Answer the given questions on Rehabilitation Anatomy.
RBM2100 Rehabilitation Anatomy Assignment B- Due at the completion of Session 6
ANSWER TO QUESTION NO- 1.
Muscle spindles are sensory muscle receptor within the body which detects the changes in the length of the muscles. They send the message by motor nerves to the central nervous system. The muscle spindle activates the myotactic stretch reflex to prevent the muscle fiber damage. The body muscle should not be stretched beyond its motion and stretch barrier because it would damage the muscles. More the overstretching major the damage in the muscle (Sleigh, et al. 2017
GTO lies in the tendons of the skeletal muscle. It is a sensory receptor organ which senses the changes in muscle tension. In order to prevent the muscles from the damage caused due to the high tendon tension the GTO activates the inverse stretch reflex and cases muscle relaxation. Strong isometric contraction of target muscle is used to inverse stretch reflex so that it could control muscle tension by causing muscle relaxation before force applied by muscle (Wilson,et al. 2018).
Trigger point is a hyperirritable spot, a pain over the points over the skeletal muscles. Muscle becomes harder than normal muscles. It includes tensions, headaches, joint pains, lower back pain, and tinnitus. Latent trigger point is point where everyone feel pain then point has been pressed whereas the active trigger point the muscles are painful whether pressed or not. Whenever there is any kind of abnormal activities in nervous system due to hormonal release due to stress causes chronic pain which result in fibromyalgia (Kancherla, & Ahmadian, 2017).
The anatomical structure which makes core is basically abdominal muscles and its parts which include Rectus abdominis, Transversus abdominis, obliques. When there is stability in muscles there is no pain in muscle but when there is any kind of poor stability it causes pain which is inflicted upon stomach muscles which causes gastrocnemius muscle strain in the lower limb. This is caused because of weak stomach muscles, poor balance and lack of sports activities. In open kinetic chain the body is not touching and is usually away like hand or leg example Front squat, leg press exercise. Whereas, in closed kinetic chain the body is touching and is fixed and not moving example leg flexes (Punekar, et al, 2018).
Every anatomical structure of the body can be damaged by the consistent amount of exercise. So when the age factor, proper and specific amount of exercise is done then the structure remains fit. So the person shall perform proper exercise and shall consult an expert for exercise (Fan, et al. 2017).
Protruded disc is when the nucleus remains constant with the structure of the disc but does not rupture. Whereas prolapsed disc is when the nucleus disc is still with the annulus but the outer most layer of fiber are holding them. Extruded disc is when the nucleus soft part comes out of the disc structure. Whereas, in sequestrated disc the fragments from the both parts annulus and nucleus comes out of the dis. Signs of disc pathology are pain in lower back, drying out of water from the spine, crack caused in the spine (Abdu, et al. 2018).
Spinal stenosis is a condition where small spinal canal containing the roots are compressed and causes pain and numbness. In Spondylitis, the spine bones fuses together with the other and cause the rigidness in spine. Spondylosis majorly occurs when the person is very old and due to which there is pain in the spine, lumbar. Spondylolysis it is a fracture on the vertebral arch which is caused on the lower lumbar vertebrae and cervical vertebrae. Spondylolisthesis , it affects the spinal bones where the lower vertebrae come forward and causes severe pain. It is caused due to excessive weightlifting and sports games.
Double bent leg lift exercise, Double bent leg lower exercise, oblique abdominal facilition, the curl up exercise, the bird dog, the side bridge are exercise which are beneficial for improvement of core muscle function and endurance in a person with a chronic lumbar disc pathology (Torelli, et al. 2016.)
Patient faces severe pain along with complete loss of strength and having problem is walking, standing, sitting. There pain depends upon how much injury they are having. The patient after having the surgery can walk depending upon the injury but crutches are used for the mobility for a particular period of time until healing of body is fully done (Kozlowski, et al. 2017).
In the post-surgical rehabilitation for uncomplicated grade 3 tear, doctor allows the patient to walk and also allows that the patient can bear partial weight. But the labor intensive work can only be allowed after6 weeks of period and patient shall not perform long period of standing, heavy lifting, bending, excessive stair climbing (Gilli, et al. 2018.)