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Representing and Interpreting Scientific Data: Scientific Communication Task 2 Assessment Answer

Scientific Communication Task 2 – 

Representing and interpreting scientific data

Introduction

To understand how competing in different environments may affect their performance, the Australian Women’s Olympic Cycling Team have completed a scientific investigation into the effects of environmental temperature on their cyclists’ heart rate in preparation for upcoming competitions in four different environments. The data for this investigation is in and you have been asked to organise and analyse the results.

The expected environmental temperatures at the time of the events are:

  1. 4°C
  2. 11°C
  3. 21°C
  4. 31°C

The experiment was conducted using the following hypothesis:

When cycling at environmental temperatures over 15°C heart rate will be higher than when cycling at lower temperatures.

Background

It is well known that intense exercise, such as during sporting competitions, causes heart rate to increase. This increase in heart rate though occurs for multiple reasons, especially when exercising in the heat. During exercise, the skeletal muscles need a large, constant supply of oxygen which enables them to contract frequently and rapidly to produce body movement. To meet this need for oxygen, dilation of blood vessels going to the skeletal muscles increases the amount of blood they receive during exercise. At the same time, the contraction of skeletal muscles during exercise generates large amounts of excess heat. To prevent this excess heat from causing an increase in core body temperature, which can occur very quickly when exercising in the heat, blood vessels in the skin dilate to increase the amount of blood carrying heat to reach the skin. Increasing blood flow to the skin during exercise allows the excess heat generated through muscle contractions to be more easily lost from the body to the external environment so core body temperature can be maintained at 36.5-37.5°C. When exercising in the heat then, the body is faced with meeting the demands of trying to increase blood flow to the skeletal muscles and skin at the same time. To meet these two demands, heart rate increases. By increasing heart rate when exercising in the heat, the body can increase blood flow to the skeletal muscles to supply them with oxygen and increase blood flow to the skin so excess heat can be removed from the body.

The Investigation

The experiment was conducted in the cycling team’s climate controlled laboratory, with ten of their female cyclists. The cyclists exercised for 60 minutes and their heart rate was measured every five minutes.

Dependent variable: Heart rate
Subjects: 10 female cyclists

Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial 4
Independent variable:
4°C

Independent variable:
11°C

Independent variable:
21°C

Independent variable:
31°C

Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used

Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used

Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used

Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used

Your task

  1. Use the Excel workbook for Scientific Communication Task 2 on Learnline to calculate the mean heart rate of all ten cyclists for each 5 minute interval. You need to do this for all four temperature trials.
  2. Take your mean heart rate calculations and place them in a properly labelled table: the mean heart rates of the cyclists for each five minute measurement, for each of the four temperature trials.
  3. Use your table of mean heart rates to create and format a properly labelled graph of the mean heart rate of the cyclists for each of the four temperature trials (you need to choose if a line graph or column graph should be used to represent the data).
  4. Insert your completed table and graph in the space below and include an appropriate descriptive title for each.
  5. Answer questions 1-4 below.

You are expected to proof read your assignment before submitting it. Proof reading means carefully going through your assignment to find and correct mistakes in your grammar, spelling and written expression. 

Results

Insert your table with descriptive title into the space below this sentence (5 marks):

Insert your graph with descriptive title into the space below this sentence (10 marks):

  1. Describe the trends shown in your graph for mean heart rate at each of the four temperatures. In your description:
  2. Describe the overall trend of the mean heart rate for each temperature.
  3. Compare and contrast the results for each of the four temperatures to each other – what are the similarities and differences? (6 marks)

Discussion Questions

  1. Do the results support/partially support/not support the hypothesis? Why/why not? (2 marks)
  2. Explain why the type of data in Table 1 led you to choose a line graph or a column graph to present the results of the experiment. If you used a line graph, also explain why you didn’t choose a column graph. Alternatively, if you used a column graph, also explain why you didn’t choose a line graph. (2 marks)
  3. In approximately 80-100 words, paraphrase the information provided in the box below to explain what two competing demands the body is trying to meet by increasing heart rate when exercising in a hot environment. 
Exercise in the heat can pose a severe challenge to human cardiovascular control, and thus the provision of blood flow to exercising muscles and vital organs, because of an enhanced demand for skin blood flow.
Blood flow to active muscle (and the myocardium) is required to meet the energetic demands for muscular activity (principally the demand for oxygen), while blood flow to skin is required to meet the demands of temperature regulation. These combined demands for blood flow can result in a competition for the available cardiac output. As a consequence, heart rate increases to meet the dual demands of exercise per se and of temperature regulation, particularly during intense dynamic exercise.


Make sure your paraphrase is written as a properly formatted paragraph that includes a topic sentence and does not include any direct quotes. A list of ‘Key Terms’ and their meanings have been provided below to assist you with your paraphrasing. 

NOTE: The ‘Key Terms’ do not have to be put into your own words.

Don’t forget to include an in-text citation and reference with your paraphrase formatted following the CDU APA Referencing Style. Put your reference with your paraphrase in the box below. The information needed to write your in-text citation and reference can be found on the next page. (9 marks)

Key Terms

Cardiac output – amount of blood pumped out of the heart in a minute; calculated using the formula: Cardiac output (mL/min) = heart rate (bpm) × stroke volume (mL).

Cardiovascular – relating to the heart and blood vessels.

Dynamic exercise – exercise that involves movement of joints such cycling, running and squats.

Myocardium – the muscle tissue of the heart.

Authors
González-Alonso, J., Crandall, C.G. & Johnson, J.M.
Year of publication
2008
Title of article
The cardiovascular challenge of exercising in the heat
Pages
45-53
Journal title
Journal of Physiology
Issue
Vol 586, Issue 1
doi
10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142158
Where can you find this journal article?
This journal article can be found online at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375553/  


Answer

Scientific Communication Task 2 – 

Representing and interpreting scientific data

Introduction

To understand how competing in different environments may affect their performance, the Australian Women’s Olympic Cycling Team have completed a scientific investigation into the effects of environmental temperature on their cyclists’ heart rate in preparation for upcoming competitions in four different environments. The data for this investigation is in and you have been asked to organise and analyse the results.

The expected environmental temperatures at the time of the events are:

  1. 4°C
  2. 11°C
  3. 21°C
  4. 31°C

The experiment was conducted using the following hypothesis:

When cycling at environmental temperatures over 15°C heart rate will be higher than when cycling at lower temperatures.

Background

It is well known that intense exercise, such as during sporting competitions, causes heart rate to increase. This increase in heart rate though occurs for multiple reasons, especially when exercising in the heat. During exercise, the skeletal muscles need a large, constant supply of oxygen which enables them to contract frequently and rapidly to produce body movement. To meet this need for oxygen, dilation of blood vessels going to the skeletal muscles increases the amount of blood they receive during exercise. At the same time, the contraction of skeletal muscles during exercise generates large amounts of excess heat. To prevent this excess heat from causing an increase in core body temperature, which can occur very quickly when exercising in the heat, blood vessels in the skin dilate to increase the amount of blood carrying heat to reach the skin. Increasing blood flow to the skin during exercise allows the excess heat generated through muscle contractions to be more easily lost from the body to the external environment so core body temperature can be maintained at 36.5-37.5°C. When exercising in the heat then, the body is faced with meeting the demands of trying to increase blood flow to the skeletal muscles and skin at the same time. To meet these two demands, heart rate increases. By increasing heart rate when exercising in the heat, the body can increase blood flow to the skeletal muscles to supply them with oxygen and increase blood flow to the skin so excess heat can be removed from the body.

The Investigation

The experiment was conducted in the cycling team’s climate controlled laboratory, with ten of their female cyclists. The cyclists exercised for 60 minutes and their heart rate was measured every five minutes.

Dependent variable: Heart rate
Subjects: 10 female cyclists
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial 4
Independent variable:
4°C
Independent variable:
11°C
Independent variable:
21°C
Independent variable:
31°C
Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used
Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used
Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used
Controls:
  • relative humidity
  • air pressure
  • air flow
  • cyclists used
  • cycling time
  • equipment used

Your task

  1. Use the Excel workbook for Scientific Communication Task 2 on Learnline to calculate the mean heart rate of all ten cyclists for each 5 minute interval. You need to do this for all four temperature trials.
  2. Take your mean heart rate calculations and place them in a properly labelled table: the mean heart rates of the cyclists for each five minute measurement, for each of the four temperature trials.
  3. Use your table of mean heart rates to create and format a properly labelled graph of the mean heart rate of the cyclists for each of the four temperature trials (you need to choose if a line graph or column graph should be used to represent the data).
  4. Insert your completed table and graph in the space below and include an appropriate descriptive title for each.
  5. Answer questions 1-4 below.

You are expected to proof read your assignment before submitting it. Proof reading means carefully going through your assignment to find and correct mistakes in your grammar, spelling and written expression. 

Results

Insert your table with descriptive title into the space below this sentence (5 marks):

Table 1: Mean Heart Rate Over time at each temperature

Time
(minutes)
Mean Heart Rate At

  4°C
 11°C
 21°C
   31°C
0
68.9
68.6
68.5
68.3
5
145.4
146.1
146
147.2
10
146.5
148.6
150.6
162.5
15
148.1
149.4
153.8
166.1
20
150.1
151.3
156.5
172
25
150.5
153.5
158.6
176.5
30
151.3
154.5
160.6
178.1
35
151.6
155.9
162.4
181.7
40
152.9
157.4
164.1
184
45
152.2
156.5
163.9
185.2
50
152.5
157.9
164.9
186.7
55
152.1
158.6
165.4
187.6
60
153.9
160.7
167.1
188.5



Insert your graph with descriptive title into the space below this sentence (10 marks):

Mean Heart Rate over time (Line Chart)

Figure 1 : Mean Heart Rate over time (Line Chart)

Mean Heart Rate Over time (Bar Chart)

Figure 2: Mean Heart Rate Over time (Bar Chart)

  1. Describe the trends shown in your graph for mean heart rate at each of the four temperatures. In your description:
  2. Describe the overall trend of the mean heart rate for each temperature.
  3. Compare and contrast the results for each of the four temperatures to each other – what are the similarities and differences? (6 marks)
Figure 1 suggests that there is logarithmic trend of the mean heart rate for each temperature. As the time increases, mean heart rate for each temperature also increases. Trend of mean heart rate is similar at each temperature. Difference between mean heart rate at 4°C and 11°C is very less.  But notice that, difference between mean heart rate at 31°C and 4°C is significant and increases with time. This is also true for difference between mean heart rate at 31°C and 11°C, and between 31°C and 21°C

Discussion Questions

  1. Do the results support/partially support/not support the hypothesis? Why/why not? (2 marks)
From Table 1 and Figure 1, it is clear that mean heart rate is higher at high temperature compared to low temperature. Therefore, results support our hypothesis. When exercising in the heat then, the body is faced with meeting the demands of trying to increase blood flow to the skeletal muscles and skin at the same time. To meet these two demands, heart rate increases. By increasing heart rate when exercising in the heat, the body can increase blood flow to the skeletal muscles to supply them with oxygen and increase blood flow to the skin so excess heat can be removed from the body.

Explain why the type of data in Table 1 led you to choose a line graph or a column graph to present the results of the experiment. If you used a line graph, also explain why you didn’t choose a column graph. Alternatively, if you used a column graph, also explain why you didn’t choose a line graph. (2 marks)

Table 1 contains numeric data. Both linear and column graphs can be used to compare the mean heart rate at different temperatures. But I preferred line graph because it also provide the idea of trend in mean heart rates. 

 Approximately 80-100 words, paraphrase the information provided in the box below to explain what two competing demands the body is trying to meet by increasing heart rate when exercising in a hot environment. 

Exercise in the heat can pose a severe challenge to human cardiovascular control, and thus the provision of blood flow to exercising muscles and vital organs, because of an enhanced demand for skin blood flow.
Blood flow to active muscle (and the myocardium) is required to meet the energetic demands for muscular activity (principally the demand for oxygen), while blood flow to skin is required to meet the demands of temperature regulation. These combined demands for blood flow can result in a competition for the available cardiac output. As a consequence, heart rate increases to meet the dual demands of exercise per se and of temperature regulation, particularly during intense dynamic exercise.


Make sure your paraphrase is written as a properly formatted paragraph that includes a topic sentence and does not include any direct quotes. A list of ‘Key Terms’ and their meanings have been provided below to assist you with your paraphrasing. 

NOTE: The ‘Key Terms’ do not have to be put into your own words.

Don’t forget to include an in-text citation and reference with your paraphrase formatted following the CDU APA Referencing Style. Put your reference with your paraphrase in the box below. The information needed to write your in-text citation and reference can be found on the next page. (9 marks)

González-Alonso, J., Crandall, C., & Johnson, J. (2008). The cardiovascular challenge of exercising in the heat. The Journal Of Physiology586(1), 45-53. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142158
In text Citation: (González-Alonso, Crandall & Johnson, 2008)

Key Terms

Cardiac output – amount of blood pumped out of the heart in a minute; calculated using the formula: Cardiac output (mL/min) = heart rate (bpm) × stroke volume (mL).

Cardiovascular – relating to the heart and blood vessels.

Dynamic exercise – exercise that involves movement of joints such cycling, running and squats.

Myocardium – the muscle tissue of the heart.

Authors
González-Alonso, J., Crandall, C.G. & Johnson, J.M.
Year of publication
2008
Title of article
The cardiovascular challenge of exercising in the heat
Pages
45-53
Journal title
Journal of Physiology
Issue
Vol 586, Issue 1
doi
10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142158
Where can you find this journal article?
This journal article can be found online at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375553/  


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