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Public Health Leadership: Levels of Leadership

Group Essay 

• Due Sunday week 12 (end of Module 6) – only one person to submit the assignment in Blackboard 

• 50% of grade

• 3000 words 

• Include a short introduction and conclusion – keep these short to save more words for the essay content. 

• Do not need to write linking information between the parts; use Parts as subheadings 

• Plan for approximately 900 words each section – this will leave approximately 300 words for introduction and conclusion.

To prepare: Review Rowitz’s five levels of leadership (Chapter 6): 

• Personal level (not the focus of this assignment) 

• Team level 

• Agency level

• Community level

• Professional level 

Part 1: Relationships between leadership, power, ethics and values 

• Explain the relationships among leadership, power, ethics and values at the Team level of leadership. 

• Explain the relationships among leadership, power, ethics and values at the Agency (organisation) level of leadership. How are these relationships different compared with the Team Level of Leadership, if at all? 

• Explain the relationships among leadership, power, ethics and values at the Community level of leadership. How are these relationships different compared with Team and Agency Leadership, if at all?

• Analyse the relationships among leadership, power, ethics and values at the Professional Level of Leadership. How might these relationships be different at a professional level compared with the other four of Rowitz’s Five Levels of Leadership?

Part 2: Collaboration, empowerment and governance 

• Describe how you might apply strategies to facilitate collaboration and the empowerment of others with individuals and teams? What principles of effective governance would apply to team leadership, including accountability in teams?

• Describe how you might apply strategies to facilitate collaboration and the empowerment of others as the leader of an organisation. What principles of effective governance would apply to leading an organisation, including accountability in the organisation?

Part 3: Change management strategies 

• What change management strategies would you use at each of the Five Levels of Leadership presented by Rowitz (Team Level, Agency/Organisation Level, Community Level, and Professional Level)? (Your answer should reflect an understanding of the different needs of each different level of leadership, although some strategies might work across all levels.) 

• Analyse the role of Rowitzs recently added Sixth Level of Leadership, Communication, in effective change management. How does communication need to be different across the Team, Agency, Community and Professional levels of leadership? Assessment Criteria: Your assignment will be assessed against the following specific criteria:

• Effectively applies strategies to lead change and facilitate collaboration and the empowerment of others (10%)

• Effectively explains the relationships among leadership, power, ethics and values at the Team Level of Leadership, the Agency Level and the Professional Level of Leadership (20%) 

• Effectively applies strategies for effective change management with individuals, teams and organizations, using Rowitz's Five Levels of Leadership. (20%)

• Analyses principles for effective governance including accountability (10%) 

• Effectively demonstrates how principles for effective governance including accountability are applied. (10%) 

• Applies own analysis to Rowitz's recently added Sixth Level of Leadership: Communication. (10%) 

• General assessment criteria (20%): 

o Provides a lucid introduction

o Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues o Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic 

o Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings 

o Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions o Provides a conclusion or summary 

o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar: Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list) §

Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction § 

Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research

Answer

Introduction

Leadership is an art and science of inspiring others and getting things done from others in the best way possible.  Dr. Louis Rowitz has built a career in the public health initiatives and issues. He has highlighted in his book named PUBLIC HEALTH LEADERSHIP, about six levels of leadership. The sixth level is recently added by Dr. Rowitz. The report discusses the relationship between leadership, ethics, power and ethics at each of the level of the leadership which are team, agency, organization and community levels. It has highlighted that how the sixth level of this which is communication helps the leaders in many ways in influencing others. The report also discusses the strategies which must be adopted by the leaders to that they are able to facilitate collaboration in the teams and with the individuals they are working with.

Part 1 

Relationship between leadership, power, ethics and value

A leader is a person who is engaged in the work of inspiring and guiding others. They can be anyone like may be members of a team, heads of a group, employees of an agency or any one of the person. They may operate at various levels and the leaders have to change their ways as per the demands of the ever-changing situations. So the relationship of leadership, ethics, power is tried to be studied at 4 different levels:

Team level

The leaders need a skill in which they must know how to maintain and build teams and also increase their effectiveness at the same time. They would make sure that they share the information with all the members in an equitable manner and they also share power and authority with them.  They must know to develop values in the leaders in a way that they are able to solve the problems. Each of the team members is considered as a leader even the official leader is an assigned person (Hariri, Monypenny & Prideaux, 2014). The success of a team is dependent upon many factors like the presence of trust in the team which is an inclusive part of the implicit leadership. The leaders make sure that the transfer of the power to the team is done in actual and this must not be pseudo. The leadership styles also keep varying with the teams. The styles which are used by him are of directing, coaching, supporting and delegating in a chronological order. The leaders in a team must know that they must allow the members of a team to share control and power and intervene in the process of the team whenever it is required. The ethics which are shared by the people in the team are influenced by the leader of the team and later all the members start having an influence on each other (Biemann, Kearney & Marggraf, 2015). For example, leaders have to inspire the entire team and influence the working of the team members.

Professional level

The Guru of management (Peter Drucker) felt that the organizations are increasingly becoming more knowledge-based. The leadership role at a professional level consists of understanding the agency relationships well and also he must be able to give authority to others to make decisions ("THE SIX LEVELS OF LEADERSHIP", 2018). They this way try to empower the agency staff and this empowerment is an inclusive part of leadership at all levels. This is done by delegating the work to the employees and by trusting them that they have the desired skills to carry out the work. The entire leadership is done keeping in mind the interest of the organization and if the employees need special training then that needs are also fulfilled by the leaders. The goal is to fulfill the desire of the organization and make the decision which is not just intended for the needs of the team but that of the entire organization. This is not easy as many types of resistances may be faced by the leaders. The leaders also have to act ethically in the conduct of such activities. For example, the work of a leader can influence the working at professional level and can drive a positive change in the organization (Chua & Ayoko, 2011).

Agency level

Then the third level is agency based leadership. The agencies have to face contest dilemma. The role of leadership is of vital importance at this level. This is because of the fact that any kind of new development and the change in the regulations, rules changes the priorities if an agency. The change is a continuous process in the organizations and is for staying. Leadership, in this case, help the agency to deal with the changes taking place, resolve various conflicts which may occur at this stage. The leaders are expected to act like arbitrator when the external demands dominate (Tavanti & Werhane, 2013). They have to explore the alternative futures which may be possible for the agency and at the same time has to assure that the members of the organization learn how to perform their duties by empowering them. The leadership stirs ethics in the agency and listening to the issues of all the parties and by applying the core functions to the activities of the agency. He empowers the community residents and also the staff of the agency and helps in making changes in the agency so that the changes can be easily assimilated by it.

Community level

The leadership skills at this stage require more systematic and consistent efforts. A community is the place where the organizations survive and live.  This is the place in which the values are put into action. The leadership in this community set up requires the leaders to be open to the opinions of other people and at the same time the ethics are very important in this. They must not at any time degrade others (Yammarino & Dansereau, 2008). This means the leadership at a bigger level. This is the most difficult are in which the leadership skills have to be exercised as the chances of success gets bleak. The finances arrangements have to be taken care by the leader and he is responsible for all the aspects so the ethics are deeply involved in this front. The process of developing social capacity also a community capacity takes time and this not only calls for the collaboration with the workers but with the various government levels (Jogulu, 2010). The work is also delegated but is done with great precision. The leadership at the community level is much more difficult as it seems to be as multiple forces come into play in such a community level leadership. The change which occurs happens at multiple levels. The leadership in this level can be linked to the leadership at political level leadership.

Part 2

Collaboration, empowerment and governance

Strategies to facilitate the collaboration and empowerment

Collaboration is an important world in the existing times and this is being seen as a way of solving many problems among the people. The development of collaborative and creative environment may be a very challenging task to so and for building the tams there exist about 5 ways to do so:

  • Creation of right environment: In the cases when the organizations consider the individual performance for measuring success then the workers ten to focus more on their personal progress. So the organizations must not reward the individual performances as this may rupture the idea of collaboration and on the other hand, the ways must be used to incentivize the teamwork and making collaborations an integral part of achieving the work-related tasks.
  • Use the right tools: The workers must be provided with the right tools and this must be used to brighten the gap between tow departments. A person working in IT department may have no knowledge about that working in the marketing department. So to facilitate collaboration some kind of business simulation games could be played in which the employees would participate and they would be able to collaborate on the real world tasks easily.
  • Identification of collaborative leaders: The leaders have a vital role to play in this respect as they help in facilitating collaboration. They foster such collaborate environments and have more control for finding out ways to tackle difficult projects. The leadership steeples may also vary as some believe in empowering employees and some don’t do that. So proper identification soft leaders in important to make the organization more collaborative in actual.
  • Know when to adapt: The businesses must have clear picture as to when they must adopt a new mallet, modern technology or internal changes. The organization must keep on motivating employees to respond to the changes and be comfortable for the sharing of the business collusions with them. When the employees would feel confident in suggesting ways in which the organization would improve then automatic collaboration would take place (DeChurch, Hiller, Murase, Doty & Salas, 2010). This would also have a chain reaction as other employees in the organization would also share their ideas more often.
  • Make collaboration a part of workflow: If at any time the workers may feel that the task which are collaborative are becoming less effective or are taking the time away from the individual responsibilities then the individuals would start taking this working as a team as a negative connotation. So collaboration must be made a core value in the organization so that it Is not taken as a hurdle by employees for assuming their responsibilities.

The principles of effective governance’s practices which would be applied in such cases would be related to the increasing the accountability of the teams and that of the leaders who are involved in this process of bringing changes.

Collaborative environment by a leader

A leader to great extent responsible for building collaborative teams of work. He must take followings steps to make sure that he is able to build a collaborative culture in the organization:

  • Building a bridge of trust:  A Leader must try to build trust among employees as without the existence of trust the collaborative leadership is not possible. The trust works as two-way mechanism and the people who tend to trust are also trusted. The leaders must be encouraging to have trust in people.
  • Encourage adoption of shared purpose: Then leaders must not exercise their power with control and command but they must try to encourage the adoption of shared visions and values as a force of motivation of people. They must be able to communicate their commitment to the future visions (Said, Hasan, Saimin & Omar, 2016). They must be passionate about the mission and values of the organization and must take steps to moves towards falter organization structure.
  • Develop diversity: They have to encourage diversity in their processes and encourage everyone to participate in the processes as the diverse teams have the potential to provide long lasting and meaningful solutions to any problems. The collaborative organizations benefit from the range of skills, views, ideas and experiences of people working for the Arabization.
  • Encourage and accept initiative: The leaders have to encourage others to take ownership of problems and also must encourage them to take initiative. This way they would be develop self-improvement and creativity. People themselves would take steps to make work easy as much as possible and this was a collaborative environment would develop.
  • Be not information hoarders but be information sharers: The leaders by flattening the structure would be able to involve more people in the work and this would encourage collaboration and ownership. The organization would be able to deal with the changes taking place in better way and the information would be used as an inspirational leadership and not a power. They would share information and build openness, trust and honesty levels among the people (Price, 2017).

Some principles of effective governance which would be used by the leaders in this process would be related to the creating transiency in the decision making process and by increasing their accountability level in the organization. All the mechanism has to be in place regarding the performances of the people and who is accountable to whom. The people would be encouraged to work in teams wherever possible and even conflicts would be taken as constructive learning experiences.

Part 3

Change management strategies

The change management strategies which must be used at each level of the leadership which is presented by Rowitz would be stated together as more or less the strategies would remain common the changes would be present only in relation to the execution of the change management strategies of them. Change management is the discipline of leading the teams, individual, agencies or the entire organization through the combination of social sciences and that of behavioral sciences, business solutions and information technology.

  • Thinking about people: The change management strategy must first concentrate on the people as to how many changes may be brought but these can be implemented only by the help of people as everything starts with them. So the change must be changed in their thinking processes and the people must be encouraged to embrace changes and not resist them.
  • Giving time: The leaders must give sufficient time to each change or making employees ready to accept something as everything takes time and the change management plan must include the features in which the time is required to change the minds and heart (Clarke, 2011). The expectations which are set by the leaders of the people must be set reasonably so that no undue pressure is exerted on the people.
  • Setting of vision: The vision as to what is to be achieved must be made clear to all the parties involved. Even many alterations which are needed in the process must be allowed for and this vision setting would make sure that the efforts of all are directed to one common cause.
  • Engaging the shareholders: The change management can be effectively done only if people are identified who would be affected by the changes which are proposed and they must be ready to invest in the project. People of the team, an agency, organization or the community must be involved form the start of the change management plan. It’s important to understand that who needs to be part of the plan and then embrace the changes and the leaders themselves must be willing to make changes and make them learners.
  • Knowing about the tradeoffs: All the changes have knock-off effects a this means the diversion of the people to certain projects would mean that other projects would get affected so it’s very important for the leaders to set the priorities that what needs to be achieved first. They must not confuse themselves and the team which they are leading.

Working with the willing:  The employees must be encouraged to give their feedback so that necessary improvements can be made from time to time but the projects can’t be successful if the employees act as obstacle for every development of the plan. The work must be increasingly done with people who share the same vision and the ones who don’t support this must not be involved (Said, Hasan, Saimin & Omar, 2016).

These changes strategies must be adopted at all the levels so that people can be inspired to work for a common cause.

Sixth level of Leadership

Communication is recently added by Rowitz as the sixth level of leadership and this is communication and it plays an effective role in the change management. Communication needs to be different at various areas of leadership and this is different in team, agency community and in a professional level of leadership.

Importance of communication 

The employees are able to trust their leaders based on the communication done by him. The leaders are able to inspire other working with their actions and words and the leader must know to listen effectively to be able to judge others. Listening is equally important as speaking. Employees tend to trust leaders more when they believe in the communication ways plays a big role in making such changes. The communication ways help the leaders to guide, inform, inspire and assure others . A leader is able to reveal himself in front of others through this communication technique. In the case a leader doesn’t indulge in doing these things then the possibility is there that a leader is losing his effectiveness on the people working in the organization. This is the best way in which leaders can win over the trust of the members of a team, agency and that of organization and it is very important to see people and be connected to them at all times. More the interaction would be done by them the better would be the gains reaped by them.

Then listening is another important skill which is a part of communication. Listening would only provide leaders a perception about the knowledge and perspective about the others and listening is a key which fosters respect, trust and openness among people. People must be allowed to air up their components and gripes.  Leaders this way can’t work without communication. It is also said that the smaller the group the more role is played by the communication skills. But in the case of leadership, this argument doesn’t fit.

Whatever may be the situation communication would become a backbone of the exercise of the leadership skills and they help in the promotion of the trout and faith among people. IT is often found that leaders though their communication only makes a lot of difference in the forces. In the case of community this communication is of vital importance as this would help people in knowing leaders in a better way.

Conclusion

Leadership may seem to be an easy thing but this is a complex thing and it occurs at various levels. The report has discussed all the six levels of the leadership. Leadership is the act of influencing others through one’s directions but the exercising of powers of leadership differs in different situations. The report has successfully tried to make the relationship among power, leadership, values and ethics clear at the various levels of leadership. Then the various strategies are highlighted which can be used for facilitating the empowerment of others and that collaboration with the teams and initials and also which can be done by the leaders of any organization. Then the principles of effective governance are also discussed which could be applied to the leadership or to the leading of the organization. Towards the end, some of the change management strategies have been highlighted which would help the leaders to exercise leadership in a better way.

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