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Questions related to proper handling and management of food

1. List 6 different hygiene rules covered by the Food Act?

2. Describe how an abattoir kills animals?

3. How can you ensure you utilise high quality hygienic meat?

4. List 6 sources of food contamination:

5. How should raw meat be stored?

6. Besides the chief uniform, what other PPE should be used when performing butchery?

7. Why sharp knife is important?

8. How do the following 5 factors influence the tenderness of meat?

9. Describe 5 different ways meat can be tenderised

10. describe the following meat cuts

11. What is marbling? Does the amount of marbling found in meat effect the flavour? If so, explain how and why?

12. Draw a knife and name 10 parts of it.

13. Describe how would you hone a knife with a steel?

14. List 8 safety tips when using a knife:

16. Describe what you could use the following trimmings for:

17. what is the benefit of vacuum packaging of meat? Explain what happens when a product is vacuumed?

18. How long can lamb, beef and veal be stored when frozen?

19. Describe the following classifications of sheep.

20. What should you look for when purchasing a fresh lamb carcase?

21. Mark the following meat cuts.

22. what are the following lamb cuts:

23. describe the 3 different classifications of beef.

24. describe the 2 different classifications of veal.

25. describe 4 different classifications of live cattle?

26. Name the following beef cuts and uses.

27. List 4 cuts that come from a beef tenderloin.

28. List the following cuts of veal:

29. What are the restaurant cuts associated with the listed secondary cuts for beef and veal?

30. Describe the following classifications of beef/ veal cuts

31. Describe the 5 classifications of live pigs.

32. List the 5 pork cuts and associate trims of pork.

33. what are 10 different types of offal commonly used in Australia

34. Describe the quality points and cooking methods that can be used for these 5 different offal?

35. how should offal be stored?

36. list one cut from lamb, beef/ veal and pork that best suits the following methods of cookery

37. Where do you find the following meats?

39. What is marinating? And how does it affect meat?

40. describe the 2 main types of marinades used with meats?

41. Comment on the nutritional aspects relating to lamb, pork and beef.

42. what information should be included or any food labelling/ coding within a commercial kitchen?

43. describe the following meat preparation methods:

44. Describe 3 culturally diverse lamb dishes including where they derive from

45. describe 3 culturally diverse beef dishes, including where they derive from.

46. Describe 3 culturally diverse pork dishes, including where they derive from.

47. Describe 3 culturally diverse offal dishes, including where they derive from.


Answer

  1. List 6 different hygiene rules covered by the Food Act?
Food   safety standards of Australia has put obligations on the Australian food   businesses especially the food handlers regarding the handling of food for   consumer protection. The six major hygiene rules that a food handler needs to   abide by are:
  • Food handlers need to  inform their supervisor if they have symptoms including diarrhoea and   vomiting.
  • A food handler needs   to be cured of any skin injuries or sores.
  • It is important for a   food handler to stop having unnecessary contact with outside food
  • It is important for   them to wear clean outer clothing.
  • They can not sneeze   blow or cough over unprotected food.
  • They need to abide by   the special hand washing rules prior to handling food.

2. Describe how an abattoir kills animals?
Prior to the slaughtering the animals are   generally walked up a raceway into the abattoir in which they enter a   stunning box. The major function of the box is to distinguish the animal from   other animals entering the raceway. Pigs and sheep are killed by an   electrical stun and cattle are generally killed by a captive bolt.

3.How can you ensure you utilise high quality   hygienic meat?
In order to ensure the utilization of high quality   hygienic meat it is important to ensure that the source animal of the meat   was healthy and did not die out of any disease. Apart from that it is   important to check whether the meat is consisted of any round spots on the   flesh or not. Blood simulation around the bones reflects that the meat is   fresh. These are the major factors that indicate that the meat is high   quality and hygienic.


4. List 6 sources of food contamination:
1.human body
2.dust
3.kitchen cloths
4.pets and pests
5.food handler’s cloths
6. The air


5. How should raw meat be stored?
Raw meat can catch bacteria easily. Therefore, it   is important to store the raw meat safely. It is important to store raw meat   in a cool and dry place. Extreme refrigeration is important for keeping the   meat away from contamination. Salt is often used in storing raw meat in order   to protect it from bacteria.


6. Besides the chief uniform, what other PPE   should be used when performing butchery?
Stable protection apron needs to be used while   performing a butchery. Chain mail apron, gauntlet and glove are the other PPE   that need to be used.


7. Why sharp knife is important?
Sharp knife is important because it has the   capacity to disassociate the flesh fibres easily. Apart from that it also   helps in making even pieces of from the raw meat and it is easier to use and   functions seamlessly.


8. How do the following 5 factors influence the   tenderness of meat?
Age; Age and tenderness is inversely proportionate   to the age. With the aging of the animal the tenderness of the flesh   decreases. 
Sex: The male species are considered to provide   quality meat that is more tender than the female species.
Feeding and living environment: Healthy feeding   and living environment ensures healthier animals which is the source of   tender meat.
Stress: Robustness and terseness of meat indicates   that the meat is less tender than usual. 
Cold shortening:Cold shortening results from rapid   chilling of the caracasses right after the slaughtering. It helps the meat to   keep tender and fresher for longer period.


9. Describe 5 different ways meat can be   tenderised
  1. Beating   the meat with a mallet helps it to be tender.
2.marinating it with diluted acid helps the flesh   to remain tender.
3.marinating the meat with enzymes also makes the   meat tender
4. salting it to the right proportion helps the   meat to become tender.
5. in order to maintain the tenderness of the meat   it is important to chop and slice the meat right.


10. describe the following meat cuts
Carcase These are the fatter, juicier and richer. It   contains more animal fats than other cuts.
Side Side indicates halving the meat right after the   animal has been dressed and it is done by the saw in order to derive to equal   sides of the carcass
Quarter

Quarter indicates ribbing down the division of a   side between the twelfth and the thirteenth rib (Jung,Hwang,  & Joo, 2016)
Primary cuts It indicates that the meat is initially separated   from the carcass of an animal.
Secondary cuts Secondary cut indicates at front quartering and   hind quartering of the animal.


11. What is marbling? Does the amount of marbling   found in meat effect the flavour? If so, explain how and why?
Marbling indicates the white flecks and streaks of   fat within the lean section of the meat. The name is due the look of the meat   that resembles that of a marble.
Marbling is responsible for adding flavour to the   meat and it is usually judged through the quality of the cuts. More marbling   indicates better quality of meat. It influences the flavour of the cooked   meat because of the presence of the layered fat in the muscles.


12. Draw a knife and name 10 parts of it.


13. Describe how would you hone a knife with a   steel?
In order to effectively hone a knife with a steel   it is important to follow several steps. Firstly it is important to firmly   handle the knife. After that the blade needs to point upward. Then the blade   is moved from the bolster to the point (Zoran, Gong,Shilkrot, Yan,  & Maes,   2015). It is important to hold the knife at an angle of about 20   degrees with a slight pressure over the steel. 


14. List 8 safety tips when using a knife:
  1. It   is important to use the right knife for the right purpose.
  2. It   is important to keep the knife sharp
  3. It   is important to cut on a stable and even surface.
  4. It   is important to carry the knife while the blade is pointing downwards.



Name and describes the following chief tools:
  1. Crave   knife
  2. Cleaver
  3. Boning   knife
  4. Chef’s   knife
  5. Paring   knife


16. Describe what you could use the following   trimmings for:
Bones and sinewsBone knife
Fat

Paring knife
Larger meat trimmings Cleaver
smaller meat trimmings Carving knife


17. what is the benefit of vacuum packaging of   meat? Explain what happens when a product is vacuumed? 
Vacuum packaging offers the best protection of the   raw meat and it helps to maintain the freshness of the meat for a short   period.
When a product is vacuumed, it indicates that the   product is stored in a protected packaging that is oxygen free and also   protected from any external contamination.


18. How long can lamb, beef and veal be stored   when frozen?
Red meat and pork can remain frozen up to 5 days   in a refrigerator. Ground meats including beef, veal and pork can be stored   frozen up to 3 to 4 months (Zoran, Gong,Shilkrot, Yan,  & Maes,   2015).


19. Describe the following classifications of   sheep.
Ovine: it is a matured sheep
Ewe: female sheep
Ram: male sheep
Wether: castrated male 
Young lamb: sheep less than one year old
Lamb: one year old
Hoggart: old sheep
Mutton: meat from sheep over one years of age.


20. What should you look for when purchasing a   fresh lamb carcase?
It is important to check the colour of the carcase   while purchasing a fresh lamb carcase. 


21. Mark the following meat cuts.
  • Forequarter square   cut
  • Neck
  • Fillet/ Tenderloin
  • Mild loin
  • Hind shank
  • Rib loin
  • Breast
  • Fore shank
  • Chump


22. what are the following lamb cuts:
Guard of honour: It is one of the fanciest and   grandest way of presenting a rack of lamb. 
Crown roast: It is most impressive, centrepiece of   a lamb typically baked in 450 degree F with olive oil and herb mixture over   the meat (Zoran,   Gong,  Shilkrot, Yan,  & Maes, 2015)
Short saddle: Tender, tasty joints of the lamb   roasted and carved.
Short baron of lamb: Rear half of a lamb carcass.   It includes the back, rump, belly and the hind two legs.


23. describe the 3 different classifications of   beef.
  1. Prime   grade that is the highest quality of beef which is rare to find. 
  1. Choice   grade which is high quality but has less marbling than the prime grade
  1. Select   grade which is uniform in quality and generally leaner than the higher grade.   


24. describe the 2 different classifications of   veal.
  1. Bob   veal: The calves slaughtered while one month or less than one-month old which   weigh up to 60lb.  
  1. Formula-fed   veal or Milk-fed veal: The calves are raised with a supplement based on a milk   formula. The meat that is derived from the calves is ivory or creamy pink.   The texture of the meat is firm and fine. The calves are usually slaughtered   while 18 to 20 weeks of age.


25. describe 4 different classifications of live   cattle?
  1. Oxen:   Typically driven by Oxen
  1. Cows:   Typically driven by Cows
  1. Bulls   Typically driven by bulls
  1. Calves:   Typically driven by calves. Less used.


26. Name the following beef cuts and uses.
1. Chuck: The chuck beef cut comes out from the   shoulder and neck of the cows. This is used in traditional pot roast meat.   The chuck is used in blade roast, book steak, butler’s steak, lifter steak,   petit steak and so on.
2. Rib: Ribs are typically well-marbled with fat   and used for dry cooking that includes grilled, roasted, broiled or sautéed.
3. Loin: It is one of the most expensive beef cuts   as they are the most tender and it is used for short time cooking including   dry heat methods and pan frying (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm,  Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015).   
4. Round: Round is a beef which is cut from the   rear or the back-side of the cow. It provides an extremely lean and   flavourful meat. As it has the tendency to be tough, it is usually used to   make London broil. This cut is used in pot roasting and braising which   indicates cooking the meat in the liquid for a long time (Smith, Hou, Ludwig,   Rimm,  Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian,   2015).
5. Flank: Flank steak comes from the lower part of   the abdomen of the cow. It is used for grilling as its thinness allows it to   be cooked quickly and evenly. 
6. Short plate: The short plate is derived from   the middle of the abdomen of the cow. This is used for stew meat and skirt   steak. 
7. Brisket: Brisket comes from the lower back of   the cow. It is not as tender as the loin but it is more flavourful. It is   mainly used for grilling and pan frying (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm,  Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015).
8. Shank: Shank refers to a beef cut from the leg   of the cow. This cut is used to make corned beef and pot roasting. Long low   cooking methods are used as well as smoking the meat at once method as well.


27. List 4 cuts that come from a beef tenderloin.
1. Short loin or sirloin 
2. Fillet mignon
3. New York Strip 
4. T Bone


28. List the following cuts of veal:
1. Neck & clod
2. Chuck & blade
3. Fore rib
4. Sirloin
5. Rump
6. Silverside
7. Thick flank
8. Brisket
9. Thin Rib


29. What are the restaurant cuts associated with   the listed secondary cuts for beef and veal?
Secondary cuts Restaurant cuts
Short loin bone inT bone
Short loin bonelessPorter house
RackHotel rack
TenderloinClub steak
TopsideOsso bucco
RumpTritip
RoundGround
Shin/ shankThick flank


30. Describe the following classifications of beef/   veal cuts
BackstrapRack means the interior portion of the whole loin   which is separated from loin and double. 
Veal rackIt refers to the rib of the veal which comes right   after the loin and this is the first portion of the foresaddle. 
Shin/ shankPortion of the front that is separated from the   shoulder and breast. 
TenderloinThis is known as the eye fillet. It is cut from   the loin of beef. It refers to the major muscle ventral and its oblong shape   is due to spanning of two primal cuts. It sits beneath the ribs next to the   backbone.
Veal leg setThe meat is sliced from the legs into thin   cutlets.


31. Describe the 5 classifications of live pigs.
BoarWild pigs are generally referred as boars. These   are not treated as cattle’s.
BarrowBarrow is a male pig that has been castrated   before reaching sexual maturity. 
GiltGilt is a young female pig that is a few months   old or approaching a year.
SowSow is the female pig that is used for breeding.
Suckling pigSuckling pig is piglet that has fed on its   mother’s milk. 


32. List the 5 pork cuts and associate trims of   pork.
  1. Shoulders:   Boston shoulder or Boston butt 
  1. Loin:   Blade chop or pork chop end cut
  1. Tenderloin;   Rack of pork
  1. Side   or belly; Spare ribs
  1. Leg;   Shank end


33. what are 10 different types of offal commonly   used in Australia
1. Lamb liver pie
2. Chicken liver and Mushroom pate
3. Classic chicken liver pate
4.  Lamb’s   fry with bacon and onions
5.brains
6. heart
7. kidney
8. sweetbread
9.toungue
10. Testicles


34. Describe the quality points and cooking   methods that can be used for these 5 different offal?
OffalQuality pointCooking method
LiverContains huge amount of protein.Low heat pot cooked
TongueEasier to dissociate; Baked or grilled
KidneysEasier to broil; High VitaminBroiled or sautéed
TripeContains high calorie; Provides energyPot boiled
HeartsHigh protein and minerals
Medium heat slow cooked


35. how should offal be stored?
It is important to store the offal in a cool and   dry place with required low temperature and away from sun light. Offal needs   to be stored with extra care and protection as they are more prone to   contamination.


36. list one cut from lamb, beef/ veal and pork   that best suits the following methods of cookery


Cooking methodlambBeef/ vealPork
BoilingRumpBrisketShank
PoachingRoundShankRump
SteamingTenderloinRumpTenderloin
Steaming (pressure)ShankTenderloinRump
StewingBrisketSirloinBrisket


37. Where do you find the following meats?
Tender meats: It has been observed that the fine   quality meat with exquisite tenderness has been found in the ribs and the   lower abdomen (Smith,   Hou, Ludwig, Rimm,  Willett, Hu &   Mozaffarian, 2015)
Tough cuts: It has been observed the meat of   shoulder and legside or the butt side meat are typically terse


38. Yes or no- will collagen become tender if   cooked appropriately?
YES


39. What is marinating? And how does it affect   meat?
Marinating can be referred as the precursor of   preparing any dish. It is typically done by adding oil, spices and herbs in a   form of a mixture in the meat. This preparation of mixture has been smeared   over the meat in order to ensure the osmosis of the flavour. Marinating is   usually catalysed b y decreasing the temperature of the mixture.
It helps to add necessary flavours to the cooked   meat as marination helps in the processing of the spices in a more effective   way. Marination when done with the help of required enzymes assists in making   the meat tender and tasty. It improves the texture of the meat and helps the   meat to get cooked easily. 


40. describe the 2 main types of marinades used   with meats?
  1. Non-animal   enzymes: These sorts of marinades are typically used to increase the   effectiveness of protein prevalent in the meat. It also helps to elevate the   food quality of the meat. Moreover, it facilitates the digestion of the meat   when consumed. 
  1. Animal   enzymes: These are the direct enzymes that are used as marinades typically in   form of oil. It elevates the richness of the meat while emancipating the   flavour of the meat. It has been regarded as animal enzymes seem to reduce   the surface roughness of the meat while making the meat more edible. 


41. Comment on the nutritional aspects relating to   lamb, pork and beef.
Lamb: It contains high protein and vitamins.   However, presence of excessive animal fat and cholesterol decreases the food   quality of the meat derived from lamb.
Pork: It contains high fat and causes cholesterol   in the human body. On the other hand, the presence of excessive clustered   protein that enriches its food quality. Due to the high protein value, in can   be as the potent equivalents of the carbohydrates (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm,  Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015).   A proper amount of pig fat and protein helps in self-development while   meeting the energy requisites of the human body. 
Beef: It contains high fat and causes cholesterol   in the human body. On the other hand, the presence of excessive clustered   protein that enriches its food quality. Due to the high protein value, in can   be as the potent equivalents of the carbohydrates. A proper amount of pig fat   and protein helps in self-development while meeting the energy requisites of   the human body. 


42. what information should be included or any   food labelling/ coding within a commercial kitchen?
The origins of the chief materials need to   included. Moreover, the domain of production need to be included as well as   it is might be synthetic and organic both (Buckley, 2016)..


43. describe the following meat preparation   methods:
Ageing: Cooking after a considerable interval   after marinating the meat
Barding: Barding is a method of placing fat such   as bacon or fatback around lean meats prior to roasting. This is done in   order to make the lean meat absorb additional juicy flavours (Buckley, 2016).
Boning: A type of cooking that typically   incorporates the elimination of the main bone of the meat.
Cutting: It typically refers to the even cutting   of the meat in order to ensure proper absorption of the desired flavours   added as marinades.
Larding: It is a cooking technique that involves   additional insertion of fat since the meat is devoid of the requisite fat   content. It helps to sustain the moisture of the meat while disabling it from   drying out (Buckley,   2016)..
Mincing: It typically refers to the cutting the   ingredients into even and finely divided uniform pieces.
Rolling: It helps in flattening the ingredients.
Tenderising: It is typically referred to the   tenderisation of meat through adding requisite marinades and enzymes
Trimming: It assists to clip the uneven ends of   the ingredients while eliminating unnecessary elements.
Trussing: It typically refers to the method of   tying the wings and the legs against the body to enable a more complex shape.
Skewering: It refers to the threading of meat or   stripping it in order to facilitate the process of grilling.


44. Describe 3 culturally diverse lamb dishes   including where they derive from
  1. Abgoosht: it is a   typical Iranian lamb dish
  2. Beyti Kebab: It is a   traditional Turkish dish
  3. Aloo gosht: it is a   north-indian traditional dish 


45. describe 3 culturally diverse beef dishes,   including where they derive from.
  1. Gyutan: a traditional   Japanese dish
  2. Mechado: it is a   traditional dish of Philippines
  3. Rendang: it is a   traditional Indonesian dish


46. Describe 3 culturally diverse pork dishes,   including where they derive from.
  1. Pork bakkwa:   Traditional Chinese dish
  2. Babi guling: Balinese   cuisine made of Suckling pig
  3. Pork balchao : a   spicy east Indian dish


47. Describe 3 culturally diverse offal dishes,   including where they derive from.
1. Lamb liver pie
2. Chicken liver and Mushroom pate
3. Classic chicken liver pate


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