|Subject Title||Research Methods|
|Subject Code||RES 800|
|Assessment Title||Business Research Proposal|
|Assessment type (group or|
|Word count||3000 words|
(clear, succinct, without repetition)
|In this assignment, students need to:|
|Readings for the assessment (instructions where they can be found e.g. MyAthens database, Moodle etc.)|
|Grading Criteria / Rubric||The following criteria will be used to assess this assignment:|
Impact of Employee Training on Customer Satisfaction in Tourism Industry on Park Hyatt Sydney:
Subject Code: RES800
Subject Title: Research Methods
The research topic emphasizes on the. impact of employee training for satisfying the consumers of Park Hyatt Sydney. The selected hotel is lauded for its luxurious ambience and interior design. The scenic beauty outside the hotels is also a key area of interest amongst the consumers. Irrespective of the exclusive offerings for addressing consumer needs, there is an essentiality for effective service delivery, which can be attained through proper staff training, The selected topic will assist the researcher in determining issues associated with employee training which are affecting and the satisfaction level of consumers and propose suitable recommendations accordingly for maintaining competitive supremacy.
The success of the tourism industry depends on the nature of services being delivered to the customers. Consumers travel around the world to various places for business trips, leisure activities and for relaxation. While travelling, the visitors' avail different accommodation facilities offered by the hotels and guesthouses. The kind of amenity and service given by the employees of the guesthouse determine the level of customer satisfaction and further influence the reputation of the hotels. Tourism and hospitality sector in Australia contributes heavily towards the development of the nation. However, Della Corte, Sciarelli, Cascella & Del Gaudio (2015) has noticed that the behaviour of the employees plays a significant part in fulfilling the expectations of the clients. The author further added that the individuals are unable to deliver the standard of service being anticipated by the travellers and guests, which leads to client discontent and maligns the reputation of the hotels. Moreover, the evolution of service apartments and Airbnb services has disrupted the traditional hotel industry. These modern accommodation facilities have increased the level of customer expectation about service quality.
It is evident that the hotels are promoting training for their workforce to reduce the gap between the expectation level of the consumers and the guesthouse staff. In order to improve the service quality of the hotel staff in the Park Hyatt Sydney, there is an essentiality to focus on employee training which is the key area of research in the specific study.
The main research objectives of the study are defined below:
The primary research queries include the following:
The other question of the study comprises the following:
Elnaga & Imran (2013) defines employee training as the procedure of imparting the necessary skills and knowledge about the business that aims at enhancing the productivity of the company. As the tourism industry is more inclined towards satisfying the clients, the staff of the hotels should possess requisite knowledge, skills, and qualities to survive the rising competition. Appropriate training is pre-requisite for increasing productivity of the workers, encouraging professional growth, and motivating the persons towards career enrichment. Padilla-Meléndez & Garrido-Moreno (2014) stated that the primary job before conducting training sessions should be to identify the gaps prevailing in the workers in the hotels. The author also added that the training should focus on providing communication classes, etiquettes, courtesy, and other necessary information on how to interact with guests from different geographic territories. Padilla-Meléndez & Garrido-Moreno (2014) viewed employee training in the hotel as a part of job enhancement, whereby the individuals are taught on how to augment their quality of service, interact politely with the clients, and further create a loyal base of customers.
Murdy & Pike (2012) revealed that the rise in the tourism sector had introduced Airbnb and service apartments' facility in the market. These modern accommodation facilities offer more customised service to travellers and tourists, subsequently becoming quite popular among the visitors. The personal touch in the behaviour of the hosts towards the guests has struck the chord, and the individuals prefer it to the hotels and the guesthouses. Therefore, the contemporary staying arrangements are disrupting the traditionally established inns and hotels
According to the study of Martínez-Ros & Orfila-Sintes (2012), modern-day technologies have also affected the hotel business mostly. The digital platforms and social media sites have reduced the size of the world. The individuals before booking hotels go through the reviews and ratings given by other guests over Google or other hotel webpages. These evaluations and comments influence the decision of prospective clients. Furthermore, a section of questions and answers over the rating section allows the users to have a more detailed description of the hotels, consequently having a clearer perception about what to expect from the place. However, Martyn & Anderson (2018) argued that the rise in automation has reduced human interaction and give rise to lots of confusion and misconception about the services of the hotels. This further leads to discontent and dissatisfaction, which results in adverse publicity of the guesthouse.
The employees should be trained appropriately, and requisite skills should be imparted to reduce dissonance in service quality and customer perception. Martyn & Anderson (2018) stressed that guests could be satisfied if the workers of the organisation are content with their job role and duties. The scholar added that the jobs should be made exciting and enriching for the workers by training. Moreover, rewards, promotions, and incentives should be part of motivators, and regular assessments should be conducted at Park Hyatt Sydney. The employees should be trained about different cultures of the world to avoid racial conflicts.
While training of employees is essential, one also needs to address the factors that might result in effective training. Orientation programs, product and service detailing sessions, etiquette sessions and group activities are some essential factors related to employee training. Proper monitoring and open feedback sessions also needs to be taken care off for checking the improvement of executive during training sessions (Yoo & Park, 2016). Activity sessions might also assist in getting the real picture of assisting consumers in the hospitality sector.
Murdy & Pike (2012) explains that training is part of learning and can be explained through Skinner’s Reinforcement theory. According to reinforcement theory of Skinner, the employee will repeat the demanded actions and behaviour if rewarded with the constructive outcome. In the case of hotel employees, the constructive consequences include raise in salary, promotion, career growth opportunities, and career enriching options. However, the concept further reveals that the workers will refrain from certain activities if the reward is negative. The behaviour of the staff is highly influenced by the nature of reward the individual expects and receives at the end of the training or specific activity (Gordan, & Krishanan, 2014).
Elnaga & Imran (2013) revealed that the desired behaviour of the employee could be repeated if the expected attitude gives certain benefits to the person. The hotel should reinforce rewards for the workers who provide quality service to the guests and thereby motivating the staff for augmenting the level of consumer satisfaction. Moreover, the employees should be strictly reprimanded from unhealthy and impolite behaviour towards the visitors. Fah & Voon (2016) added that the theory of reinforcement guides the inns on how to encourage the hotel staff to repeat good behaviour towards the guest and consequently, gain customer loyalty.
2.4 Conceptualising consumer satisfaction
The satisfaction level of the consumers is connected with the fulfillment of their needs and preferences which ultimately results in repeat purchasing. The experience of the consumers depends on the type of product offerings and services from the organisational perspectives. As opined by (), depending on the aspect of the orientation of the market, consumers serve as a key point for companies to enhance their productivity. A satisfied consumer will indulge in sharing positive word of mouth which helps a company to enhance its consumer base. It also contributes towards enhanced loyalty which is needful for an organisation to sustain in the long run.
Tourism is a service sector industry that tremendously contributes to the growth of the country and brings economic growth and employment opportunities for the local people. This section of the development comprises of accommodation facility, transportation availability, and food and beverage accessibility (Johnson & Gustafsson, 2006). In this contemporary era, individuals are spending a considerable amount of money on travelling and tourism for fun, entertainment, and relaxation and business trips. The individuals are in direct contact with the hotel staff, and the behaviour of the employees strongly influences the satisfaction level of the guests (Della Corte, Sciarelli, Cascella & Del Gaudio, 2015).
The success of the hotels depends on the service being offered and the extent to which it meets the anticipation levels of the visitors. The main goal of enhancing consumer experience is to survive in the competitive market. According to Alfandi (2016), satisfying the clients beyond their anticipation level is the cheapest and best method for promoting the tourist hotels and guesthouses through word-of-mouth. The happy and content visitors recommend the inns not only in their family and friend circle but also the introduction of reviewing the same over google, and other social pages have made it necessary for pleasing and providing an enthralling experience to the guests.
The social media platforms have revolutionised the concept of hotels and service sector industry. The visitors often go through the reviews and comments provided by the other guests over the online sites, prior to the booking of the inns. Mihaela (2014) opined that the digital platforms had made competition in hotels much fierce, and the need for proper employee training is required to satiate the demands and expectations of the visitors. Fah & Voon (2016) highlighted that as the guests are the sole source of success for the inns and hotels, the companies should aim at enriching the service quality in order to make the buyers happy. Additionally, the ability of hotels to meet the changing preferences of the consumers are also important for addressing consumer interest. The cost effectiveness of products, quality of services, empathic behaviour of executives and product variations are other factors essential for satisfying consumer needs.
According to the opinion of Shahin Sharifi & Rahim Esfidani (2014), customer satisfaction is an indicator that evaluates and measures the extent to which the users are content with the services offered by the brand. The author further added that it is a psychological phenomenon, which reflects the relationship formed between the client and the service giver. The event has three factors viz., cognitive, affective and behavioural. Murdy & Pike (2012) highlighted that consumers have a certain level of anticipation prior to the using of the service or product. In the case of the hotel industry, the individuals form a perception about the quality of the service and amenities from the reviews, ratings, and cost of the inn.
The theory of dissonance states that the users generally compare their perceived expectation with that of the performance of the product or service. If the service provided by the inn is, not according to what the client has estimated, it will give rise to discontent and dissatisfaction. However, when the service given meets or goes beyond the level of user expectation, the individuals are satisfied and happy. Therefore, Mihaela (2014) concluded that satisfaction of the guests depended on their psychological perception about the service quality level.
Kalargyrou & Woods (2011) specified that the hotels encounter a large number of challenges while conducting training sessions for its employees. The schedules of the training and development generally overlap with the daily activities, consequently making it difficult for the inns to manage both workload and training simultaneously (Karatepe, Beirami, Bouzari & Safavi, 2014). Furthermore, the writer added that the workers are generally overtaxed due to excess work pressure and training will lead to burn out. Fathy (2018) unravelled that the workers are unable to comprehend the need for training and subsequently not interested in the sessions. The companies have to explain to the employees the importance and role of training in their job and inspire the individuals to go through the developmental programs seriously. The scholar highlighted that the hotels are apprehensive about conducting training sessions as the employees’ turnout ration is quite high, and it will be a loss for the inns (Chaichi, 2012).
This section will relate to application of proper tools and techniques for attaining the objectives of the topic of selection.
3.1 Research Philosophy
The selection of Positivism, Interpretivism and Realism are most appropriate form of philosophies that are evaluated by a researcher. While positivism philosophy will be focusing on scientific evaluation, interpretivism philosophy is more associated with the humanistic perceptions of the individuals (Balsvik, 2017). Realism type refers to conducting of the study in regards to sociological happenings. The researcher will refer to the application of Positivism philosophy as it will infer to the statistical calculations and obtaining of information related to facts (Prayag, 2018). Furthermore, this philosophy assists in acquiring data through scientific enquiry. Interpretivism approach lacks clarity and could be subjected to vagueness as it is more connected to perceptions of the human beings and Realism is more concerned with secondary form of data application.
3.2 Research strategy, choices and approach
The designs chosen by a researcher in a study are either explanatory, exploratory or descriptive depending on the nature of the study. Depending on the specifications and requirements, the researcher will be selecting the descriptive form of design as it will help in describing the phenomenon in a detailed way (Hall & Jurow, 2015). It would assist the researcher in evaluating the issues related to employee training within the Park Hyatt hotel specifically. The exploratory form is avoided as it is best effective for evaluating topics that is yet to be explored. The explanatory type usually is most appropriate in evaluating the cause as well as effect of the selected information.
The researcher usually confines to absorption of inductive and deductive approach within a topic of selection. The deductive approach is more inclined towards deducing of information from a theory that is already existing and therefore, selected by the researcher (Zalaghi & Khazaei, 2016). Likewise, the inductive approach is more associated in observations of theories in a natural setting. Furthermore, deductive approach assists in statistical analysis by adoption of a top-bottom technique.
The selected strategy for the strategy usually refers to conduction of interview, case studies, surveys and focus groups. The researcher has avoided case study analysis because it may be prone to bias and focus group does not discuss a topic from a wider perspective. Interviews assist in accumulation of unknown facts and future perspectives of a study from knowledgeable personalities. Likewise, surveys are effective in providing conclusive analysis through statistical output.
3.3 Research Type
The researcher will be selecting the mixed approach for evaluating the topic with effectiveness. Quantitative data refers to raw information which have not been published on internet. It usually signifies accumulating information from a wider range of population through a statistical form of analysis (Almalki, 2016). Likewise, qualitative strategy refers to acquisition of information from a limited set of participants who have wide vocabulary and expertise regarding a selected topic (Palinkas et al. 2015). The researcher will be using qualitative strategy by conducting semi-structural interviews with 5 managers of hotel. Quantitative approach will be detailed through correlation and graphical presentation of tables and charts from the online survey responses. While the former strategy relies on collecting in-depth information, the latter approach is time saving and cost effective by nature.
As per accumulating data is concerned, both primary and secondary form of data will be considered in the study. The primary data will be reflecting upon the first hand information collected from the conduction of interviews and surveys. The secondary information will have its sources from reliable internet sources, articles, data base, annual reports and peer reviewed journals in regards to impact of employee training on satisfying consumers of Park Hyatt Hotel.
As far the sampling process is concerned, the researcher will be sending online survey questionnaires to 40 employees of Park Hyatt Hotel. The survey questions will mainly relate to various aspects of employee training and its impact on satisfying consumer needs and preferences. For obtaining detailed data, the researcher will be conducting interview sessions with 5 managers of the hotel, after taking consent from the human resource department.
4.2: Sample and Sampling Technique
As far the technique of sampling is concerned, the researcher will be using the simple random sampling technique while sending online survey questionnaires to 40 employees of the Park Hyatt Hotel. The selected technique will give equal opportunity to all the respondents for getting selected in the particular study (Etikan & Bala, 2017). As per the process of interviewing is concerned, non- probability technique of sampling will be opted. The following technique will assist the researcher in taking subjective judgements for acquiring in-depth data as per the research topic of selection.
4.3: Data Collection Method
As per sending of online survey questions are concerned, the researcher will be considering the application of Survey Monkey tool which offers a wide array of options for setting closed ended questionnaires (Herreid et al. 2016). The template of the survey will be assisting in providing real time analysis depending on the responses. Instead of setting structured questions, the researcher will be prioritising semi-structured interviews for analysing the selected topic from several angles and perspectives. Furthermore, it will also assist the researcher in asking several relatable questions related to the specific questions and thus collect in-depth information for conducting the study coherently.
5.0: Analytic Approach
As far the analytical procedures are concerned, the researcher will be taking the assistance of graphical presentations through tables and charts for illustrating the findings of the survey questions. For adding rigidity to the analysis section, the researcher will be taking assistance of the correlation analysis. The statistical tool will assist in understanding the strength of connectivity amongst the numerically measured variables of the study. The particular tool is effective for understanding whether there is any possible connectivity amongst the selected research variables. The application of the correlation analysis will signify the fact that if there are systematic alternations within one research variable, then the same alterations will be application for the other variable as well (Kan et al. 2015). It will be effective in justifying the influence of employee training towards consumer satisfaction. Thematic analysis will be selected as the analytical tool for evaluating the responses given by the hotel managers during the interview sessions. It will assist the researcher to determine, interpret and evaluate the responses constructed under specific themes. The researcher will be assigning preliminary codes to the acquired data for describing the content (Drinkwater et al. 2017). Upon detailing of information, themes will be reviewed for penetrative analysis of the study.
Refer to Appendix 1 for Gantt Chart
7.0 Ethical considerations
As per the ethical guidelines, the researcher will be allowing the respondents to participate voluntarily in the study. The personal information of the participants will be addressed confidentially by storing them in a computer which will be protected by passwords. The information gathered will be utilised for academic pursuit only. Manipulation of data will be prohibited and researcher will be Abiding by the regulations concerning the act of data protection.
While concluding, it is stated that the researcher had applied appropriate tools as well as techniques for conducting the study effectively. The application of mixed approach will be adding rigidity to the topic of selection. Application of appropriate strategy, choice and analytical tools will assist in interpreting the information in a coherent manner. The researcher will be considering correlation and thematic analysis for penetrative evaluation of the study.