Bowen ,2009). The consideration of the policy documents has been considered as an key aesthetics of sense making where the analytical procedures take active participation in reconstructing sustaining contesting and altering of the health policies for effective management of Asthma. Several authors have stated the need of policy analysis for determining the most effective policies that could be implemented for effective management of Asthma amongst Australian women. 

Selection of Policy 

The selection of policies was considered for ensuring better reviewing of the governmental and other forms of health policies which can be initiated for mitigating the adverse effects of the Asthma disease (Apthorpe, 1996). The following abbreviations will be taken into considering for the selected research topic: The Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring (ACAM), National Asthma Council (NAC), Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Asthma 3+ Visit Plan Practise Incentive Program, Rural Department of Health and Aged Care (DHAC), Asthma Australia (AA), Written Action Plan for Asthma, invasive mediation ventilation, SABA (short-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist) and ICS (inhaled Corticosteroid). The policies were taken into consideration if the contribution of the policy ensures treating of Asthma amongst Australian population with special emphasis on females. The study also included application of previous governmental policies along with modern day interventions for effective management of Asthma amongst Females. The selection procedure reflected upon application of specific policies and interventions acquired from credible sources. The policies and interventions which was taken into consideration were readily available across relevant governmental publications, journals and websites. At this stage, no such alterations were initiated No alterations were initiated while selecting the policies at this stage. After reviewing of the policies from various angles and perspectives, the most effective policies will be proposed for managing Asthma effectively. 

The Australian centre for Asthma monitoring (ACAM)
February 2002 
National Asthma Council (NAC)
2001
Rural department of Health and Aged care (DHAC)
1999
Written action plan for Asthma
2004
National Asthma Strategy (NAS)
2018
Asthma health Outcomes Plan
2001-2006


Coding Framework for analysis of documents 

A structure of coding was initiated by the research team for considering a broader perspective of the study. The structure of coding was dependent on categorised analysis where the construction of categories was initiated before the study was commenced (Sridhara & Shanbhag, 2005). The developing of codes was inspired from the scholarly works of the authors emphasizing on mitigation of Asthma prevalence amongst the Australian population. In accordance to the coding structure, Australia was given specific preference considering the increasing prevalence of Asthma amongst the Australian women. The structure of coding has been initiated by the researcher after agreeing with the research team during the course of the data accumulation and analysis. While making the coding structure, the goals of the policies was taken into consideration along with its application in ensuring better health outcomes for the Asthma patients. 

Main Category 
Preliminary codes 
Primary reasons for Asthma 
Hormonal changes, environmental exposures, remoteness of areas, low socio-economic area, inequalities, Quality of life
Social Factors like Behaviour and Age 
The 3+ Visit plan, The Asthma Partnership Programs, resource availabilities, modification of environment, self-management of Asthma, educating health professionals and provision of care within rural settings 
Government initiatives 
State governmental asthma programs, National Asthma Council Australia, written action plan for controlling Asthma, The Australian Centre for Asthma monitoring, National Asthma Strategy, HDKA, Asthma Health Outcomes Plan 
Prevention Techniques
Inhaler techniques, SABA, General practising counters, 
Managing flare-ups and comorbid situations, Spirometry, ICS, Salbutamol, Budesonide and invasive medical ventilation 


Coding

Analysis of Asthma policies was initially taken into consideration by the researcher within the early 2000s. There was selection of 4 main codes which was subdivided furthermore into several codes. For each of the above discussed policies a narrative was interpreted and presented as research findings. Each of the policies and interventions were analysed from the perspective of assisting the patients suffering from Asthma. The main codes selected for the topic are a) Primary reasons for Asthma, b) Social factors like behaviour and age) Government initiatives, d) Prevention techniques.

Results

This section of the report will interpret the findings of the thematic analysis for formulating and reviewing key themes in regards to the selected topic. The themes were mainly formed on the basis of research objectives and section of literature review which was interpreted on a previous note by the researcher. The main themes interpreted within the study are as follows: 

Primary reasons for Asthma

While analysing the issues related to Asthma, it could be estimated that there are several underlying factors which contribute towards increasing prevalence of Asthma amongst Australian women. In Australian context, Asthma accounts for 2.5 of the disease related to respiratory conditions. The alteration in prevalence between the men and women are mainly due to the hormone changes occurring during the development of adolescence as well as various environmental exposures. In accordance to the Aboriginals and status of Torres Strait Islander, the prevalence of the disease is nearly twice when compared to non-indigenous Australians. Inequalities is another factor to be considered when determining the increasing prevalence of Asthma amongst Australian women. It was estimated that females residing in low socio-economic regions have the highest ratio of adopting Asthma. 

According to the state in Australia Asthma affected people


Figure 1: According to the state in Australia Asthma affected people

Source: (Nationalasthma, 2019)

Individuals residing in remote areas are less aware regarding the onset of Asthma and usually ignore them at the preliminary stages. Women are more neglected in terms of health safety, thus being more prone towards Asthma attacks. It is also noticeable that individuals suffering from Asthma are having an inferior quality of life. A survey conducted in the year 2012 stated that out of 2686 Australians, individuals who are 16 years or above are unable to control asthma for not using inhaler or either using them infrequently (Aihw, 2019). 

 Generality of Asthma by Socio-economic group


Figure 2: Generality of Asthma by Socio-economic group

Source: (Health, 2019)

Since females are more prone towards Asthma, poor control initiatives are affecting their health further. On an overall note, there is an essentiality to consider the above-mentioned factors and take preventive measures for controlling the prevalence of Asthma on a whole with further assistance provided to the Australian women for controlling the disease. 

Social factor 

While scientific evaluation has not been able to justify the cause of Asthma totally, it is believed that lifestyle, genetics and environmental factors usually trigger the occurrence of Asthma amongst individuals (Aihw, 2019). While considering individuals within or above 25 years of age, it is estimated that the occurrence of the disease is more prevalent for the female population. It could be detailed that the Australian government made heavy investment with a huge amount of $8.2 million for a span of three years for better development of infrastructure for treating Asthma as it was becoming more prevalent amongst the Australian population. The female population was getting more affected due to Asthma and it was particularly more viable in rural communities which as subjected by socio-economic issues, remoteness, hormonal changes and inequalities as mentioned before (Humphreys et al. 2018). In this context, evidence-based practises came into existence which ensured better care for treatment of the Asthma patients. The initiation of 3+ visit plan outlined the implementation of the practical strategies for applying research of Asthma prevention within everyday practise (Tomlins & Fardy, 2001). The following approach took active participation in providing assistance to the general practitioners for proper management of the 6-step plan of Asthma management, thus ensuring progression of General Practitioners from reactive towards proactive care. It served as an activity of practical demonstration and it was promoted thoroughly several divisional aspects of general practise and therefore, the rural communities of Australia were taken into consideration. 

 Prevalence of asthma among other respiratory diseases in the Australian population

Figure 4: Prevalence of asthma among other respiratory diseases in the Australian population

(Source: Pmc, 2014)

The 3+ visit plan emphasized upon level 1 evidence in regards to education of Asthma comprising of an action plan and regular reviewing. It assisted the general practitioners to work in tandem with other health professionals for effective management of individuals suffering from Asthma attacks (Tomlins & Fardy, 2001). The Asthma partnership program refers to a model of complementary adherence which emphasized towards behavioural alteration program initiated in response to the evidence that the belief of patients regarding the illness have a huge impact on the health outcomes. The difference between perception and actual practise was addressed through this concept. The general practitioners took active participation in winning the commitment of patients and enlisting them to go through the procedure of behavioural changes and enhancing the knowledge of self-management, thus improving the health outcomes to an extent. The combining of precise interventions and validated measurements were effective in better treatment of patients suffering from Asthma Attacks. Maximising the availability of resources was one of the major ways for maximising the potentiality of Australian women suffering from Asthma attacks. Effective teamwork of General practitioners and pharmacist and effective networking was crucial in proper management of patients suffering from Asthma attacks. Environmental protection was also taken into consideration as several individuals used to suffer from dusts of farm, chemical irritants and pollens which triggered the influence of Asthma attacks amongst individuals (Selgrade et al., 2006). Modification of the local and home environment with the use of personal respirators and provision of air-conditioned caps in tractors proved to be effective in better management of Asthma. Effective patient education resulted in increasing the awareness particularly amongst the Australian women within the rural communities (Ampon et al., 2005). Websites of Asthma education proved to be effective for the health professional for widening their knowledge regarding Asthma care. 

Government initiatives

The above code interprets various initiatives developed by the Australian government previously for controlling Asthma amongst Australian population. In the year 1999, The Health Ministers of Australia took active participation in designating Asthma as the priority area of National health. In this context, the management program of Asthma was initiated in the year 2002, which took the initiative of ensuring best practises for management of Asthma. The primary motive was to enhance the quality of care through the general practitioners (Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring, 2005). 

Prevalence of Asthma by Age and Sex

Figure 3: Prevalence of Asthma by Age and Sex

(Source: Aihw, 2019)

Regular patient visits by the general practitioners, education of patients and reviewing of a written form of action plan for Asthma were taken into consideration for mitigating the prevalence of Asthma to an extent.  The writing of action plans for treating Asthma proved to be effective to an extent because it highlighted the use of inhaled as well as oral medicines needed for proper treatment of Asthma. The Australian Centre for Asthma monitoring (ACAM) had its establishment in the year 2002 which was located at the Woolcock Institute of Medical research in Sydney. The centre took an initiative to develop, collate and interpret information relevant to the prevention of Asthma, policies of health and management (Baker et al., 2004). The Sydney based centre prioritised establishment of nation indicators for reducing the Prevalence of Asthma amongst Australian population. It also took the initiative of influencing several factors such as measurement of Asthma on the quality of life amongst the population of Australia, increasing Asthma oriented data for monitoring of population etc. In accordance to the Asthma programs initiated by the state governments, interventions were implied specifically for controlling Asthma attacks effectively. In regards to New South Wales, the governmental programs included development of agreeable state wide standardisation of care for patients and integrating of care through the continuum from the healthcare centres to the setting of communities. The Outcomes Plan of Asthma health (2001-2006) adopted by the Queensland health mainly prioritised mitigation of asthma severities through optimisation of clinical management (Wilson et al., 2003). The health department in Southern Australia initiated a surveillance program which monitored key variables related to Asthma. After conduction of surveys for understanding the increasing prevalence of Asthma disease, it was estimated that the state government mainly focused on establishment of awareness program for mitigating the prevalence of the Disease (AIHW Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring, 2005). Financial help was also being provided for developing self-management programs of education for controlling Asthma to a wider extent. As far Victoria is concerned, the state government focused on preventing, detecting and surveillance of Asthma burden which raised from the occupational Asthma. It also emphasised towards community development which would automatically reduce the number of hospital admissions arising due to Asthma. The National Asthma Council Australia takes active participation in providing community education in regards to Asthma. In this context, the federal government takes the initiative of initiating policies for better Asthma care for patients of Australia (Whorlow et al., 2003). The national health strategy 2018 took active participation in outlining Australia’s national responses and informed how the existing resources of health care could be aligned through various levels of government (Blake & Raissy, 2018). 

Prevention Techniques 

In regards to the above code, it is estimated that it is essential to ensure proper diagnosis of Asthma based on which medicinal treatment and preventive measures could be initiated. General practise encounters also came into existence during that time. It comprises of assessing, prescribing of regular therapies and managing of acute exacerbations for the individuals suffering from Asthma (Thoonen et al., 2003). The application of invasive mechanical ventilation also gained popularity over the years as this was particularly effective in treating patients suffering from acute Asthma. Inclusion of artificial form of mechanical ventilation through endotracheal tube proved to be an effective trend during the early 2000s for effective management of Asthma diseases (Slather & Stewart, 2005). While the preventive measures proved to be effective to an extent, however, in the present era, the prevalence of Asthma has increased abruptly over the years. The female population is getting affected more which needs implementation of further measures and initiatives for controlling the ill effects of the disease. Physical examination and Spirometry proved to be effective for treating patients suffering from Asthma. Effective management of Asthma amongst the adults is dependent towards confirming of the diagnosis and assessment of recent control symptoms of Asthma and other associated factors of risk. There is an essentiality to select the appropriate initial treatment method effective review and periodical treatment of drugs. Correct technique of using inhaler and patient education for making them aware about the instances triggering Asthma could prove to be effective (National Asthma Council Australia, 2014). Management of flare ups ad comorbid conditions were intervened with appropriate effect. Life style changes such as quitting smoking, staying away from dust and chemical irritants also proved to be effective for treating Asthma amongst Australian women. When the occurrence is minimal SABA proved to an initial choice of treatment. If the situation is mild to severe or irregular, then regular ICS were proposed at low dosage along with SABA (Schatz et al. 2010). Cromones and Montelukast could serve as an effective solution at this stage. Furthermore, the use of Generic inhaler, Accuhaler, Aerolizer, Autohaler and Turbuhaler were amongst the various available options for treating Asthma, which are still widely practised in the modern era. Effective lifestyle changes such as quitting of smoking, proper maintaining of nutrition, conduction of physical activities, controlling obesity, vaccinations for influenza and maintaining of good mental health also proved to be effective for controlling Asthma (National Asthma Council Australia, 2014). On a short-term note, medicines such as Salbutamol, Budesonide and Terbutaline acts as relievers for controlling Asthma, while compositions such as Ipratropium bromide, magnesium sulphate and Hydrocortisone were recommended for long-term treatment procedure. 

Discussion 

Here the thematic analysis will be interpreted by justifying it with the literature review section and further detailed analysis of the action plans and interventions proposed for controlling Asthma. While analysing the literature review section, it could be analysed that there is an increasing -prevalence of Asthma amongst the Australian population with female population getting affected the most. Several factors are behind the occurrence of the disease, like age, hormonal factors, lifestyle and habitudinal issues. The occurrence of Asthma and the social habits are interconnected and woman suffers more than man due to fluctuation of hormones does (Keddem, et al.2015). Smoking and pollutions play a major role to spread Asthma. The health department of Australia have started to follow the protocols to reduce the spreading of Asthma that affects the people’s breathing system. The research article tells about the particular reasons of Asthma and the procedure to reduce the disease. Besides, the study says about that regular health check-up and taking medicine as when required according to the physicians is a good control way to reduce Asthma. The effective control way reduces the occurrence of Asthma among the people of Australia.  From the Findings of the thematic analysis it was estimated that poor socio-economic conditions also played a pivotal role in triggering the prevalence of Asthma amongst the Australian women. In remote areas, treatment to asthma are often neglected as individuals are less willing to avail treatment options due to lack of education and awareness. The study also suggested that poor quality of life is also triggering Asthma the usage of inhalers are either minimal or infrequent in regards to Australian population. 

The disease affects total 18% of the native people of Australia where fifteen percent males and 20% are females.  Almost $655 million expenditure for the diseases of Asthma, the Australian Government has taken measure initiatives to reduce the effect of Asthma. During the time of pregnancy, smoking by mothers brings this disease on Mother and new-born baby also. Premature born, air pollution, smoking around the children are others causes of Asthma (Shah & Newcomb, 2018). The prevalence of Asthma is more in inner rural area than the people of the major cities in the country. According to the report, almost 441 people died due to the disease in Australia in which 300 were females and 141 males. While linking with the literature review section, the thematic analysis also detailed several previously established governmental strategies for treating Asthma amongst the Australian women. The governmental initiatives primarily focus on ensuring quality of care, surveillance reporting, medicinal interventions, awareness programs, community development, health initiatives, general practising of practitioners, life style change programs and other forms of standardizations and asthma policies for further controlling of Asthma amongst Australian women. The literature review section also states that individuals under the age of 15, affected by the disease and the woman people are affected more than man. Asthma is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), according to the Health Government of Australia (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019).

The literature review section also states that almost 600,000 Australian had COPD and 7.1 million citizens of the country were trouble in Asthma. The COPD is common for male people rather than female. Obesity, smoking are the main factors for the effect of Asthma. Due to increased factors of Immunoglobulin or IgE, woman is more affected by Asthma. The ratio of FEV1/FVC and IgE is another factor for affecting this disease (Zein, & Erzurum, 2015). The pathogenesis of Asthma in female and hitting the puberty are explained because during pregnancy the menopause and the menstruation are strictly categorised by the changes of the female hormones (Health, 2019). Social factor is also responsible for increasing Asthma because financially weaker people are more affected due to their life style. According to Surveillance of Australian workplace Based Respiratory Events (SABRE) are needed to realise about the occupational lung disease in Australia (Pmc ,2014). Unclean air, age factor, the respiratory conditions and occupational environment plays major role in the case of Asthma.

The peer-reviewed study by Eftekhari et al. (2016), described about the Respiratory medicine and the prevalence of Asthma and the result on almost 10,413 women in Australia. The older women suffer Asthma more than young women for their age and other physical issue. In related to the findings of the thematic analysis, the study outlined several clinical practises for determining symptoms of Asthma diseases. The Social and habitudinal factors of Australian women are discussed in details by highlighting areas such as lack of resource availability, environmental aspects, less awareness and other improper provisional aspects which reflect upon the increasing rate of Asthma prevalence amongst the Australian women. In this context, the thematic analysis also reflected upon evidence best practises to be initiated by general practitioners for effective management of Asthma disease. The practitioners focused more in gaining patient commitment for treatment of the disease which is essential to convincing them to abide by the behavioural change and treatment procedure. For aligning with the literature review section, the study also outlined the clinical practises and medicinal interventions which would assist in further controlling of the Asthma disease. 

In regards to the findings section, it could be estimated that there are considerable number of factors which triggers Asthma amongst the Australian population. While the population overall are suffering from increasing Asthma rates, the female populations seems to get more affected owing to the hormonal alterations, environmental aspects, socio-economic conditions and non-availability of resources (Aihw, 2019). In this context, it is very much essential to discuss the previous established government interventions, policies and medicinal interventions for effective controlling of Asthma in the preceding years. 

In this regard, the Australian government initiative might prove to be effective in enhancing the quality concerning the Asthma care from the general practitioners. The main purpose of the Asthma management program was to ensure series of 3 general practitioner visits to patients suffering from less to severe form of Asthma for diagnosing, assessing patient’s health, educating patients and interpreting an action plan. The specific initiative enhanced the reach of the government to remote and low socio-economic earning regions. Effective diagnosis and patient education not only resulted in better management of Asthma, but also made the population more aware regarding the onset of such diseases. 

Sydney based took active participation in managing Asthma amongst Australian population. For justifying their contributions, the ACAM consulted several stakeholders for availability of Asthma data through conduction of workshops in the year 2004 and 2002 respectively. Upon development of the national indicators for management of Asthma, suitable recommendations were initiated for the welfare of citizens (Baker et al. 2004). The Australian government also took active participation in effective interventions in Sydney and South Australia for managing further spreading of the Asthma disease. The surveys conducted in the process gave an overview of the issues faced by consumers in regards to severity. The regions which are most vulnerable towards the prevalence of Asthma disease were determined depending on which necessary interventions were made for providing better services. Self-management educational programs were also brought into effect which reduced the negligent approach of Australian women for treating the disease.  The National Asthma council took active participation in making diagnosis and intervening evidence-based practises for supporting individuals suffering from Asthma (Whorlow et al., 2003). The initiative also took into effect training of general practitioners and nurses for assisting the 3+ visit plan which states as one of the practical implications for treating individuals suffering from Asthma.  The mechanical invasive ventilation is also an effective strategy for patients suffering for Asthma. The intervention was recorded in a routine manner in statistics of hospitals, which gave an in-depth insight regarding the epidemiology concerning the occurrence of Asthma and depending on criterion invasion technique would vary depending on situations (Kolbe et al. 2000). In regards to encounters of generation practises, the differentials in the usage of resources of healthcare was considered for accumulating pertinent information regarding the implementation and planning of policies for effective interventions of community. The General practitioners took the initiative of handling Asthma within communities by prescribing proper medications, treatment and therapy procedures. 

While interpreting the practical strategies for improving Asthma and health outcomes in rural settings, the study took into consideration application of evidence-based practises. The application of 3+ visit plan took the initiative of applying research of Asthma in real practise. The collaborative approaches of General Practitioner, nurses, pharmacists and other professionals of healthcare strengthened the overall stronghold of existing network within the rural communities as they have less accessibility towards availability of resources and more vulnerable towards environmental and societal hazards. It also prioritised patients’ education which is very much essential for increasing awareness regarding the prevalence of Asthma in rural communities. Additionally, the asthma partnership program altered the beliefs of individuals regarding the treatment pattern of Asthma. Initiation of self-management knowledge would not only improve the health conditions but will also ensure the fact that an individual should be taking preventive remedies whenever they are facing this kind of issues (Tomlins & Fardy, 2001). The clinical practices assisted in determining the cause and symptoms of the diseases more effectively while medicinal interventions ensured better controlling of Asthma disease amongst Australian women. 

Conclusion 

While concluding it could be stated that Asthma is one of the most chronic respiratory condition which is affecting the Australian population to a wider extent. The female population is more prone towards the occurrence of the disease owing to their hormonal changes, inequalities, socio economic conditions and negligence. While the prevalence of Asthma is increasing at an alarming rate amongst the Australian females mostly, it is essential to evaluate the interventions and preventive measures available for controlling the disease. The study critically evaluated the initiatives and policies implemented by Australian government for controlling the prevalence of Asthma. The medicinal treatments and life style changes were also discussed in details for effective management of Asthma amongst the Australian population. However, considering the rising tide of Asthma amongst the Australian population, suitable recommendations will be proposed for further controlling and managing of Asthma attacks in the mere future. 

Limitations

The study critically emphasized upon the application of policies and preventive measures formulated by Australian government for treating Asthma. However, due to limited duration time, the researcher was unable to discuss every aspect of the action plans and interventions in details. Additionally, due to lack of funding, the researcher was unable to access certain credible journal and articles as they were paid versions. 

Recommendations 

For effective management of Asthma amongst Australian Patients, the government should take active participation in implementing school and engagement programs of youth so that booth the males and females are well aware about the self-management initiatives. Launching of an Asthma application could also prove to be effective which will provide patient education and seeking doctor advice whenever it is needed. The government of Australia should further assist in supporting the developing and implementing of National Best Practise School Guide Lines for treating Asthma patients. Community development of Asthma prone areas also needs to be taken into consideration with further provision of Primary health care for Asthma.  Hospital referral programs could also prove to be effective for controlling and treating Asthma at an early stage. Furthermore, the Australian government should take active participation in mitigating the inequalities of health amongst the indigenous and non-indigenous individuals for managing the prevalence of Asthma in rural communities. Furthermore, effective practises of written action plan and lifestyle changes will also assist in improving quality of life, which is very much essential for managing Asthma amongst Australian women. 

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