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SBM4303 Development of Skills in Enterprise Architecture: Portfolio Assessment 3 Answer

Unit Code and Title: SBM4303 Enterprise Architecture

Assessment 3: Portfolio

Group/individual:
Individual
Word count / Time provided:
2000 words
Weighting:
40%
Unit Learning Outcomes:
ULO-1, ULO-2, ULO-3, ULO-4, ULO-5, ULO-6
Course Learning Outcomes:
CLO-1, CLO-2, CLO-4, CLO-7, CLO-9
Graduate Attributes:
GA-2, GA-3, GA-12


Assessment Details:

This assessment is designed to assess develop your skills in Enterprise Architecture (EA). You are required to develop knowledge on EA methodology, EA Framework, data model and emerging EA. In completing this assessment successfully, you will be able to know major widely accepted Enterprise Architecture (EA) domains, layers, frameworks and governance, which will help in achieving ULO-1, ULO-2, ULO-3, ULO-4, ULO-5, and ULO-6, this in turn will help you in achieving CLO-1, CLO-2, CLO-4, CLO-7, and CLO-9, which collectively with other unit learning outcomes will help in achieving GA-2, GA-3, and GA-12.

Portfolio 1.1 (Case Study)

Read the case study for the medical clinic or the Johnson and Johnson case study (See the Case Study on the resource folder) and answer the following questions:

  • What are the main problems for the organisation?
  • What solutions do you propose to help solve these problems?
  • Examine the Zachman Framework. How would you apply this to the case study?

Portfolio 1.2 (Frameworks for Enterprise Architecture)

  • See the ppt on EA for University of Newcastle from the resource folder and answer the following question:

What processes were proposed for EA?

  • Compare the frameworks for EA- Zachman, TOGAF, FEA, and Gartner
  • Read the journal article by Kistasamy, C and Alta Van Der Merwe…. To examine the relationship between EA and SOA.

Portfolio 1.3 (ERD diagram)

Entity relationship diagrams provide a visual starting point for database design that can also be used to help determine information system requirements throughout an organization.

Prepare detailed ERD diagram for the given i) Milk dairy and ii) Quikfix Electronics case studies (See the case study from the resource folder).

Portfolio 1.4 (Tutorial Questions)

You should write answers for the Week 3, 4 and 7 tutorial questions. Answer should be concise and to the point.

Please answer the following questions:

Week-3:

  1. What are some of the areas of value that are generated by an EA program?
  2. What are some of the risks associated with implementing an EA program?
  3. How does EA help an enterprise to view its strategic direction/goals?
  4. How does EA help an enterprise to view its business services?
  5. How does EA help an enterprise to view technology resources?
  6. What is meant by managing risk? Provide two methods to manage risk.
  7. How does EA link to strategy, business, and technology?
  8. Select a real-world medium-or large-sized business and identify the following:
    1. Areas of potential value that an EA program would provide.
    2. Areas of potential risk to the implementation and acceptance of an EA program, and strategies to mitigate those risks.
    3. How EA can help develop views of this business’ strategic direction and goals; business services; and supporting resources.

Week-4:

  1. What is an EA implementation methodology?
  2. What is the role of an EA framework within the EA methodology?
  3. What is the purpose of Phase I activities in the EA methodology?
  4. Why are Phase III activities dependent on the completion of Phase II?
  5. Compare and contrast the purpose of Phase II and Phase IV activities.
  6. Can the steps of the EA methodology be changed for different enterprises?
  7. Who is responsible for execution of the EA program and EA methodology?
  8. How often should an EA be updated? Why?
  9. Select a real-world medium or large size enterprise and provide:
    1. The phases and steps of an appropriate EA implementation methodology.
    2. The way that EA stakeholder support will be obtained.
    3. The recommended schedule for updating the EA. Week-7:
  10. What is the purpose of current views of EA components?
  11. How do artifacts relate to EA components?
  12. Provide some examples of artifacts at the Goals & Initiatives level of the EA3 Cube Framework.
  13. What is IDEF-0 modelling and how can it be used to document EA components at the Products & Services level of the EA3 Cube Framework?
  14. What are the differences between traditional (ERD and DFD) data modelling techniques and object-oriented data modelling techniques (UML)?
  15. Provide some examples of artifacts at the Applications & Services level of the EA3 Cube Framework.
  16. Is vendor-supplied documentation on software and hardware products important to retain as EA artifacts? Why?
  17. What are some of the EA artifacts that would be desired at the Network & Infrastructure level of the EA3 Cube Framework?
  18. Find a public or private sector enterprise and identify the following current EA components/artifacts at each level of the EA3 Cube Framework:
  19. Identify current strategic goals, initiatives, and outcome measures.
  20. Identify current LOBs, business services, and associated activity/flow diagrams.
  21. Identify current information flows and data documentation in each LOB.
  22. Identify the current IT systems and applications that support information flows for each LOB.
  23. Identify the current IT infrastructure and networks that host IT systems and applications.

Portfolio 1.5 (Journal articles review)

EA and Big data:

Read the journal article by Brain H. Cameron from the resource folder …. The Need for Enterprise Architecture for Enterprise-Wide Big Data. Consider the following questions:

  • What are the root causes behind the failure of big data projects?
  • How Enterprise Architecture can support successful big data project implementation?

EA and Cloud computing:

Read the conference article from the resource folder by L. Aureli…Enterprise Architectures for Cloud Computing. Consider the following question:

  • Identify the important recommendations deal with application security and encryption.

Portfolio Presentation Style and Writing

Consolidate and compile all your previous efforts from Portfolio 1.1 to 1.5 into a DOC or DOCX report. You should attempt at your best to reflect this quality in the preparation of the report.

All diagrams and figures should be embedded as part of the report.

The format of your report should be as follows: A4 size paper, 2.5cm margins on all sides, single-sided, Time Romans or New Time Romans font, 12pt font size, DOC or DOCX format.

Answer

Portfolio 1.1:

1. What are the main problems for the organization?

The main problems of J&J are that the key customers faced difficulties to deal with multiple companies of the firm because they require to generate multiple invoices and contracts. Even J&J faced difficulties on centralize the overall process to a single centralized system (Pearlson, Saunders & Galletta, 2016). 

2. What solutions do you propose to help solve these problems?

By implementing an ERP solution, a centralized information system can be developed and this can solve the problem of J&J.

3. Examine the Zachman Framework. How would you apply this to the case study?

Zachman Framework can be extremely useful for solving the problem, as with the help of this framework, it will be possible to analyze what changes are required to be implemented, the specification of the system and the process of configuration and installation (Lapalme et al., 2016).

Portfolio 1.2

1. What processes were proposed for EA?

The processes that were proposed for EA are:

  • The lower level of the framework comprises of technology architecture
  • The medium level is divided into information architecture and application architecture
  • The highest model is based on business architecture

2. Compare the frameworks for EA- Zachman, TOGAF, FEA, and Gartner

  • The Zachman Framework is considered as the taxonomy for development of EA
  • TOGAF framework defines the process for development of EA
  • FEA is the enterprise architecture for EA
  • Garter is the practice of enterprise architecture

3. Relationship between EA and SOA.

EA helps in forming the overall architecture of the business and deal with all the scopes of the business. On the other hand, SOA is supportive to EA in the fact that this helps in establishing the protocols of the software design and enables the communication in the development of the architecture.


1.3 ER Diagram

ER Diagram

Portfolio 1.4 (Tutorial Questions)

1. What are some of the areas of values that are generated by an EA program?

  • An EA program helps in operations related to information technology and documentation within a business organization.
  • It helps  in mapping enterprise components  with  its strategies
  • It helps in  effective management of Information technology
  • Helps in obtaining better returns on investments with  lower risk factors for the business.


2. What are some of the risk associated with implementing and an EA program?


  • Distract  employees/staff those who are working for the organization
  • Increases cost of implementation for the business
  • It is also a vulnerable security threat
  • Decreases acceptance of the program by the users
  • Createsdependency on the system completely for all data and information requirements
  • Low rate of adoption in business organizations


3. How does EA help an enterprise to view its strategic direction/ goals?

Combination of different perspectives of business and the various types of technologies at all different levels of operationcan be achieved with the EA program implementation. It also helps in enhancing the strategies of the business enterprise .In addition; it offers a program that provides reference database for documentation and review of the business records.


4. How does an EA help an enterprise to view business services?

Business strategies integration is promoted through management of resources and efficient utilization of resources throughout the organization with the help of an EA program. It also compares the requirements of the enterprise according to the present and future assessment of its demand and supply of services. 


5. How does EA help an enterprise to view Technology resources?

Efficient management of resources can be achieved with the help of anEA program along with the technological advancement by analyzing the performance of business. It helps in mapping the technological up graduation requirements of the business over the years. This helps the business to gain a competitive advantage.


6. What is meant by managing risk? Provide two methods to manage risk?

The possibility of risk can be reduced by mitigating the risk factors and sources from where the risk has risen. These risks can hamper the programs of business like EA program, documentation, software’s, hardware’s etc... The risk factor can be reduced by adopting methodology that has executive support, enhancement,   budget management, thoroughly analyzing the tools and technique of the program, training the team, and efficient implementation within the business. Management skills help in better turnover& results, costing and scheduling etc. Which results in a better performance of the enterprise. It also helps in combating issues like technological up gradation with the help of commercial techniques that meet the global standards.


Identification and analyzingrisk is an all-time activity which should be ongoing continuously for proper functioning of business. Any loopholes that are identified in business should be fixed on a priority basis. 


7. How does EA link to strategy, business and Technology?

Business strategy and organizational processes are linked together with the help of an EA framework. Therefore, An EA program helps in adding value to the firm business and supports the goals and objectives of the business.


8. Select a real-world medium or large sized business and identify the following:

  1. Areas of potential value that and a EA program would provide.

McDonald’s is one the largest burger chains in the world and has a number of stores around the world. If the company use the EA program, it will be possible to integrate the business of all the stores into a single architecture. Therefore, the process of invoice generation and sales management will be enhanced. 

  1. Areas of potential risk to the implementation and acceptance of an EA Program, and strategies to mitigate the risk.

The possible risks in implementation of EA program and their process of mitigation are:

  • Staffs can find it challenging to adapt with the new process- To solve this problem training of the staffs is extremely important
  • There can be security vulnerabilities- This can be mitigated by implementing the required security measures
  • Solution cost can be high- To mitigate this problem, it will be essential to ensure that the return rate becomes high
  • How EA a can help develop views of this business strategic direction and goals; business services; and supporting resources.

In case of EA, there is an alignment of business with the IT process. This helps the companies to set business goals with the perception of using IT to achieve those goals. Moreover, resource management can be also improved significantly with the use of EA. 

Week-4:


  1. What is an implementation methodology?
  2. It is the foundational element of  The program
  3. It helps in the documentation management for the program by defining procedures and structures in detail of the program framework. 
  4. Detail knowledge about governance and documentation along with updating of the program for easy access of information is provided by the program. The information about accessing the information by the users, the requirement of updating the system, and reducing the various from the risks inthe business.
  5. It provides the definition of software tools and models, applications, and database management techniques for the future the various models and diagrams.

2. What is the role of an EA framework within the EA the methodology?


  • Helps in establishing the scope of the program and its overall structure by defining its sub-segments. All the information related to business isorganized in this structure.
  • Help in linking business with Strategies and Technology for efficient planning and management
  • In the framework, it is divided into different levels comprising of information that provides support  to business and components that help in in documentation and planning strategies, services, information of the  objects,  and other hardware system  such as EA  artifacts

3. What is the purpose of phase 1 activities in the EA methodology? \goals?

Phase 1 of the implementation of an EA program comprises of the pre-documentation and establishment of the program with the purpose of:


  • Establishment of EA  management and identification  of the   primary architects or the chief Architect
  • Establishing the implementation of the program
  • Establishing the governance and Management links with the help of the program
  • Developing the communication plan for the business to manage all communications between parties, clients and users etc. 

4.  Why are Phase III activities dependent on the completion of phase II?

The business Framework is chosen in Phase 2 of the implementation of an EA program which makes the Phase 3 dependent upon it. This is because of the fact that, it helps in identification of the various business strategies, documentationprocesses and applications that are required for establishing the online repository for the program. Basically, the Phase 3 of the program comprises of the documentation part directly related to the files and folders in the repository for reference purposes.

5. Compare and contrast the purpose of phase II and Phase IV activities.

Phase 2 in the initial stage of selecting the framework, defining scope of the program, its components and other tools. Whereas, Phase 4 is actually the implementation and is the ongoing stage of the program which works by utilizing the resources through effective planning and decision making in order to add value to business. In other words, we can say that Phase 2 is the planning and phase 4 isthe maintenance stages of the program.

6. Can the steps of the methodology be changed for different Enterprises?

  • A unique & different program must be created for every different organization rather than a standard framework
  • Chief architect must be identified primarily and then the program should be is published by choosing the team
  • Secondly, methodology and steps should  be identified
  • A guide must be prepared detailing about the implementation and documentation of the program which will lead to a reduced risk of losing value. The methodology can be customized as per the business requirements.

7. Who is responsible for execution of the EA program and EA methodology? 

  • Chief architect  initiates  the program
  • He leads the program by managing resources such as hardware, software etc. of the Business.
  • He builds the team for execution of the program within the enterprise.

8. How often should an EA be updated?  Why?

  • It can be updated in Phase 4 of the business annual cycle at the time of providing information to stakeholders
  • Ideally, the program must be updated at least twice a year so that it can add some value two business planning and management I.E.  For the present and the future requirements.
  • Repository must be kept updated at all times
  • The management plan should be updated annually
  • Documentation should be updated as and when anything is modified in the business

 9. Select a real-world medium or large size enterprise and provide:

a. The phases and steps of an appropriate EA implementation methodology.

The steps that can be used are:

  • Identification of the current problems
  • Setting business objectives
  • Identifying the specifications
  • Planning on design

b. The way that EA stakeholder support will be obtained.

EA stakeholder support can be obtained by enhancing the process of communication with them and to make them aware of the benefits that they would receive with the use of EA. 

c. The recommended schedule for updating the EA.

EA should be updated according to the market needs. The update can be made within 6 to 12 months. 

Week 7

  1. What is the purpose of current views of EA   components?
  2. It helps in verifying the resources which help in achieving the goals and objectives of business in turn.
  3. As-is  view  can be presented by the program
  4. Identification of performance dependency, gaps  and mitigation of risk factors

2. How do artifacts relate to EA components?

  • They are the main documents that describe the components of  an EA  program and framework 
  • Collection of documentation and establishment of as-is  view

3.  Briefly describe two examples of artifacts and the goals and initiative level of the EA cube framework.

Strategic plan-1

  • It is a policy and planning document which help the organization compile its strategies goals and objectives.
  • It guides the direction of the business for a three to five year plan including:
  • Mission and vision statement
  • Strategic direction statement
  • SWOT analysis summary
  • Summarizationof situation and planning  assumptions  for ‘ concept of operations’
  • CONOPS  diagram
  • Competitive strategy management
  • Strategic goals planning

SWOT analysis- S2

  • Strength,  weakness, opportunity and threats are analyzed through internal and external factors
  • Areas of reduced exposure  can be identified
  • Help developing CONOPS for  present and future operation

4.What is IDEF-0 modelling and how can it be used to document EA components at the

Products & Services level of the EA3 Cube Framework?

IDEF is family of various kind of modeling language. It support many user functions. Hence, it easily support EA3 cube framework.

5. What are the differences between traditional (ERD and DFD) data modeling techniques and object-oriented data modeling techniques (UML)?

ERD and DFD represent the relationship between the entities and UML on the other hand represent the modeling language of the software. 

6. Briefly describe two examples of artifacts at the applications and services level of the EA cube framework.

Systems interface matrix - SA 3

  • Nature of physical and logical interface linking the information systems can be studied
  • Overview of potential Resource Management is provided
  • Systems, interfaces and functions can be managed and upgraded

System data flow diagram SA-4

  • Flow of Processes can be understood through the diagram
  • Enhancement of business processes and additional details can be complemented
  • Functional hierarchies are documented
  • Main focus is developing the system data flow, ensuring functional connectivity, and supporting functional decomposition.

7. Is vendor-supplied documentation on software and hardware products important to

retain as EA artifacts? Why?

Yes, it is important because EA artifacts  is based on business process. Hence, vendor supplied documents provide basic information about EA artifacts. It would be difficult to handle after sales issues without documentations.

8. Briefly describe two examples of artifacts at the network and infrastructure level of the EA cube framework.

Network inventory

Listing of all hardware and software systems

Unique ID, description,   details of vendors etc.  Is listed

Rack elevation diagram

  • Both the front side and the rear view of the equipment’s related to IT data placed in server room, network centers etc.  are explained through  this Rack elevation diagram
  • Electronically changes are saved over a number of years
  • Supports the network Centre diagrams and cable plant diagram

Portofolio 1.5

What are the root causes behind the failure of big data projects?

No clear business goals

Poor planning

Change management issues

Not paying attention to business requirement

How Enterprise Architecture can support successful big data project implementation?

It work as bridge between strategy execution and strategic planning. EA provides holistic information through which top management can make informed decisions.

Identify the important recommendations deal with application security and encryption.

To make it obligation for the encryption of Credential Credential

Each file must have encryption storage method if application use File

Each file must have encryption usage encryption method.

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