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Self-Referencing and Social Identity on Consumer Behavior: Nike Shoe Assessment Answer

Review journal articles on self-referencing and social identity. Discuss how these ideas can be useful to marketers and apply the findings from the articles you review to a product of your choice.

This is not an assignment on psychology, so ensure you study consumer behaviour journals.

Journals you should consider when choosing articles for your review include

- Journal of Consumer Behaviour

- Psychology & Marketing

- Journal of Consumer Research

- Journal of Consumer Psychology

- Journal of Marketing

- Journal of Advertising

- Journal of Advertising Research

You do not have to read all of these journals. This is just a list to show you where you might find relevant articles. You can use other marketing journals also but make sure it is a consumer behaviour approach.

Assessment name: Individual Assignment
Description: Students will conduct a literature review of consumer behaviour theories from the course. This review may involve showing a topic has developed in the literature and outlining its relevance to marketing practitioners. The lecturer will notify students of the exact topic for the literature review.
Length/Duration: 3,000 words excluding references.
Formative or Summative Formative and Summative

Answer

Self-Referencing and Social Identity


Introduction 

The primary purpose of the paper is to provide a clear understanding regarding the use of self-referencing as well as social identity by the marketers to attract the consumers. Both factors are associated with consumer behaviour regarding the purchasing of products from the market. The process of self-referencing allows consumers to make their own decision according to their knowledge and the success of the marketing campaign. The social identity is the social group or the cultural value of the people that help them to maintain their position within the world. Both the factors are having a huge impact on consumer behaviour regarding the purchase of products with suitable quality as well as price. To effectively understand the idea developed by the marketers, the product like shoes has been selected where the company Nike shoe has been selected for the discussion. The discussion is also on the use of these factors and their impact on both the marketer and the consumers for getting the best product within the country. 

Self Referencing 

Self-referencing is mainly associated with the process where the consumers develop their understanding and their knowledge regarding a particular product for purchasing it from the market. In the words of Chang, & Feng, (2016) it is also known as the strategy for processing the information as well as it occurs, especially when the information is being processed that also by relating it to the aspects of oneself. This process was first studied in the field of psychology that was found quite rich as well as the powerful encoding process that helps to maintain the deep information of the individuals. It is considered one of the powerful process and the markets effectively use it for developing their business value and their market process. In the words of Mathras, Cohen, Mandel, & Mick, (2016) the process of self-referencing effectively deals with the information process where the advertisement plays a vital role for both the marketers and the consumers. Nike is a brand that uses an effective advertisement to capture the attention of the consumers by the help of celebrity and other processes. Marketers of Nike use the self-referencing behaviour of the consumers to develop their market and provide some of the best value for the consumers. The marketers use various advertising process for understanding the need of the consumers and providing them with the best product within the market.

In most of the cases, it can be seen that the ethnic advertising performed by the marketers are highly effective for self-referencing consumers to get the best product from the market. According to Winterich, Reczek, & Irwin, (2017) the use of ethnic advertisement by the marketers of Nike is considered to be the role of encouragement for self-referencing consumers. Nike is the brand which has a global presence, and for that, people are highly motivated towards the advertisement provided by the brand to capture the attention of their customers. It is the fact that the self-referencing has a direct effect on the persuasion of the advertisement within the commercial context. Most of the advertisements are highly associated with the consumers for dealing with the process and providing some of the most effective value within the market. According to Coleman, & Williams, (2015) the advertisement in term of self-referencing allows the person to develop their view and their concept regarding the use of products within the market. Furthermore, it can be seen that in term of the visual strategy developed by the marketers of Nike, the studies show that they have used numerous actors and celebrities to prompt the self-referencing process within the market for getting the product. 

The process of self-referencing is diverse for diverse people all around the world. There are numerous studies which show that the Asian people are mostly the self-reference person who look for the advertisement and get their mindset for the product. The marketers of Nike is having a suitable phase for dealing with the people most effectively and suitably. The use of show product is highly applicable all over the world, and this lead to the process of self-referencing, where the customers look for the advertisement and decide to get the products. In the view of Diehl, Terlutter, & Mueller, (2016) Marketers need to develop the advertisement in such a way that would help them to meet the target market and enhance their market value. Other products like the tea are also highly demandable all over the world, and in most cases, it could be seen that the marketers use to maintain their value and their business process for dealing with the situation in the most effective and valuable way. In the view of Murphy, & Dweck, (2016) in the Asian countries, the use of tea products are much more as compared to the other part of the world, and for that, the marketers of this region use effective tea advertisement to enhance the self-referencing process of the consumers. It is the primary fact that if the advertisement is authentic and have ethnicity, the consumers would not think twice for gaining the product.

For the marketers, the use of the self-referencing process of the consumers helps them to understand the need of the consumers and provide them with the products according to their wish. Moreover, it can be seen that the impact of the race regarding the advertisement spokesperson is having the various combination of the characteristics of an advertisement on the self-referencing process of the consumers. In the words of Lord, Putrevu, & Collins, (2019) the process of self-referencing of the consumers is also associated with the situation of the cultural background of the people that allow the marketers to develop most effective advertisement to deal with the consumers and provide them with the best option for maintaining the activity. Furthermore, it can be seen that the ethnic minorities can decode their knowledge regarding subculture as well as link them with the self-schema than the white people where the marketers need to develop their understanding and their valuable process for providing some of the most effective value within the field. In the words of Warren, Barsky, & Mcgraw, (2018) numerous studies identify the process where the consumers are exposed to the various advertisements that are consistent with the salient dimension of the consumers, and for that, they spontaneously maintain the self-referencing advertisement. It effectively leads to the favourable thoughts then the attitudes as well as the intention of purchase of the consumers.

The various studies have provided the view that at the time of the ethnic minority, individuals are primarily exposed towards the advertising model that also of similar ethnicity. According to Hesapci, Merdin, & Gorgulu, (2016) it helps them to spontaneously self-reference the advertisement performed by the marketers for capturing the market and providing their best value within the field. It is also the fact that they even produce favourable thoughts as well as positive attitudes towards the advertisement as well as the model that leads to the intention of higher purchase of the product. The intention of the higher purchase of the products generally depends on the products along with the advertisement process utilised by the marketers. In most of the cases, it could be seen that the people generally like to by the products with self-referencing, especially the products are of everyday use and also of a small budget. According to Fournier, & Alvarez, (2019) it is the fact that consumers are highly concern regarding their budgets and their knowledge is also limited towards the price of the products and the budget for maintaining the process of self-referencing. For example; a consumer will not buy a car or house with the process of self-referencing even though the marketers are providing some of the eye-catching advertisement.

According to Fournier, & Alvarez, (2019) the behaviour of the consumers is highly effective in term of the self-referencing process as they can develop their idea and concern regarding the purchase of the products. In most of the situation, it could be easily understood that the ethnic value of the marketers mainly depends on the valuation process and the working function of the consumers' behaviour for getting their products from the market. It is the fact that the price, as well as the quantity and the quality of the product, also have a vital influence over the process of self-referencing. It eventually allows consumers to understand their needs and get the most suitable products from the market. In the case of Nike shoe, the marketers show the advertisement where the quality of the product along with the price is visible, and for that it allows the consumers to get the products with the help of self-referencing process. In most of the situation, it is the primary activity of the marketers to develop the best and the most effective advertisement process for dealing with the situation and providing some of the best value within the market. In the view of Gordon, Ciorciari, & van Laer, (2018) the attitude of the people, along with the thinking process for getting the product, is considered to be a highly effective and valuable process within the field. The use of self-referencing process within the marketing field is highly essential mostly for the products like shoes and other commodities that are suitable in budget and useful for the consumers. 


Social Identity 

The social identity is considered to be the sense of the people regarding their value based on the group of members. It deals with the vital facts of the source of price as well as the self-esteem of the people for developing their value and their understanding process within the market. In the words of Bang, Choi, Wojdynski, & Lee, (2019) it is the behaviour of the consumers that to enhance their self-image, they eventually enhance the status of the group where they belong to, and this helps them to maintain the identity within the market along with the self process. For example; the people belong to the UK can eventually introduce their social identity as great people compared to the other country by enhancing their value and their marketing process within the world. It is the fact that the people within the value of social identity are always in the process of figuring out the negative aspect of the other people belonging to other groups. In the view of Oyserman, & Schwarz, (2017) there is always a level of competition among the people for dealing with the market situation and getting the best from the market. This shows the differences between the cultures and the value of the people from different part of the world. It is highly effective for the people to develop their market view and provide a suitable understanding for maintaining the tendency of the groups most effectively and suitably.

Furthermore, it can be understood that the social identity is highly associated with the two different trends, and they are the differences within the various groups as well as the similarities of things within the similar group. For the marketers, it can be seen that the social identity of the consumers highly depends as it is the fact that the customers did not do what they say they will perform within the market. According to Baek, Yoo, & Yoon, (2018) it is the fact that most of the customers are highly influenced with the idea of the same group that they belong and for that, the marketers are facing some of the huge difficulties for gaining the trust of the individuals. In the development of market value, it is highly essential to understand the need of the consumers and provide them with the best business value and products which will help the marketers to maintain their position within the field. In most of the situation, it could be seen that the consumers in the prior stage welcome the ideas of the marketers but at the time of product launch and advertising the social identity plays the vital role for the customers to make an effective decision regarding the purchase of the products. It creates various problems like marketing issue then sales of the product and even enhancing the brand name within the market. 

Moreover, it is a fact for the numerous marketers that they believe in the hypothetical process rather than the actual decision-making process of the consumers for buying the products due to the social identity. In the view of Youn, & Jin, (2017) the marketers need to develop their market value by the help of effective advertisement process so that they can create the immense effect on the consumers and their social identity group which would help them to maintain their market position. It is the facts that people are considered to be highly social animals that belong to the various social groups that have different identities. In the words of Hamilton et al., (2019) the marketers need to grab the social group and their value for advertising the best process within the field. It can be seen that the social identity is highly essential for the marketers that eventually guide the behaviour of the consumers regarding the development of product within the market. It is the fact that some behaviour of the consumer will effectively bolster as well as support the group for gaining the trust and developing the market value for the marketers. For the marketers of Nike, the social identity group effectively help them to understand the need of the people and provide them with the product according to the requirement of the consumers with superior quality and suitable price.

The use of social identity by the marketers for advertising their products effectively helps them to develop their value and their understanding process within the field. The social identity is having dire t impact over the behaviour of the consumers regarding the purchasing of products for that the marketers need to understand the social group for developing their product value and making suitable advertisement process. In the words of Mandel, Rucker, Levav, & Galinsky, (2017) the marketers perform survey which helps them to get a clear view regarding the social group that provides some of the most suitable value within the market for the consumers. The products need to be maintained effectively for providing some of the valuable activity within the field that helps the firm from understanding the process within the market. In the words of Hamilton et al., (2019) the use of social identity by the marketers helps them to attract customers and provide them with the most effective value within the market. Numerous researches support the marketers for understanding the need of the social group so that they can effectively provide the best product with the maintained quality for the consumers. The use of social identity in the process of marketing effective value to identify the requirement of the consumers within the market. It is highly effective for customers to maintain their value within the market.  

Social identities mainly depend on three components, and they are social categorization, social identification and social comparison. According to Trudel, Argo, & Meng, (2016) Social classification is the method of the process to understand the social world and world related things. Social license is also identifying the groups of members. Social comparison is also that compare between the two groups in terms of their standing position in market and prestige. Social identities are the definition that can think about the many things and point of view of group members. Social characters are somehow the same to the personal identities but not to the individual personalities. According to Rucker, & Galinsky, (2016) marketers can influence the social identities members to purchase the commodity. Social identities members are discussed other members of the group in different ways like a feature of the product, rate of the product, the longevity of the product. Social identities have some disadvantages which effect in marketers. It replaces individualism and beside the less importance of history and culture of society. In social identities, a person can identify and grow their own slandered, not increase the group slandered.

Social identity is another part of consumer behaviour. There are considerable differences between the national market and the international market. Both depend on the behaviour of the consumer and related to another factor. Various factors are work behind the consumer's behavioural approach and other problems. Language, culture, food habits, distance and much more different can occur behind the situations. Marketers can operate the difficulty an inefficient way. In the view of Dimofte, Goodstein, & Brumbaugh, (2015) Social identity is essential for marketers. Some behaviour is accepted well, and sometimes it is not working, facing a massive amount of loss. In social identity theory, group membership is not foreign; also, it is related to the person. Marketers can apply various types of tricks, policies, and innovation the new ideas and applied new methods to run the business. According to Rucker, & Galinsky, (2016) Social identities person experiment with their product and demonstrate it with any social information given to the other members of society. In the groups, members argued each other for a better explanation of the product. In the groups, various type of competition can show. As a result, it makes confusion to the marketers. Marketers cannot understand that which kind of business policy is appropriate for in case of social identities. The element of the competition can grow day by day, and it makes an adverse effect on marketers. 

Conclusion 

It can be concluded from the paper that there are numerous positive and negative effects regarding the use of self-referencing as well as social identity by the marketers within the market. Some time self-referencing method of the consumer is beneficial to the markets. Some time it effects negatively. Marketers take all the plans to see the self-referencing behaviour of the consumer. Sometimes it works, and some time is not. Social identity is another part of consumer behaviour. Both depend on the behaviours of the consumers and related to another factor. Various factors are work behind the consumer's behavioural approach and other problems. Language, culture, food habits, distance and much more different can occur behind the situations. Marketers can operate the difficulty of work as efficiently. Social identity is essential for marketers. Some behaviour is accepted well, and sometimes it is not working, facing a tremendous amount of loss. In social identity theory, group membership is not foreign; also, it is related to the person. Marketers can apply various types of tricks, policies, and innovation the new ideas and employed new methods to run the business. Social identities are not only the group of any person; it is real truth and the central part of the persons. It is easy to remember to identify the person in groups.    

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