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Questions on Statistics for Public Health

STAT6000: Statistics for Public Health

This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

1. Understand key concepts in statistics and the way in which both descriptive and inferential statistics are used to measure, describe and predict health and illness and the effects of interventions. 2. Apply key terms and concepts of statistics, including; sampling, hypothesis testing, validity and reliability, statistical significance and effect size. 3. Interpret the results of commonly used statistical tests presented in published literature.

Instructions: This assessment requires you to read two articles and answer a series of questions in no more than 2000 words. Most public health and wider health science journals report some form of statistics. The ability to understand and extract meaning from journal articles, and the ability to critically evaluate the statistics reported in research papers are fundamental skills in public health. Paper 1: Lam, T., Liang, W., Chikritzhs, T., & Allsop, S. (2014). Alcohol and other drug use at school leavers' celebrations. Journal of Public Health, 36(3), 408-416. Retrieved from: http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/08/26/pubmed.fdt087.full.pdf+html

Read the Lam et. al. (2014) research article and answer the following questions:

1. This paper presents two hypotheses. State the null and alternative hypothesis for each one, and describe the independent and dependent variables for each hypothesis. 2. What kind of sampling method did they use, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of recruiting participants in this way? 3. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper. 4. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this study, and why? 5. What is the odds ratio for engaging in unprotected sex (compared with those who engaged in safety strategies with the greatest frequency)? Interpret this by explaining what the odds ratio is telling us, including any variables that were controlled for in the model. 6. How representative do you think the sample is of the national population of schoolies? Explain why.

Paper 2: Wong, M. C., S., Leung, M. C., M., Tsang, C. S., H., . . . Griffiths, S. M. (2013). The rising tide of diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population: A population-based household survey on 121,895 persons. International Journal of Public Health, 58(2), 269-276. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.laureate.net.au/10.1007/s00038-012-0364-y

Read the Wong et. al. (2014) paper and answer the following questions: 1. Describe the aims of the study. Can either aim be restated in terms of null and alternative hypotheses? Describe these where possible. 2. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper. 3. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this paper, and why? 4. What did the researchers find when they adjusted the prevalence rates of diabetes for age and sex? 5. Interpret the odds ratios for self-reported diabetes diagnosis to explain who is at the greatest risk of diabetes. 6. What impact do the limitations described by the researchers have on the extent to which the results can be trusted, and why?

Answer

Article 1 

Lam, T., Liang, W., Chikritzhs, T., & Allsop, S. (2013). Alcohol and other drug use at school leavers' celebrations. Journal of Public Health36(3), 408-416. Retrieved from: http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/08/26/pubmed.fdt087.full.pdf+html 

Hypotheses

Null Hypotheses (H0): "Consumption of drugs at the school leaver celebration lead to risky behaviour like the unprotected sex." 

The independent variable according to the null hypotheses is the school leaving celebration and also the risk behaviour that is being performed by the school leaving children. The dependent variable is the consumption of the alcohol and the drugs that are being presented by the children on any occasion or the events. Getting the drugs and alcohol is the biggest celebration for the young adults in western countries.

Alternative hypotheses (H1): "The consumption of alcohol and drugs is performed by almost every special event."

The independent variable in the alternative hypotheses are the events or the occasion. Depend variable is the consumption of alcohol or drugs. For the young adults primarily in the western countries it is the milestone to complete the school, and for that, it is marked as the festive events, and this is the primary reason for the usage of drugs and alcohol.

Sampling method used 

The first sampling method was performed on the young adults who have the intention to attend the event, and the age of the respondents was 17-18 years. This was the pre-celebration survey, and almost 541 young adults took part. The advantage of this method is that it provides sufficient understanding regarding the mentality of the teenager for attending the event and to use drugs and alcohol. The disadvantage of this method is that numerous students did not take part in the survey and also it is not necessary that all the participants will attend the events and consume drugs or alcohol. The second survey was performed after the celebration where 405 respondents provided their view on the circumstances. The advantage of this process is that it allows for accurate information regarding the use of alcohol and drugs. The disadvantage of this process is that numerous respondents did not take the survey or else provided fake information.

Demographic characteristics of the people in the sample 

The demographic characteristics of the people used for the example are the teenagers of 17-18 years old. The male and female both have an almost equal contribution for having drugs and alcohol at their teenage. In Australia, the legal purchase of alcohol is provided to the people with 18 years of age and above and for that the young adults easily get involved with the usage of the drugs in their teenage. The respondents are the young adults who easily get attracted with the adulthood and try to perform the activities that generally performed by the adult. The demographic characteristics show that most of the alcohol and the drug user are the schoolies who were in their adolescents. They have the urge to attain the party or the events where alcohol and the drug use is maximum. 

Inferential statistics used to analyse data 

The inferential statistics that were utilised for the analysis of the data are the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Logistics regression analysis. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed for comparing the AOD that is Adolescent alcohol and other drug use within the context of the last event as well as on the average fay of the school leaver celebration. It helps to understand the amount of alcohol and the drug consumed by the teenage people. The logistics regression analysis is also performed for assessing the impact of the 6 factors regarding the likelihood of the 17 negative consequences that were reported. Then the use of the protective behavioural strategies survey is highly essential for understanding the safety strategies that are related to the use of alcohol and drugs. These statistics allow the researcher to perform their activity and gather the most suitable information from the field.

Odds ratio 

The four negative consequence that is associated with the safety strategies is the hangover, blackouts, then the vomiting and the unprotected sex. Respondents those who are highly engaged with the protective approach have the lowest frequency were 10.92 times more are the report of the unprotected sex. It shows that young adults lack the proper education and the system to maintain their activity within the field. The sample also shows that the unprotected sex for the prevalence percentage is of 13.62 for the 301 respondents including both the male and the female respondents. The condition of the teenage people are highly critical all over the world and mostly in the Western countries due to the use of alcohol and drugs at every party or the events. The reduction strategies in this process are effectively utilised for the development of the condition of odd ration in term of unprotected sex among the young adults. 

Representation of the sample 

The original sample deal with the schoolies of the western countries which clearly show the tendency of the teenagers to perform like an adult and also to use drugs and alcohol. The sample is represented most suitably and effectively where it helps to understand the situation of the schoolies in the national level. It is the fact that 90-95 percent of the teenage people or the school leavers have the tendency to get along with the parties and use drugs and alcohol as this is considered to be the essential part for the party or any event. In the western countries the legal age for purchasing alcohol and the drugs are of 18 years of age, and for that, the school leavers get the chance to use drugs and drink in the situation. The sample provides the view that the mentality of all the teenagers are almost the same and for that getting the information from the 10 respondents is like getting the response of 100 teenagers. The sample all the information that is essential for understanding the situation of the teenagers within western countries. Teenagers and young adults are highly attracted to the events and the parties where the use of drugs and alcohol is unlimited.  


Article 2 

Wong, M. C., Leung, M. C., Tsang, C. S., Lo, S. V., & Griffiths, S. M. (2013). The rising tide of diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population: a population-based household survey on 121,895 persons. International journal of public health58(2), 269-276. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.laureate.net.au/10.1007/s00038-012-0364-y 

Aim and hypotheses 

The paper aims to get a proper understanding regarding the rising tide of the diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population. The entire research is being performed from territory-wide household by interviewing on the person from the year 2001 to 2008. The research paper entirely provides the view of hypotheses regarding the facts of the rising tide of diabetes mellitus. The research eventually provides a picture of the health condition of the Chinese population where most of the respondents are more than 15 years of old. The study also has the hypotheses which eventually show the rising tide of the diabetes mellitus and also that the problem did not have a considerable difference among the male and the female Chinese population.

Null hypotheses (H0): “Diabetes mellitus is the rising tide within the Chinese population.”

Alternative hypotheses (H1): "Diabetes mellitus have a different factor for the male and the female Chinese respondents." 

Demographic characteristics of people 

The demographic characteristics of the people associated with the sample are the Chinese household population where most of the respondents are more than 15 years of age. The survey was conducted on 121,895 persons where the diabetes mellitus is considered among both the male and the female respondents. The study was performed on the people with more than 15 years of age and for that most of the information are highly accurate according to the health condition of the Chinese population. The level of respondents is high regarding the research paper which conclusively shows the valuable demographic characteristics of the Chinese community. This is the household survey, and for that, there are numerous people like the students than the housewives and the professional people. The diabetes mellitus response is being calculated on the basis if each of the candidates. The entire report is being provided from the characteristics and the lifestyle habit of the people.

Inferential statistics used to analyse data 

The inferential statistics that were used for the analysis of the data is the binary logistics regression analysis. It is the extension of the simple linear regression where it is essential for getting the value and the practical analysis of the data. In this, the adequate sample size for Diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population is considered almost numerous household members, and for that, the number of respondents is 121,895. The analysis of the data was performed on the information collected from the year 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2008. With the binary logistics regression analysis, the advanced age, as well as the low monthly income of the respondents and the household, is directly associated with the self-report of the diabetes mellitus. The report entirely helps the researcher to understand the medical condition of the people and their activity within the field. It is the fact that the analysis of data helps to understand the rise of diabetes among the Chinese population.

Finding with the adjusted prevalence rates of diabetes for age and sex 

From the 121,895 participants within the survey of household almost 103,367 were the respondents of more than 15 years of age. Among the male respondents for the research the period, as well as the sex-adjusted prevalence of the diabetes mellitus for the year 2001, 2002, 2005 along with 2008, was the 2.80 percent then 2.87 percent, 3.32 percent as well as 4.66 percent respectively. In term of the female respondents the age as well as the sex-adjusted prevalence of the diabetes mellitus for the year 2001, 2002, and 2005 along with 2008 was the 3.25 percent, 3.37 percent, 3.77 percent as well as 4.31 percent respectively. In all the years it can be seen that the prevalence increased sharply among the poor people within the Chinese population. It entirely shows the efficiency and the most suitable information regarding the development of the situation within the field. The diabetes mellitus among the Chinese community have similar increment among the male and the female candidates. 

Odds ratios 

The odd ration from the research paper shows that poor people are at the greatest risk of diabetes due to their food and their lifestyle habit. It is the fact that poor people are unable to get the best or the suitable food product from the market and for that numerous health issue are being created among the people. The research paper also provides the view that female candidates primarily have the high tendency of getting diabetes mellitus due to their working function and their lifestyle activity. It can be clearly understood from the research that people are having a high health issue with the rising health problem. Diabetes mellitus is the common disease, and this can happen to anyone despite the age and sex. Consequently, it took place due to the poor lifestyle and the food habit and also it is a genetic problem. Therefore, the health issue can occur to any person and mostly if they have any members in their family with diabetes history.

Impact of the limitation of the sample 

The weakness of the research paper shows that there is numerous issue within the field regarding the research paper. It can be seen that the entire research has been performed on the Chinese people and for that, it provides a valuable and useful process for the development of the health issue. The limitation of the sample has a significant impact on the people and their activity in the field. The research shows that the health issue where people are having a diabetes problem which is entirely based on the business and their lifestyle. The limitation of the study did not provide the information regarding diabetes to the children because the maximum number of the respondents are of more than 15 years of age. There is another limitation also create an issue within the field regarding the effect of the health issue on the Chinese people.

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