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Role of Teachers’ Competency in Technical Learning Process

University : Open University Malaysis


SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE                      

The seminar paper is a culminating project for which a M.Ed. candidate produces a polished piece of work under the guidance of a lecturer or professor. Through this project, the candidate demonstrates knowledge of a specific topic in educational management and showcases his or her proficiency in synthesizing academic literature and making connections with practice in educational institutions. 

A literature review in this project is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. One main purpose of a literature review is to provide insight into what is already known. The literature review should be considered “applied research” using “secondary data” because you will be examining, evaluating, synthesizing and interpreting what other researchers have discovered about your topic of interest. 

In fact, the literature review in this assignment is the writer’s analysis or critical synthesis of the “secondary data” and explanation of the state of knowledge in the field of educational management. The product of this secondary research should be useful as a meta-analysis (overarching analysis of others’ analyses) for other researchers to find out more about a particular topic in educational management.

Overall, the literature review gives a general overview, makes connections between the literature cited, and allows the readers to understand generalizations about a large body of research. The literature review reports on both theoretical articles and empirical research studies from peer-reviewed publications. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and conceptual framework for a research study in educational management. 

Example of Title:

“Decision making style of secondary school principals and its relationship with teachers’ job satisfaction in Selangor”

Steps of Doing the Literature Review

Step 1: Identify the literature that you will review

Step 2: Analyse the literature

Step 3: Summarise the literature in table or concept map format

Step 4: Synthesise the literature prior to writing your review

Step 5: Writing the review

Step 6: Developing a coherent argument  


An excellent literature review identifies areas of controversy, raises questions and identifies areas which need further research. Hence, a Seminar Paper should not be a review of the literature alone, instead, a Seminar Paper should present a theoretical framework or conceptual framework to state the assumptions, research variables, and the relationship between the research variables based on previous studies and relevant literature.


Writing the Problem Statement

Some sources will recommend jumping right to the problem itself, while others recommend providing background context first so that the problem (and its solution) are easier to understand for the readers. If you're unsure of how to begin, opt for the latter option. While conciseness is something every piece of practical writing should aim for, it's even more important to be well-understood by citing relevant information for discussion. Start by describing how things should work. Before you even mention your problem, explain in a few sentences how things would be if the problem didn't exist.

For instance, let's say that you work at a secondary school and that you've noticed that the way the principals manage the teachers is an inefficient use of decision making style. In this case, you might begin your problem statement by describing an ideal situation where the decision-making style isn’t inefficient that the school should shoot for. You can also provide some examples from the reports and newspapers by citing the sources. Besides, you could argue that the process of decision making should be improved not only for management-efficiency but also to enhance job satisfaction of teachers.

Writing the Research Questions

The research questions should be developed based on the research objectives.  A good research question guides and centres your research. It should be clear and focused, as well as synthesise multiple sources to present your unique argument in your study. 

Examples of Researchable Questions:

  • What are the decision-making style practised by school principals in Selangor?
  • Are teachers satisfied with the decision-making style as practised by the school principals in Selangor?
  • Is there a significant relationship between principals’ decision-making style and teachers’ job satisfaction in the secondary schools in Selangor?

Writing Theoretical Framework and Conceptual Framework 

Theoretical Framework 

A theoretical framework refers to the theory that a researcher chooses to guide him/her in his/her research. Thus, a theoretical framework is the application of a theory, or a set of concepts drawn from one and the same theory, to offer an explanation of an event, or shed some light on a particular phenomenon or research problem. This could refer to, for instance, cognitive decision making theory might be reviewed to frame the study.

Conceptual Framework 

On the other hand, a researcher may opine that his/her research problem cannot meaningfully be researched in reference to only one theory, or concepts resident within one theory. In such cases, the researcher may have to “synthesize” the existing views in the literature concerning a given situation – both theoretical and from empirical findings. The synthesis may be called a model or conceptual framework, which essentially represents an ‘integrated’ way of looking at the problem. Such a model could then be used in place of a theoretical framework. Thus, a conceptual framework may be defined as an end result of bringing together a number of related concepts, for example, decision-making theory and job satisfaction theory. A conceptual framework is typically written as a diagram or flowchart to present the inter-relationship between the research variables, for example, decision making style and job satisfaction in the secondary schools in Selangor. The framework makes clear that the student understands existing knowledge on a subject and setting, and research variables; outlines theoretical assumptions regarding that knowledge; offers a critical review of existing literature on the subject and setting, and relationship between the research variables; identifies any gaps in existing research; and outlines the writer's new contribution to that field. 

Hence, a conceptual framework “stems from a theoretical framework and concentrates, usually, on one section of that theoretical “framework which forms the basis of a research”. In other words, the conceptual framework is an aspect(s) that is drawn from the theoretical framework and becomes the basis for a research problem. There may be many theories related to a construct, but the researcher may be interested in testing some aspect(s) of the theories or theory, and this becomes the conceptual framework of the study.

Writing the Research Methodology

Methodological considerations refer to the research design and the process of addressing a given research problem – including the approach to literature review, the nature of the data to be collected, analysed and interpreted. As well as the underlying epistemological assumptions under the two dominant research paradigms (that is, qualitative and quantitative) are typically not the same. The Seminar Paper can be based on either quantitative or qualitative data, or on a combination of both. How you choose this may depend on your preferences and abilities, and the suitability of particular approaches to your topic. You need to be able to justify why you have chosen to use such data. Quantitative data is particularly useful when you wish to discover how common particular forms of behaviour such as certain decision making style was used among a specific group of teachers. Qualitative data is particularly useful when you wish to find out why the principal adopts such a decision making style.


Answer

Abstract

In recent times, with growth in technology in almost every sphere of economy, the education sector also needs to be upgraded with technological advancement. In context to this, this study attempts to illustrate the advantages of adopting technological advancement in the in the education process. For that purpose, the education system of Selangor has been selected as the case study. Efforts have been made in the study to illustrate the modern ways of teaching that are adopted in the secondary education system in the state of Selangor. In addition to that, attempts have been made to describe the impact of technical teaching process on the students as well as the teachers.


Introduction

This project deals with the competency, which teachers pose towards students in the secondary schools in technical learning process in improving the students learning outcomes in Selangor.  Teachers are used to conventional ways of delivering their knowledge to their students earlier. Teachers, to be specific are in the profession where their role is more than simply proving lectures to their students. In order to be an effective teacher he or she should understand that teaching involves multiple jobs in order to provide all its students with a quality education. a teachers competency depends on the teacher’s background. The teacher should pose high education skills to provide quality education to its students. Teaching involves many roles to which a teacher must be accustomed with and deliver the education in a meaner that benefits the students. 


In order to be a sound teacher he or she must have the qualities such he should have a clear objective for lessons, he should have good classroom management skills, a good classroom management with parents and a detailed knowledge of the Subject matter.  A teacher’s contribution highly affects on the final learning outcome from a student.  Technical learning process refers as the learning process, which deals with the non-conventional methods of learning. Conventional learning process refers to the learning process, which involves the techniques, which followed from a very early stage. Convention learning is the traditional learning process, which involves the use of hard paper ink and other tools. The concept of conventional learning is to provide information in a detailed way with the help of traditional technical tools. Conventional learning refers to the long adopted process of learning which the society has implemented in schools and colleges. In secondary education institutions, the teachers acts as the main element through which the education delivered to the students. 


The competency of the teachers is crucial criteria, which is required for obtaining the best out of the students .The teachers adopt technical ways of learning for providing education and knowledge to the students in Selangor. Technical process of learning includes the learning with presentations, internet learning and so forth. These forms of learning are not conventional and used in the modern world (Manson, Amiel & Gordon 2016). The technical ways of learning is useful to the students in many ways. The students are the one who are benefited by the technical learning process. It saves a lot of time but also lacks in certain areas, which are covered under conventional learning.  Teacher’s competency highly depends on the qualities the teacher posses. Teachers in Selangor provide a great knowledge to their students in secondary educational institutions. The concept of technical learning process adopted in many areas of the world. Technical learning process has put a significant and rather positive impact on the lives of the students of the secondary educational institutions in Selangor.


Problem Statement

This study deals with the conventional concept of learning often termed as traditional learning which has many limitations leading to the implementation of the technical process of learning. The conventional of learning has its own barriers. There exist a gap between the conventional learning process and the technical learning process (Kabir, Ruiz,Alvarez,& Moonis, 2016). The learning process should be such that it provides maximum knowledge to the students. Conventional learning involves the use of paper and traditional tools, which consumes a lot of time than compared to the technical learning process. The study has undergone the procedures, which have shown the need for the implementation of technical process of learning over traditional learning process. Teacher’s competency has been a major factor, which leads to the better outcome from a student’s performance. The learning process, which the teachers adopt to educate the students, should be changed from conventional to technical. Technical learning provides a lot of appreciation and facts over conventional learning (Loughran, 2013). 


Technical learning is widely accepted. The learning process, which followed under technical methods of learning, saves a lot of time and is very much convenient as compared to the traditional or conventional process of learning. A study has found that the schools in Selangor are still following the conventional or traditional methods of learning. The schools in Selangor are, mostly teacher centered hence it is not that effective to the students (Treanor, & Barry 2017). The teachers are not so educated, they use the same old pattern of teaching hence it has caused boredom to the students. The study also states that the teachers are still maintain the same conventional methods of teaching and are not expertise in this field. .The negative ideologies of the teachers have put an adverse effect on the mind of the students in Selangor.


Research objectives

The objectives of the research are provided as follows:

  • To get an understanding of the modern approaches of teaching in secondary schools in Selangor
  • To get an understanding of the advantages of adopting technical teaching process in schools
  • To get an understanding of the technical efficiency of the teachers and the management of the schools in Selangor
  • To get an understanding of the pros and cons of technical education system  and its impact on the students


Research Question

  •  What are the factors that lead to the implementation of the modern or technical learning process in the secondary schools of Selangor?
  • What are the benefits of implementing of technical prospects of learning?
  • What are the drawbacks that the schools in Selangor are facing?
  • What steps should be taken to enable the teachers provide education to their students in worldwide accepted learning technique?
  • Are the teachers in the schools of the schools in Selangor are efficient enough to implement the technical learning process?

Theoretical Framework 

Almost all of us have experienced the influences and impacts of at least one teacher in our lives, at least once, who have completely changed our lives and outlook forever. Thanks to those kinds of teachers, all of us have had some exceptional time in schools and other learning institutions, which are worth remembering. Teachers like these have deep-rooted passion for the subjects they teach and a genuine love for the students for who they toil. These teachers always inspire their students to think freely and in a broad sense of the word and encourage them to take more challenges and pursue their dreams and hearts. 

Teachers’ competency

We know that these teachers have high impact on student’s lives and their career aspirations. Empirically, we know that they also have high and direct influences on the learning outcomes of the students. Studies on teacher quality points to the fact that better teachers not only make the students feel better about school and studying there but also help the students to achieve a higher level of efficiency. We know that ability to speak well, knowledge about the subject that the teacher is teaching, pedagogical knowledge and being successfully able to synthesize and effectively use an array of teaching tools help to make better teachers. Some of the biggest qualities that an efficient teacher should have:

  • Have proper teachers’ training
  • Who are fair, respecting and caring towards their students
  • Hold their own selves and their students in high regards.
  • Who dedicate more time and work to their own preparations so that they can teach the students in a better way.
  • Present the topics to the students in such a manner that everyone understands. 
  • Has some kind of certification, be it academic, technological or provisional.
  • A successful teacher must be able to make his/her classroom filled with students


A collective idea already exists about what efficient teachers can do to enhance the students to become more successful. Moreover, newer analyses by researchers point out that, specific instructional strategies and their effects can be quantifiable. Instructional strategies like being able to successfully identifying and differentiating similarities and unfamiliarity, summarizing, recognizing the student’s effort, when implemented in a proper way, can result in huge point’s increases in student’s performances. 


Though it would always be a fact that teaching is an art, we only now, slowly, understand that there also is a scientific aspect to this and we are beginning to put that into practice. As the gap between what we know and do, we will get closer to one of the most exciting times of education history. State standards and legislations that define accountability more explicitly would help us to arrive to a time when we can systematically apply our research-based knowledge. 


Role of teacher in learning process:

One research has shown that the additive/cumulative effect of a teacher’s effectiveness on a student’s achievement. Over a long period of time, when the higher achieving teachers are studied against teachers who have achieved lower, it is seen that students score far better when they get to have three highly efficient teachers in a row. If students with comparable academic background are given to different teachers with different abilities to teach, a stark difference in the students’ achievements can be noted.  When students are fortunate, enough to be placed under three high performing teachers in a row, their scores highly improves in mathematics. 


Researches indicate different things than what popular belief would try to make us believe: students are most of the times doing poorly not because they lack the competency and themselves are bad students, but rather the reason is in disguise of poorly performing teachers. The research findings solidify the fact that less effective teachers have cumulatively degrading impact on students. If students are lucky to have high performing teacher on one year, they will keep getting the advantages of good teaching for the years to come, whereas, if students have a low performing teacher for one year, they would continue to do poorly even later on in their academic lives. Studies on the residual effects on students make it very clear that teacher quality matters. Not only have that, the teacher’s effectiveness also stayed for the students even after they graduate their classes, for better or worse. 


Quality versus effectiveness

Given that the knowledge on the effect of teachers’ impact has on the students, educational policies are being revamped to acknowledge the importance of classroom teachers as an extension of curriculum standards and assessments. Laws have introduced concepts of adequate yearly progress, which are based on annual testing (Treanor, & Barry 2017). Based on teacher credentials, the idea of highly qualified teachers is introduced. These legislations explain that “highly qualified teachers” are those who have at least one bachelor’s degree and are very competent at the subjects that they teach. 


Now we have to remember that certificates and degrees alone are not the sole indicators of a teacher’s quality. A teacher’s effectiveness lies on a far more complex set of qualities than just professional preparation. It includes a vast amount of planning and skills that combine organizational, instructional and assessment skills. Effective teache4rs help their students to concretely plan their life and career goals, and even help them to make4 those dreams come to life.


Conventional and modern educational mechanism

Conventional education deals with the process of learning through use of traditional tools for learning such as board, paper, ink etc. Conventional method of learning is very detailed hence; a teacher is in need in the explanation of the matter to be discussed to the students in the traditional form. Convention process of learning is followed from the very beginning and in many areas (Loughran, 2014). The limitations of conventional education, is that it consumes a lot of time and is not widely accepted. 


Modern Educational Mechanism: Modern education Mechanism deals with the learning process involving the modern techniques. Modern tools of learning involve the use of modern equipments such as internet learning power point presentation, online learning process etc (Kasemsap, 2016). The modern method of learning is much more convenient compared to the traditional or conventional methods of learning. Modern method of learning is widely accepted in different parts of the world. The learning is more interesting for the students and encourages them to learn further.


Learning models and theories (Promoting effectiveness):

In order to boost even the effectiveness of the teachers so that the children of the society get the fullest advantage of learning it is believe that teachers need feedback not only on teaching, but also on the result of their teaching. To improve their effectiveness, timely feedback based on proper information is very much required. These evaluation systems are aimed to improve professional practice. These functions are generally thought to be formative and suggest that the process of professional growth and development should be continuous. Despite substantial drawbacks to the traditional evaluating process, the fundamental flaw of the approach is the assumption that during observing, presence of good practice helps to equate the academic success of the students.


Teachers’ contribution in improving conventional educational system and technical learning process

Teachers play a pivotal role in the upbringing of a student in terms of education. The teachers should be sound and have the capabilities that a good teacher should poses. Conventional education deals with the process of learning with traditional tools for learning such as board, paper, ink etc.  Teachers should have the skill to improvise or implement those techniques in the learning process and educating a student. Conventional method of learning is very detailed hence a teacher is most needed in the explanation of the matter to be discussed to the students in the traditional form (Din, McGaghie, Bordage & Shea 2015). Convention process of learning followed from the very beginning and in many areas. It has a numerous drawbacks that the teachers have to look into and serve the students accordingly. The drawbacks are mainly; consumes time, it is not widely acceptable. Conventional mode of learning is very monotonous and it tends to affect the student in the manner that they get in to boredom (De Sme, Wever, Schellens & Valcke 2016).  


The technical learning process is widely accepted. It deals with the technologically sound methods of learning. The technical process of learning involves learning with modern tools of learning such as presentations, internet learning etc. The teachers should posse’s good knowledge about the use of the latest and modern techniques of learning (Osborne 2013). Teachers should educate the students in such a manner to enable the learning process easy and interesting. The good qualities that a teacher should posses are behaviorism and cognivitism. Behaviorism is the manner, which the teacher should have towards their students. Cognivitism deals with the psychological aspects of learning.


Conventional education deals with the process of learning with traditional tools for learning such as board, paper, ink etc. Conventional method of learning is very detailed hence; a teacher is in need in the explanation of the matter to discuss to the students in the traditional form. Convention process of learning followed from the very beginning and in many areas.  Modern techniques of learning are such as presentations, internet learning etc. The teachers should posses’ good knowledge about the use of the latest and modern techniques of learning.


Conceptual framework 

The objective of this study is to evaluate the technical competence of a teaching staff so that initiating business teachers should champion in the staff education module in order to obtain desired performance in the classroom. The evaluation of the competence is framed upon the protocols posed by National Standards of Business Education (NBEA, 1995). This study has been conducted on the theories of behavioral lessons and the factors of absolute competence is developmentally structured on the concepts of Mastery learning and Incremental learning. Incremental learning is an integral component of Competency-based Education (CBE), which is an effort-oriented occupational research module and supposed to analyze the responsibilities and performance of the workers. The instruction-based panel of CBE encourages the students to champion the associated skills and to explore the specific premise of knowledge. These behavioral targets concentrate on the upcoming utility that such attitude will deliver to students. 


When the students started to meet the declared specific learning outcome skillfully and within quantifiable steps then that is considered as more transparent and likely to be achieved. In order to enhance the ability of assessment, consensus and meta-analyses exist to quantify reasonably the steps towards the preordained learning goal. Effective implementation of the instruction strategies enables the module to discern governing traits of the student and assists to identify the differences and similarities, the ability to summarize and reinforcing attempts in order to procure percentile gains. The void between our perception and activities is likely to overcome when we became able to systematically exploit our research-based knowledge and define accountability explicitly. Certification is a key indicator to trace the quality of teacher though insufficient to tabulate the teacher’s effectiveness. We need an extensively intricate matrix of qualities, which includes appearance, and an array of objectives, administrative and instructional skills. Effective teachers possess an ability to envision organizational goals for their students kindle and synchronize their curiosity with their existing knowledge and eventually yield to wisdom.


Teacher evaluation apparatus are often destined to cater the purpose to respond and improvise the guidelines of professional practice. The factor of performance improvement is related to the dimension of individual growth and involves assisting teachers to learn, transmit and enhance the practice. The improvement factor is usually reckoned formative, which proposes the need of constant professional evolution. On the other hand, the factor of accountability reflects a dedication to the significant professional objectives of competence and quality of performance. Typically, it is considered as summative and is noted to be associated with the judgmental faculty of effectiveness of educational activities. A balanced set of parameters of teacher evolution would incorporate an assessment of the performance as well as fostering the improvement criteria. A well-structured evaluation module must advocate the effectiveness along with posing a considerable attention towards the quality. The broadcasting mechanism must be well equipped to absorb and demonstrate the instructions and learning gains within the classroom quarters. Since the enhancement of learning of the student is the quintessential goal, direct measurement without any extrapolation within limited observations.  


Research Method

Introduction

Methodology can be termed as the systematic way of analyzing the theoretical aspects in respect to certain applied field of study (Taylor, Bogdan & DeVault, 2015). It tends to comprise of the methods and the principles associated with the particular research study. In regards to this, attempts have been made in this section of the study to illustrate the research design that will be used to conduct this particular research study. In this particular research, descriptive research design is to be used for providing a descriptive analysis of the current situation. In addition to that, efforts have been made to give a detailed description of the target population of the study and the sample that is to be selected out of the target population. Further, attempts have been made to give a brief description of the instruments that will form part of the survey and interviews. Other than that, this section of the study also deals with the data collection method this is to be used in this study. 


Research design

Research design describes the general outline of the research study that is to be conducted. In a broader sense, a research design can be divided into several categories namely, descriptive research design, correlation research design, experimental research design and systematic research design (Smith, 2015). In simple terms, a research design can be described as the method of collection and analysis of certain variables in accordance with the specifications made in the research problem or research study (Panneerselvam, 2014). The research design tends to depict the type of the study conducted like weather it is descriptive in nature or any other form. Additionally, it also attempts to describe the sub category of the study like weather it is independent or dependent, the variables included in it, etc. It is very essential to specify the type of research design that is undertaken as the data collection method and the analysis of the data collected will be based on the same (Gast & Ledford, 2014). 


A descriptive research design tends to illustrate the participant of the study in a well-specified manner. The data in this type of study are collected through proper observation of the participant’s behavior in context to the given subject and their outlook towards it. Usually, in descriptive studies, the researcher attempts to give a detailed description of the research problems and an in-depth study of the individual’s associated with the research. In conducting a descriptive research, the researcher usually adopts three ways to conduct the research. They include observational, case studies and conduct of surveys (Tarone, Gass & Cohen, 2013). On the other hand, co relational research design method attempts to find a correlation, cause, and effect between two or more variables in context to the research study.  This particular research study tends to follow descriptive research design method. In this particular research study, several methods have been adopted to provide a deceptive detail about the research topic. Efforts have been made in the study to provide a critical analysis of the education management system in the state of Selangor (Billig & Waterman, 2014). 


In addition to that, the research study also deals in describing the urgent necessity of enhancing the skills and competence of the teachers in order to impart practical and technical knowledge among the student (Reynolds et al. 2014). In conduct of the study, it is noted that, Education plays a pivotal role in our life in enhancing the quality of life and tends to improve the economic and social productivity. With the enhancement in technology across the world, it has become necessary to adopt technological advancement in the education sector (Mansell, 2015). In context to Selangor, it is noted that the quality of teaching is significantly influenced by the contextual shifts within the secondary-education environment that may include broadening of the education structure and increasing diversity of the student profiles (Wiek & Lang, 2016). In addition to that, with growing competition in the global market and in economic efficiency adoption of technological advancement and enhancement of the skills and competence of the teachers has become necessary in uplifting the structure of education in the state of Selangor. 


In relation to the study, surveys will be conducted among the students to get a clear understanding about the student’s behavior and quantify the data. In addition to that, attempts have also been made to conduct interviews among the teachers of various secondary educational institutions in the state of Selangor (Karlsson, 2016). Efforts have been made to properly observe the responses of the participants while conduction of the interview thoroughly analyze them and make a critical analysis of the same. Thus, this particular research can be termed as a descriptive research study. 


Sampling and population

In context to Selangor, it is noted that the quality of teaching is significantly influenced by the contextual shifts within the secondary-education environment that may include broadening of the education structure and increasing diversity of the student profiles. The target population of the research study comprises of the members of the educational institutions in the state of Selangor. For getting a better understanding of the research topic, both the teachers and the students have been selected on a random basis so that the perceptions of both the entity can be recorded and make a descriptive analysis of the same (Meredith, Dicks, Noel & Wagstaff, 2017). In order to get better results, attempts have been made to include the members of top 6 educational institutions of Selangor along with two other small sized educational institutions within the states. While selecting the target population of the research, it is to be taken into consideration that all the selected educational institutions more or less have adopted technological advancement within their institutions and has greatly benefited from the same (Fletcher, 2017). Additionally, another factor that forms the basis of selection of the target population ids the use of conventional method of providing education and the way it affect the learning outcomes of the students and their behavior. 


Notably, education tends to play a pivotal role in our life in enhancing the quality of life and tends to improve the economic and social productivity. With the enhancement in technology across the world, it has become necessary to adopt technological advancement in the education sector (Gummesson, 2014). In this regards, the role of teachers and their technical competence plays a very important role. In this context, attempts have been made in the study to include members of all the management levels of an educational institution that includes the teachers, the students, the members of the managing committee of the institutions, the schools principals, etc. This is done in order to get an adequate representation of the related parties in context to the research problem (Karlsson, 2016). 


In context to the current research study, in order to reduce ambiguity and chaos, a certain number of individuals are to be selected on a random sampling basis from each of the level of management of the educational structure of the institutions. From each level, 25 individuals have been selected for the purpose of the study. The entire participants are to be categorized in accordance to their respective roles (Meredith, Dicks, Noel & Wagstaff, 2017). Thus, in total 100 candidates are to be selected from each institution. Hence, in the research study, the number of respondents will comprise of 600 participants. 


Instruments

In context to the current research study, as mentioned in the previous section of the study, several methods are to be used to collect the relevant data. This particular research study tends to follow descriptive research design method. In this particular research study, several methods have been adopted to provide a deceptive detail about the research topic. Efforts have been made in the study to provide a critical analysis of the education management system in the state of Selangor. The instruments that are to be used in the preparation of the current research study include preparation of questionnaires for the survey to be conducted. In this particular research study, a separate interview is to be conducted among the managing committee of the educational institutions (Meredith, Dicks, Noel & Wagstaff, 2017). For that purpose, a set of questions are to be prepared that will be mostly open ended. On the other hand, the question set in the questionnaires consists of mostly close-ended questions. This is done so that the responses from the participants can be quantified and a proper analysis of the data can be made. Other instruments that are to be included in the research study, voice recorder is to be used in recording the responses of the interviewees so that a better observation can be made and for further use in the future (Tarone, Gass & Cohen, 2013). 


Data collection

Endeavors have been made in the review to give a basic examination of the training administration framework in the condition of Selangor. In regards to that it is to be noted that, the examination ponder additionally bargains in portraying the earnest need of improving the abilities and capability of the educators keeping in mind the end goal to confer viable and specialized learning among the understudy (Billig & Waterman, 2014). In context to the review, it is noticed that, Education forms an essential part in our life in upgrading the personal satisfaction and has a tendency to enhance the monetary and social efficiency. With the upgrade in innovation over the world, it has turned out to be important to receive mechanical progression in the training area. In context to Selangor, it is noticed that the nature of instructing is altogether affected by the logical moves inside the auxiliary training condition that may incorporate widening of the training structure and expanding differing qualities among the students bin imparting of technical knowledge (Tarone, Gass & Cohen, 2013). Notwithstanding that, with developing rivalry in the worldwide market and in financial productivity reception of mechanical progression and upgrade of the abilities and fitness of the instructors has turned out to be fundamental in inspiring the structure of training in the condition of Selangor. 


As evident from the previous section of the study that, several data collection methods have been used that includes use of questionnaires, conduct of interviews, and thorough observation of the behavior of the respondents.  It is noted from the above section of the study, majority of the question that are incorporated in the questionnaires are close ended so that the validity of the responses can be enhanced. Additionally, it is to be noted that, thorough observation is to be made regarding the behavior of the participants and critical analysis is to be made of the same so that the data can be properly interpreted. In this particular research study, the data and the other relevant information has been collected from various sources like reviews of various scholarly articles and book journals by other researchers, various blogs and articles, conduct of surveys and interviews, through qualitative scrutinizing  of the responses collected from the interviews. 


Data analysis techniques

In context to above case study, various data collection method has been used that includes conduct of survey, interviews and other methods. In addition to that, the collected data have been critically analyzed in context to the research subject such that proper resources can be interpreted. It is evident from the above section of the study that had the data have been collected using various techniques and methods that includes various Peer reviewed articles and book journals by other researchers, responses received from the participants through the conduct of surveys and interviews. In order to get a clear understanding of the research subject atoms are to be made to conduct a critical analysis of the collected data using various techniques. They includes frequency analysis method statistical analysis of the data like mean median mode and standard deviation this will help the researcher and the other users of the data to get a clear understanding of the qualitative as well as the quantitative aspects of the study.  The frequency analysis will have the user of the research study to get a qualitative outlook and behavior of the participants in context to the research subject. The statistical analysis of the data that are to be used while analyzing the data of the study will help the users as well as the researchers to jot down the quantitative aspects of the response of the participants. 


Primarily, data analysis consists of two methods that include qualitative research and quantitative research (Loughran, 2013). In context to qualitative research, the methods used in this particular research are surveys, interviews and thorough observation of the responses collected in the survey and interviews. On the other hand, the quantitative aspect of the research comprises of the conduct of surveys and experiments. In order to remove any kind ambiguity and chaos, survey has been conducted among the student and the other participants of the study and a separate interview for the managing committee of the educational institutions (Billig & Waterman, 2014). Additionally, it is to be noted that, thorough observation is to be made regarding the behavior of the participants and critical analysis is to be made of the same so that the data can be properly interpreted (Gast & Ledford, 2014). In this particular research study, the data and the other relevant information has been collected from various sources like reviews of various scholarly articles and book journals by other researchers, various blogs and articles, conduct of surveys and interviews, through qualitative scrutinizing  of the responses collected from the interviews.


Summary 

In light of the study made in the above section, it can be established that defining the research method is essential for getting a clear understanding of the processes that are to be adopted in the research method. In context to this, attempts have been made in this section of the study to illustrate the research design that will be used to conduct this particular research study. It is evident from the above section of the study that descriptive research design is to be used for providing a descriptive analysis of the current situation. Additionally, it is noted that efforts have been made to give a detailed description of the target population of the study and the sample that is to be selected out of the target population. Further, attempts have been made to give a brief description of the instruments that will form part of the survey and interviews. Other than that, this section of the study also deals with the data collection method this is to be used in this study. From the above study, it can be established that in conduction of the above study, several instruments are to be used that may include questionnaires for the purpose of survey, a separate set of questions for the conduction of interviews. In addition to that, it is noted that other instruments like voice record the responses of the participants of the study. It is done in order to get a clear understanding of the responses received, observe the behavior and outlook of the respondents and make a critical analysis of the same.  

Conclusion

Ensuring standard and effective teaching is a central policy of teacher evaluation. Thus, it is significant to discern the elements of learning and teaching that can be monitored by objectives and professional practice of students’ learning activities. The recent derivatives proposes that teachers in several countries exhibit particular inclination over specified types of teaching fashions and that these associate to the span of the section they teach. In other expressions, I find teachers across the world that trust on specific teaching traits which depends upon the strength of the class. It has been prescribed that minor section improves students’ involvement in school. Students’ involvement is defined as their dedication towards learning. Active behavioral involvement can be transmitted by their reduction of disastrous behaviors, increase in attendance, attention during class, while psychological and cumulative involvement renders to their firsthand responses to other fellow students, respective faculties and other staffs. 


Having little amount of students per class is reckoned to enable teachers to increase the time span they particularly spend with their students and decrease the time they spend in management. This individual interaction is prone to result in improvised performance, better candidates’ involvement and ecological dynamics within the institution. My survey results show that teaching staffs in minor classes use developed teaching process such as assigning them with different tasks depending on their capabilities make them practice diverse tasks or checking students’ copies in a regular basis. Derivatives also show that, with respect to teaching rituals that are first hand, teachers in minor classes encourage students work in small teams.


Moreover, in many countries, the size of the classes has been reduced but never been able to accomplish better results. Although this data may be extremely essential to objective-makers who desire to evaluate the frequency of utilization of different sorts of teaching rituals appointed by teaching staffs and track the frequency of variation with other classes. The recent results alter other survey findings and can be collaboratively implemented to assuage learning and teaching efficiency. Objectives and policies should focus to generate training modules for teaching staffs with a motive to deliver them with new pedagogical references and means of teaching, as outcomes show that teaching staffs across the world continue to trust on the application of passive teaching rituals than on experimental ones. Policies need to fix that teachers are involving in professional upliftment activities that prepare them with ideas and materials on how to mitigate and interpret teaching rituals, often challenging institutional contexts. The recent findings supplements to better our knowledge on teaching rituals and this knowledge can evolve the learning experience. 


The analyses posed in this proposal wish to provide an in-depth introspection on how teaching practices is attached to class size by illustrating, contrasting and comparing the prevalent teaching practices that teachers are likely to exercise  throughout the year and how this options are associated to the thematic perception of the students they teach.

 

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