RD1 A3: MRes Project Development Report (40%) 1,500 words
A research proposal is writing that is intended to be both informative and persuasive. High quality research proposals are able to both educate the reader and convince them that the proposed research is possible and valuable. A proposal should therefore illuminate the research question/problem as an interesting and important one within the context of existing research and knowledge, and it should convince readers that the proposed research is an appropriate and practical solution.
This assessment is a draft of the formal thesis proposal you will submit in Research Design 2. While you will not be held to the draft you produce for this assessment, you should treat it as an opportunity to receive feedback on writing about a research problem in a way that seeks to convince others of its importance. This assessment is also an opportunity to receive feedback on technical aspects of writing academically that are often overlooked in undergraduate training (e.g. referencing precision, formatting, expression, etc.). You should read the information in this worksheet carefully, and consult with your supervisors about how to approach each section.
TITLE AND PROJECT DESCRIPTION (10%)
The project description is like the abstract of a journal article, and should summarize the research proposal in roughly 250 words. The project description should summarize sections 3-5 of the Project Development Report (i.e. background, methods, and impact). In other words, the project description should:
The aims of the project should be clear, and should focus on addressing the identified gap in the literature. Project aims should not be too broad or sweeping, and should be achievable within the timeline and word limit of a Master’s length project. Make sure you consult with a supervisor or mentor about the aims of your project.
Excellent project descriptions have a good command of existing literature, and only explain as much as necessary to understand the research project.
Titles take different forms in different fields (speak with your supervisor for advice), but the ultimate aim of a title is to indicate to readers what the project is about.
BACKGROUND, LITERATURE REVIEW, AND RESEARCH QUESTION (25%)
In this section you should explain, contextualize, and justify your research question/problem in terms of its intellectual background. High quality proposals will place the research question in the context of existing knowledge by reviewing relevant academic literature. In so doing, a research gap should be identified. The review of literature and the identified gap should point towards a research question/problem that must be clearly articulated. At this stage you can have many potential questions; if this is the case, the purpose is to show where the project is heading and that you are thinking about a variety of approaches. On the other had, you may have already settled on a specific research question, in which case the purpose of the section is to lead to this question. This is the most important section in the proposal in terms of showing your knowledge of the
Canine lymphoma and its treatment protocols
Canine lymphoma is a very known disease among the dogs and it has been evidenced 20-100 cases in per 100,000 dogs. It can be compared with non-Hodgkin lymphoma among human beings. The de of this definite occurrence of this disease has been remaining unknown but a wide variety of histological subtypes has been recognized. This disease commonly managed by the neoplasia in terms of veterinary medical oncology. In this report, it will be explained that how the small number of dogs can be truly cured with lymphoma and when this lymphoma increases, then it can be cured through chemotherapy for certain duration of time. To explore the recent update in literature, the data on cL is also included in this report. This report aims to the relevant information of this illness which includes epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnostics and options of the treatment as well ( Zandvliet, M. 2016).
Canine lymphoma is not a sole disease; it consists of few clinical and morphological forms of lymphoid cell neoplasia. This cells can be differentiated from one another. In per 100,000 dogs 13 to 114 dogs are suffering from hematopoietic neoplasia. In the past few years, the trend of this disease has been increased rapidly and this has also been an in humans as well. There are many different breeds of dogs. Some of that represents a closed gene pool and the consistency of the genome has been sequenced. This disease can affect any type of dog breeds irrespective of the size of the breeds. Lymphoma can be detected at any age and can be diagnosed as well. Generally, it affects the middle-aged to older dogs. No apparent sex appeal is there, but the female dogs have been less affected rather than the male dogs. Doctors suggest neutralization to decreasing the risk factor of developing CL among golden retriever and vizsla. The Labrador retriever is somehow overcoming this risk. Similar observations show that the women who are premenopausal has been the least risk for developing NHL. Progesterone and estrogen hormone are playing a pivotal role for expressing the neoplastic lymphocytes irrespective of potential effect if sex which has been mentioned earlier.
Researchers have propagated many theories, that why cL has been in the largest number of dogs. The causes are very similar to why weather is polluted ( Giannasi et al 2016. ) and to live in industrialized inhabitable areas and the display of household chemicals is the primary cause. The other causing elements are to dwelling near radioactive waste incinerators and polluted sites. In all those exposures, 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid's exposure is linked at the beginning. Defective genotypes of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Among the other variants of cL there is only one genotypes which is found in 18% of all cL cases. The observed mutation was subjected to affect mRNA spilled end. The result is that enzyme expression and activity occurs. Golden retrievers with cL had a lower capacity of DNA damage than in golden retrievers without cL or mixed-breed dogs. Canine lymphoma virus gets the power of existence from species-specific leukoma virus. Gastric mucosa which is associated with lymphoid tissue is associated with Helicobacter infections. On the other hand, beagles have passed the experimental infections.
The dysfunctional immune system can cause lymphogenesis in dogs and in humans immunosuppression can cause lymphoma. In a recent experiment, it has been found that with cutaneous lymphoma the chance of lymphogenesis has been increased, which has been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis.
Canine lymphoma and its molecular biology
In the human body, there have been many forms of B cells and T cells. These forms of B cells and T cells have many genetic abnormalities that are applied for diagnostic purposes and prognostic purposes respectively. Limited genomic instability has been noticed in human NHL compared to Cl. This has been demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization. The most copy number of abnormalities is 13 and 31 which has been found on dog chromosome. In cL, dog chromosome 13 has been found consistently and it has found on other neoplasms.
Proto-oncogene c-kit which is also a tyrosine protein kinase plays a pivotal role in the proliferating and differentiating the hematopoietic stem including the mast cells. The expression of c- kit is increased on some high-grade T-cell lymphomas, whereas c-kit has been extremely low on CL. In leukemia, mutations of N-ras oncogene is common rather than in cL. In cL, mutations of tumor suppressor gene are also rare, here it is known as p53.
Clinical presentation here playing its own role. The most popular and common clinical presentation is a multicentric form of presentation. In this form of presentation, peripheral lymph nodes have been affected but the extranodal forms exist. These extranodal forms include mediastinal, abdominal, hepatic, renal and central nervous system. The presence of paraneoplastic syndromes makes the clinical presentation of cL more complicated.
This type of lymphoma can attack any of the body part. This includes oral, nasal, periapical, vertebral, skeletal muscle and synovial membrane, adrenal, urinary bladder, prostate, cardiac and pericardial involvement.
The most common paraneoplastic syndrome in dogs is hypercalcemia. The result is the production of PTH- related peptide. It decreases the response of the collecting ducts to antidiuretic hormone. This leads to renal diabetes insipidus and this also helps to increase the level of calcium in the pro-urine, which reduces sodium reabsorption. In assistance with the loop of Henle, these two incidents lead to polyuria. In addition, hypercalcemia leads to a glomerular arteriole, thus reducing the filtration rate of the glomerulus. As a result, perfusion of renal medulla increases the risk of hypoxia of renal tubules.
On the other hand, there are paraneoplastic syndromes which include monoclonal gammopathy, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia.
For diagnosing high high-gradesgradesique is applied in which a fine needle draws out from a neoplastic lymph node. (Villarnovo, D.et al 2017) For diagnosing the low glow-glow-grade gym is insufficient. In many cases an sectional biopsy is sufficient. The increased possibilities of the flow cytometry to analyzing the fine needle draws out from neoplastic lymph nodes may slow down the need for excisional biopsies.
Histologically, CL is characterized by many numbers if morphological criteria which include the pattern, size of nuclear and morphology if nuclear, place of nuclei, mitotic index and, mmueimmunophenotypeed on these characteristics, cL is developed rapidly over the past few decades.
This therapy study is on chemotherapy, the chemotherapy treatment is arbitrate to high grade. Optional's treatment's information for low grade is limited, consequently the cL of extramural form is also limited.
Based on the above study, it is found that canine lymphoma is a curable disease if it is detected in real time. Many prognosis and diagnostic system can detect the disease. Not only in dogs it can be also found on human body as it is evidenced in wide variety of cases. By its histological, morphological and genomic nature, it can be said that the particular cause of this disease has been remaining unknown irrespective of various research. To be familiar with these factors, doctors are trying to inculcate the factors which are influencing canine lymphoma by several means.