Questions related to proper handling and management of food
Food safety standards of Australia has put obligations on the Australian food businesses especially the food handlers regarding the handling of food for consumer protection. The six major hygiene rules that a food handler needs to abide by are:
2. Describe how an abattoir kills animals?
Prior to the slaughtering the animals are generally walked up a raceway into the abattoir in which they enter a stunning box. The major function of the box is to distinguish the animal from other animals entering the raceway. Pigs and sheep are killed by an electrical stun and cattle are generally killed by a captive bolt.
3.How can you ensure you utilise high quality hygienic meat?
In order to ensure the utilization of high quality hygienic meat it is important to ensure that the source animal of the meat was healthy and did not die out of any disease. Apart from that it is important to check whether the meat is consisted of any round spots on the flesh or not. Blood simulation around the bones reflects that the meat is fresh. These are the major factors that indicate that the meat is high quality and hygienic.
|4. List 6 sources of food contamination:|
|4.pets and pests|
|5.food handler’s cloths|
|6. The air|
5. How should raw meat be stored?
Raw meat can catch bacteria easily. Therefore, it is important to store the raw meat safely. It is important to store raw meat in a cool and dry place. Extreme refrigeration is important for keeping the meat away from contamination. Salt is often used in storing raw meat in order to protect it from bacteria.
6. Besides the chief uniform, what other PPE should be used when performing butchery?
Stable protection apron needs to be used while performing a butchery. Chain mail apron, gauntlet and glove are the other PPE that need to be used.
7. Why sharp knife is important?
Sharp knife is important because it has the capacity to disassociate the flesh fibres easily. Apart from that it also helps in making even pieces of from the raw meat and it is easier to use and functions seamlessly.
|8. How do the following 5 factors influence the tenderness of meat?|
|Age; Age and tenderness is inversely proportionate to the age. With the aging of the animal the tenderness of the flesh decreases.|
|Sex: The male species are considered to provide quality meat that is more tender than the female species.|
|Feeding and living environment: Healthy feeding and living environment ensures healthier animals which is the source of tender meat.|
|Stress: Robustness and terseness of meat indicates that the meat is less tender than usual.|
|Cold shortening:Cold shortening results from rapid chilling of the caracasses right after the slaughtering. It helps the meat to keep tender and fresher for longer period.|
|9. Describe 5 different ways meat can be tenderised|
|2.marinating it with diluted acid helps the flesh to remain tender.|
|3.marinating the meat with enzymes also makes the meat tender|
|4. salting it to the right proportion helps the meat to become tender.|
|5. in order to maintain the tenderness of the meat it is important to chop and slice the meat right.|
|10. describe the following meat cuts|
|Carcase||These are the fatter, juicier and richer. It contains more animal fats than other cuts.|
|Side||Side indicates halving the meat right after the animal has been dressed and it is done by the saw in order to derive to equal sides of the carcass|
|Quarter indicates ribbing down the division of a side between the twelfth and the thirteenth rib (Jung,Hwang, & Joo, 2016)|
|Primary cuts||It indicates that the meat is initially separated from the carcass of an animal.|
|Secondary cuts||Secondary cut indicates at front quartering and hind quartering of the animal.|
|11. What is marbling? Does the amount of marbling found in meat effect the flavour? If so, explain how and why?|
Marbling indicates the white flecks and streaks of fat within the lean section of the meat. The name is due the look of the meat that resembles that of a marble.
Marbling is responsible for adding flavour to the meat and it is usually judged through the quality of the cuts. More marbling indicates better quality of meat. It influences the flavour of the cooked meat because of the presence of the layered fat in the muscles.
|12. Draw a knife and name 10 parts of it.|
|13. Describe how would you hone a knife with a steel?|
|In order to effectively hone a knife with a steel it is important to follow several steps. Firstly it is important to firmly handle the knife. After that the blade needs to point upward. Then the blade is moved from the bolster to the point (Zoran, Gong,Shilkrot, Yan, & Maes, 2015). It is important to hold the knife at an angle of about 20 degrees with a slight pressure over the steel.|
|14. List 8 safety tips when using a knife:|
Name and describes the following chief tools:
|16. Describe what you could use the following trimmings for:|
|Bones and sinews||Bone knife|
|Larger meat trimmings||Cleaver|
|smaller meat trimmings||Carving knife|
17. what is the benefit of vacuum packaging of meat? Explain what happens when a product is vacuumed?
Vacuum packaging offers the best protection of the raw meat and it helps to maintain the freshness of the meat for a short period.
When a product is vacuumed, it indicates that the product is stored in a protected packaging that is oxygen free and also protected from any external contamination.
18. How long can lamb, beef and veal be stored when frozen?
Red meat and pork can remain frozen up to 5 days in a refrigerator. Ground meats including beef, veal and pork can be stored frozen up to 3 to 4 months (Zoran, Gong,Shilkrot, Yan, & Maes, 2015).
|19. Describe the following classifications of sheep.|
|Ovine: it is a matured sheep|
|Ewe: female sheep|
|Ram: male sheep|
|Wether: castrated male|
|Young lamb: sheep less than one year old|
|Lamb: one year old|
|Hoggart: old sheep|
|Mutton: meat from sheep over one years of age.|
20. What should you look for when purchasing a fresh lamb carcase?
It is important to check the colour of the carcase while purchasing a fresh lamb carcase.
21. Mark the following meat cuts.
|22. what are the following lamb cuts:|
|Guard of honour: It is one of the fanciest and grandest way of presenting a rack of lamb.|
|Crown roast: It is most impressive, centrepiece of a lamb typically baked in 450 degree F with olive oil and herb mixture over the meat (Zoran, Gong, Shilkrot, Yan, & Maes, 2015)|
|Short saddle: Tender, tasty joints of the lamb roasted and carved.|
|Short baron of lamb: Rear half of a lamb carcass. It includes the back, rump, belly and the hind two legs.|
|23. describe the 3 different classifications of beef.|
|24. describe the 2 different classifications of veal.|
|25. describe 4 different classifications of live cattle?|
26. Name the following beef cuts and uses.
1. Chuck: The chuck beef cut comes out from the shoulder and neck of the cows. This is used in traditional pot roast meat. The chuck is used in blade roast, book steak, butler’s steak, lifter steak, petit steak and so on.
2. Rib: Ribs are typically well-marbled with fat and used for dry cooking that includes grilled, roasted, broiled or sautéed.
3. Loin: It is one of the most expensive beef cuts as they are the most tender and it is used for short time cooking including dry heat methods and pan frying (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm, Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015).
4. Round: Round is a beef which is cut from the rear or the back-side of the cow. It provides an extremely lean and flavourful meat. As it has the tendency to be tough, it is usually used to make London broil. This cut is used in pot roasting and braising which indicates cooking the meat in the liquid for a long time (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm, Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015).
5. Flank: Flank steak comes from the lower part of the abdomen of the cow. It is used for grilling as its thinness allows it to be cooked quickly and evenly.
6. Short plate: The short plate is derived from the middle of the abdomen of the cow. This is used for stew meat and skirt steak.
7. Brisket: Brisket comes from the lower back of the cow. It is not as tender as the loin but it is more flavourful. It is mainly used for grilling and pan frying (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm, Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015).
8. Shank: Shank refers to a beef cut from the leg of the cow. This cut is used to make corned beef and pot roasting. Long low cooking methods are used as well as smoking the meat at once method as well.
|27. List 4 cuts that come from a beef tenderloin.|
1. Short loin or sirloin
2. Fillet mignon
3. New York Strip
4. T Bone
|28. List the following cuts of veal:|
1. Neck & clod
2. Chuck & blade
3. Fore rib
7. Thick flank
9. Thin Rib
|29. What are the restaurant cuts associated with the listed secondary cuts for beef and veal?|
|Secondary cuts||Restaurant cuts|
|Short loin bone in||T bone|
|Short loin boneless||Porter house|
|Shin/ shank||Thick flank|
|30. Describe the following classifications of beef/ veal cuts|
|Backstrap||Rack means the interior portion of the whole loin which is separated from loin and double.|
|Veal rack||It refers to the rib of the veal which comes right after the loin and this is the first portion of the foresaddle.|
|Shin/ shank||Portion of the front that is separated from the shoulder and breast.|
|Tenderloin||This is known as the eye fillet. It is cut from the loin of beef. It refers to the major muscle ventral and its oblong shape is due to spanning of two primal cuts. It sits beneath the ribs next to the backbone.|
|Veal leg set||The meat is sliced from the legs into thin cutlets.|
|31. Describe the 5 classifications of live pigs.|
|Boar||Wild pigs are generally referred as boars. These are not treated as cattle’s.|
|Barrow||Barrow is a male pig that has been castrated before reaching sexual maturity.|
|Gilt||Gilt is a young female pig that is a few months old or approaching a year.|
|Sow||Sow is the female pig that is used for breeding.|
|Suckling pig||Suckling pig is piglet that has fed on its mother’s milk.|
|32. List the 5 pork cuts and associate trims of pork.|
|33. what are 10 different types of offal commonly used in Australia|
1. Lamb liver pie
2. Chicken liver and Mushroom pate
3. Classic chicken liver pate
4. Lamb’s fry with bacon and onions
34. Describe the quality points and cooking methods that can be used for these 5 different offal?
|Offal||Quality point||Cooking method|
|Liver||Contains huge amount of protein.||Low heat pot cooked|
|Tongue||Easier to dissociate;||Baked or grilled|
|Kidneys||Easier to broil; High Vitamin||Broiled or sautéed|
|Tripe||Contains high calorie; Provides energy||Pot boiled|
|Hearts||High protein and minerals|
Medium heat slow cooked
|35. how should offal be stored?|
|It is important to store the offal in a cool and dry place with required low temperature and away from sun light. Offal needs to be stored with extra care and protection as they are more prone to contamination.|
|36. list one cut from lamb, beef/ veal and pork that best suits the following methods of cookery|
|Cooking method||lamb||Beef/ veal||Pork|
|37. Where do you find the following meats?|
|Tender meats: It has been observed that the fine quality meat with exquisite tenderness has been found in the ribs and the lower abdomen (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm, Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015)|
|Tough cuts: It has been observed the meat of shoulder and legside or the butt side meat are typically terse|
|38. Yes or no- will collagen become tender if cooked appropriately?|
|39. What is marinating? And how does it affect meat?|
Marinating can be referred as the precursor of preparing any dish. It is typically done by adding oil, spices and herbs in a form of a mixture in the meat. This preparation of mixture has been smeared over the meat in order to ensure the osmosis of the flavour. Marinating is usually catalysed b y decreasing the temperature of the mixture.
It helps to add necessary flavours to the cooked meat as marination helps in the processing of the spices in a more effective way. Marination when done with the help of required enzymes assists in making the meat tender and tasty. It improves the texture of the meat and helps the meat to get cooked easily.
|40. describe the 2 main types of marinades used with meats?|
|41. Comment on the nutritional aspects relating to lamb, pork and beef.|
|Lamb: It contains high protein and vitamins. However, presence of excessive animal fat and cholesterol decreases the food quality of the meat derived from lamb.|
|Pork: It contains high fat and causes cholesterol in the human body. On the other hand, the presence of excessive clustered protein that enriches its food quality. Due to the high protein value, in can be as the potent equivalents of the carbohydrates (Smith, Hou, Ludwig, Rimm, Willett, Hu & Mozaffarian, 2015). A proper amount of pig fat and protein helps in self-development while meeting the energy requisites of the human body.|
|Beef: It contains high fat and causes cholesterol in the human body. On the other hand, the presence of excessive clustered protein that enriches its food quality. Due to the high protein value, in can be as the potent equivalents of the carbohydrates. A proper amount of pig fat and protein helps in self-development while meeting the energy requisites of the human body.|
|42. what information should be included or any food labelling/ coding within a commercial kitchen?|
|The origins of the chief materials need to included. Moreover, the domain of production need to be included as well as it is might be synthetic and organic both (Buckley, 2016)..|
|43. describe the following meat preparation methods:|
|Ageing: Cooking after a considerable interval after marinating the meat|
|Barding: Barding is a method of placing fat such as bacon or fatback around lean meats prior to roasting. This is done in order to make the lean meat absorb additional juicy flavours (Buckley, 2016).|
|Boning: A type of cooking that typically incorporates the elimination of the main bone of the meat.|
|Cutting: It typically refers to the even cutting of the meat in order to ensure proper absorption of the desired flavours added as marinades.|
|Larding: It is a cooking technique that involves additional insertion of fat since the meat is devoid of the requisite fat content. It helps to sustain the moisture of the meat while disabling it from drying out (Buckley, 2016)..|
|Mincing: It typically refers to the cutting the ingredients into even and finely divided uniform pieces.|
|Rolling: It helps in flattening the ingredients.|
|Tenderising: It is typically referred to the tenderisation of meat through adding requisite marinades and enzymes|
|Trimming: It assists to clip the uneven ends of the ingredients while eliminating unnecessary elements.|
|Trussing: It typically refers to the method of tying the wings and the legs against the body to enable a more complex shape.|
|Skewering: It refers to the threading of meat or stripping it in order to facilitate the process of grilling.|
|44. Describe 3 culturally diverse lamb dishes including where they derive from|
|45. describe 3 culturally diverse beef dishes, including where they derive from.|
|46. Describe 3 culturally diverse pork dishes, including where they derive from.|
|47. Describe 3 culturally diverse offal dishes, including where they derive from.|
1. Lamb liver pie
2. Chicken liver and Mushroom pate
3. Classic chicken liver pate