SHR043-6 Integrated Management Project: Assignment 1 Answer

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Question :

Unit title & codeIntegrated Management Project SHR043-6
Assignment number and title1  Research Project
Assignment typePJ-Proj
Weighting of assignment80%
Size or length of assessmentUp to 8000 words
Unit learning outcomes
  • Critical appreciation of techniques for analysing complex business issues and techniques for structuring solutions to complex issues. 

2   Critically analyse and research complex business problems, Select and successfully apply a range of appropriate techniques to identify issues and develop integrated solutions, Self-reflect on your progress with the project and lessons learnt for future development. 

What am I required to do in this assignment?
By this point you will have submitted and received formative feedback on your developing research investigation during what is termed IMP1Now you will produce a report that:
Identifies an issue or problem in your own organisation (another organisation is acceptable only in exceptional circumstances. Seek approval from the Unit Coordinator) that has multiple and varied approaches to its resolution. This should be a current or impending but not a past issue. You will identify and integrate a range of theories and techniques drawn from multiple appropriate disciplines from your MBA in the creation of appropriate solutions.
Once you have framed the problem you will identify and discuss relevant theories, models and paradigms related to the problem.  Make sure that you look at the problem from different points of view and relate them to your learning from as many different units of the MBA.  For example:

•  People - LMP, LP, MCI – how does your problem/ solution impact on the team & company?  Performance, leadership, managing creativity/innovation etc.
•  Financial aspect – AfL – How will your solution improve/ impact positively on the financial aspect of the company?
•  Marketing – How does your problem/solution impact on the marketing dimension?
•  Strategy – From the Strategy unit (Business Strategy) and from TCGC (locating your problem / organisation within the wider context of global business/ sector – macro-environmental impact – PESTEL, etc.)
•  Operations Management – How does the problem/solution impact on the supply chain, procurement and operational management issues?
•  Project management – Consider the models for managing change and other project management theories or models.  Can any of these be applied to your problem area?  You may use the soft and hard systems approach within this context.  Is there any other approach that would be appropriate? If so, present it (with appropriate referencing) and explain how and why it is more suitable to the task at hand.
This is not an exhaustive list and you may want to broaden the range of theories as you see fit. You will also want to be selective in the approach you adopt, justifying the selection methodologically.  It is important to use an integrated approach rather than look at each dimension on its own.  
Having done this, which will be roughly half of your word count, You will need to produce a critical review of the literature where you will locate your work, discussing its broader contribution and demonstrating its distinctiveness. You will do this by critically evaluating the concepts, theories, models, etc., used and extending this to identify and review the wider body of knowledge and latest research in the field.

What do I need to do to pass? (Threshold Expectations from UIF)

In order to pass the Assessment you will need to:
  • Identify an appropriate problem capable of being researched, select and apply appropriate integrated techniques in order to evaluate the issue and identify and propose
  • Critically evaluate, to a limited extent, the tools, frameworks and theories from a wide range of disciplines that were used
How do I produce high quality work that merits a good grade?


Produce a piece of research rather than a review or commentary.  Identify and articulate a clear problem to be addressed and evaluate that problem with a clear and justified integrated approach.  Demonstrate the distinct contribution made by the work and its place in the existing knowledge.  Present an analytical discussion which is evidenced thoroughly using academic and professional sources. Draw interesting and useful conclusions. 

How does this assignment relate to what we are doing in scheduled sessions?
The scheduled sessions will prepare students in producing a piece of Masters level research but students should also be able to draw from the units of their MBA. 


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Answer :

Unit Title and Code: Integrated Management Project SHR043-6

Assignment Number and title: 1 Research Project


Executive summary

The paper aims at making extensive research on the problems and challenges of Ooredoo. It also deals in recommending the strategies through which the management of Ooredoo can make the company be meeting with the business objectives and become a success in the process. The research study of Ooredoo has helped the management of the telecommunication company to formulate effective strategies and gain competitive advantages in the market. The strategies of integrated management could help the telecommunication company to hold its market position. 

From the discussion, it is evident that the implementation of the Internet of Things within the business processes can help in mitigating the issues of the company. There is huge potentiality of increasing the customer base in Oman for Ooredoo through this business development. The solutions to the issues of Ooredoo will impact the brand itself. The critical literature review section depicted that the implementation of the Internet of Things within the business processes will influence the company to meet its business objectives in the process. Thus, there is a great chance in front of the company to expand its business by developing its service. Thus, the company can grab the market in this area tactfully to achieve a competitive advantage in the telecom sector of Oman. As Ooredoo already has a brand image and it's a trustable telecom brand of Oman, customers will check out their new service and, in this way, the company can sustain in the market in Oman.

Section 1

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

Integrated management is a framework of processes that combines all the aspects of business management like processes, standards and others. The combined method helps the management of a business to look at all the aspects, meet all the objectives rather than looking at any single aspect of the business. With an integrated management system, a business organisation can run smoothly and easily. It is the intention of most of the business units to increase their production and improve the quality of the products and service. The network for communication and its distribution system is developing and spreading day by day all over the world and the telecommunication companies are involved with this network communication. Network service is getting broad and complicated day by day and the network and telecommunication companies are facing new challenges in their business field. With the complexity of the business, the network companies are becoming more competitive. The need for this study has come from some network problems identified in the renowned companyOoredoo.

1.2 About the company

Ooredoo is one of the big telecommunication companies in the world having it headquarter at Doha in Qatar. Ooredoo provides mobile, wireless, wire-line and connection services in both domestic and international telecommunication markets and also in residential markets. The company mainly serves in North Africa, the Middle East, Europe and Africa. The company has a total strength of about 17,000 people in it and also connects millions of customers through its own website and social media. ‘Ooredoo’. Ooredoo has its customer base of 115 million all over the world and it keeps regular connection withal its customers. Ooredoo has launched its 4G connection which is available in 8 of Ooredoo’s 10 markets. Ooredoo has a strong and experienced management team that keeps the entire necessary records track for its business purposes. The revenue of the Ooredoo Group in the year 2019 was 29.9 billion US$. The management team of the company updates and follow its management strategies for the development of the business. Corporate governance is the other strategy of the company through which the company enhances its brand image in the competitive market(Ooredoo, 2018). 

The company day by day is increasing the investment in its telecommunication business and in innovative apps and startups for capturing the value in the global market. Since its formation, the company has been maintaining secure growth in its business. With its business, the company is maintaining its social responsibility and its dedicated digital unit stimulates ecosystem through its telecommunication platforms (Assets.indosatooredoo, 2020). The Pioneers of the company through their strategic plan, grow the revenue of the company through different commercial partnership. 

1.3 Problem Statement

With the globalisation and increase in the number of populations, the world is becoming bigger day and the business entrepreneurs all over the world in the telecom industry are facing complex challenges in their business sphere. Ooredoo presently is facing the challenge of 4G network signals and cable network for home broadband customers in far-off places in the villages and remote areas. The main problem is that there fewer signal towers in those remote areas and the customers are not getting a speedy network. Customers complain reveals that most of the time the signal is lost and customers are to suffer a lot. 

The other challenge of Ooredoo is to bring a lot of people under the purview of the company and it could be challenging to cope up with the digital technologies. According to the Chairman of the Ooredoo Group, there are more women than men who use the internet and the company wants to make more people connected to the online channel. Doubtlessly this is not an easy task to perform for the company. Ooredoo is presently covering 16 countries in the world mainly in North Africa, Middle East countries, Asia and Europe. The management of the company realizes that it will be a big challenge for the company to make another billion people online and hence, the management of the company has to follow some integrated management strategies.

Ooredoo is one of the largest international telecommunication companies (Ooredoo, 2020). Still, the company has some issues regarding their business which can be a threat to the ultimate development of the company. The main issue of the company is related to its 4G and fibre cable network. In most of the village areas of Oman, where Ooredoo provides their telecommunication service there is a lack of signals. Because there are few signal towers which are installed by the company to provide customer service. So, most of their customers have faced the problem of weak signals. As a result, customers are losing their interest in the telecommunication service of Ooredoo and the company is missing their chance of business progress.

1.4 Aim

The aim of the study is to make extensive research of the problems and challenges of Ooredoo and recommend the ways through which the management of Ooredoo can face the challenges for the success of the company. The telecommunication industry has been much complex and competitive and the business corporations in the telecommunication industry are facing new challenges. The research study of Ooredoo will also help the Pioneers of other telecommunication companies to face a similar type of challenges and gain competitive advantages in the competitive market. The strategies of integrated management will help telecommunication entrepreneurs to follow the same strategies as will be followed by Ooredoo. 

1.5 Rationale

From the perspective of telecommunication business, it is becoming tougher than before and proper signalling is a major factor or issue in telecommunication business. Customer satisfaction and retention are very important in the telecommunication industry (Diaw and Asare, 2018). The number of customers in the telecommunication industry is increasing day by day and hence, more and more signal jamming on the internet is being created. With reference to the case of Ooredoo’s business, availability of signal and broadband connection to the customers is a major issue. It is a great concern for the company because it is hampering the profitability of the business. Signalling and broadband connection are the core concerns of telecommunication business and this being a major part that most of the customers are being dissatisfied with the service of the company. This situation could lead the customers to switch to other service providers. Therefore, the issue should be studied and resolved. Integrated management is a process through which different management strategies with management theories will be applied to develop the service of the company and thus, the problem will be resolved. The study will help the chiefs of Ooredoo and other business chiefs in the global market to apply integrated management strategies and resolve the problems in telecommunication business. 

2. Analysis:

In this era of digitisation, customers first preference is, of course, 4G network and good broadband service. Because from the last two decades, the Internet has taken the most important place in modern people’s life. Nowadays, the Internet is essential in every step of life. The Internet is valuable in every sector, from household work to office work. That is why these days, people are totally dependable on the internet. Thus, improper signal strength is one of the major problems of the company. Therefore, the infrastructure of the company is insufficient also to provide superior signals to the customers of Oman. Apart from these, the company has a low penetration of the telecommunication market. Thus, the company has problems achieving the market as they lack proper infrastructure, improper signal strength and low penetration of the market. 

2.1 LP, MCI:

Major operational issues faced by Ooredoo have multiple possible solutions and in order to perceive the solutions, the company is first required to analyse those major issues precisely. Based on the analyses, Ooredoo will be able to identify the area of improvement in its country of operation. Thus, the company has to invest in the development of its infrastructure by considering the implementation of the Internet of Things(refer to Appendix for mind map). 

Integrated Framework (Internet of Things)

Figure 1: Integrated Framework (Internet of Things)

Source: (Meola, 2018)

For this purpose, Ooredoo has to focus on the improvement of their infrastructures in Oman. The company should maintain emergency service teams in standby mode in order to resolve the signal issue of any area of Oman at any time. Implementation of such prompt resolution to signal-related issues will help with the development of a loyal customer base in Oman as for this service the customers will not feel like switching their telecommunication service whenever they face signal related issues. Therefore, it is also needed for the company to proactively evaluate the signal quality within their network circles in Oman. Through this system, they can gather knowledge about perception and satisfaction of their customers related to signal strength, which is the backbone for every service being provided by a telecom company such as Ooredoo. Consequently, the company can identify their target customer and on the basis of those target customers, they can design their advertisement, arrange campaigns etc. to seize the attention of the customer. Besides these, Ooredoo should analyse their competitors exactly in the telecommunication market of Oman. With the help of this analysis, they can make their business strategy to achieve their desired market. Focusing on such a notion will help Ooredoo to attain their desired competitive advantage in the telecom industry of Oman. Lastly, the success of any telecommunication company depends not only on good signal strength, but there are numerous things. Such as personalised digital service where the customer can use their Internet of Things in more services by connecting it with other devices (Forbes, 2020). Therefore, with the incorporation of IoT, Ooredoo will not only resolve some of the major customer pains but they will also develop unique selling propositions for the customers, thus a competitive advantage in the market.

2.1.1 People:

Here people are both customers of Ooredoo and their workforce or human resources. In order to implement and incorporate the proposed solution, human resources will play an important role as they are the ones with intellectual resources as well as the required know-how. Ooredoo has more than 1,000 active employees in Oman (Ooredoo, 2020). These people will help with the facilitation of the proposed solutions. On the other hand, customers are the other group of people, according to published data Ooredoo Oman has a customer base of 3 million in the country (Telecompaper, 2019). 

2.1.2 Performance:

First of all, Ooredoo upper management is required to communicate the issue and the proposed solutions among their workforce. This communication will provide their existing workforce with a goal or target they are required to achieve in order to mitigate the issue. Therefore, execution of the proposed solution would require their skills, competencies and knowledge in order to facilitate the proposed IoT based facilities and network quality enhancements. In other words, the facilitation of proposed solutions would require performance or productivity from their end.

2.1.3 Leadership:

According to Friedrich and Zhong (2017), leadership plays a very important role in the facilitation of innovative solutions. As the proposed solution is not limited to the enhancements of mobile network quality but also proposed the implementation of IoT based services, this innovative implementation would be required to strategize for the facilitation of the proposed solutions and communicate such with their subordinates as well.

2.1.4 Innovation management:

The proposed solution is based on innovation as the implementation of IoT or Internet of Things is being proposed for Ooredoo. The scope for IoT implementation in the telecom industry is enormous as it will not only help with the facilitation of new unique services to the customer but it also helps with the facilitation of smart mobile network ecosystem and enhancements of QoS or Quality of Service (Alareqiet al. 2018). The gateway analytics from the mobile networks will help with the understanding of infrastructural requirements to serve the customers.

2.2 Financial bottom line:

The proposed solution would require financial resources as Ooredoo is required to develop a robust mobile network in Oman. For which they need to acquire high frequency supported network equipment from leading network equipment supplier companies such as Nokia or Huawei for the development of a rich mobile signal quality across the entire country. Furthermore, the proposed emergency network maintenance teams to reduce the downtime would also require to procure more human resources for the company and which would also require financial investments.Now, as the solutions are designed to achieve their desired telecommunication market in Oman, the solutions of the issues will increase revenue for the country in return. Although, the company has to invest a huge amount to rearrange their business in Oman for development. However, those investments are expected to benefit Ooredoo as they implement the solutions precisely. This financial gains and investments are directly tied with the enhancements of customer satisfaction. It is known to all that every business expansion needs an initial investment to run the company for the long term.  The finance department of Ooredoo has responsibility in this area. The Finance department will decide the investment to digitalise the infrastructure of the company, Ooredoo in Oman. 

Costs of Existing SystemYear 1Year 2Year 3Year 4Year 5
Development costs2500020000150001000010000
Additional hardware150000000
Operation costs2000018000160001400012000
User time during development25002500250025002500
Maintenance costs05000500050005000
Total Cost of Existing System6250045500385003150029500

Table 1: Financial project of the solution

Source: Created by author

First, finance management will do a brief analysis of their programme. Then, the finance department will create a proper plan for the execution of the programme. Following which they are required to divide the amount as per the requirements. Through this plan, it will be helpful to ignore the irrelevant wages related to their business operations. 

Also, the financial department can utilize the “Finance management theory” in this case, as this theory deals with the proper utilisation of money in business. According to Bekaert et al. (2017), finance management theory has great importance in the business organisation to evaluate its finance decision. In order to maintain the huge business of the organisation like Ooredoo, this theory can be a saviour, as it is not easy to invest appropriately to mitigate the issues of Ooredoo. There is a chance of irrelevant wages which will increase the investment of the organisation and this is not beneficial for the improvement of the company. Finance management theory offers a set of tools through which the finance department of Ooredoo can achieve their financial aims by investing the money properly to solve the problem of the organisation. That is why the area of finance holds a vital position in the impact of the solution.

2.3 Marketing:

Through the 4 P’s of marketing mix tool, it will be easy to evaluate the impact on the marketing dimension. According to Baker (2016), marketing mix tool is perfect to analyse the market of any product or service. As Ooredoo is considered as one of the biggest telecom giants in the world, so, in the telecom industry of Oman this brand has a huge market. That is why the impact on market dimension is important to consider. In the below, the impact on marketing dimension is discussed briefly in the perspective of four elements of the marketing mix.

Promotion mix

Figure 2: Promotion mix

Source: Created by author

Mobile subscribers, Internet users, Social Media users’ statistics in Oman

Figure 3: Mobile subscribers, Internet users, Social Media users’ statistics in Oman

(Source: Kemp, 2019)

2.3.1 Price:

According to the data published by Kemp (2019), Oman has 6.66 million active mobile subscribers and among which 3.78 million uses the internet. Therefore, around 77% of the country's population is internet users. Therefore, Ooredoo is required to make an investment in the development of network infrastructure to enhance the internet surfing speed in order to attract more customers to their network. Ooredoo, as a result, is required to enhance their existing 4G or LTE infrastructure and upgrade existing 3G or HSPA+ network components to LTE. Although such a robust network will increase their cost, thus subscription prices will increase, but the quality of service will justify the pricing to their customers.

2.3.2 Product:

Good products or services are everything for the business organisation. In Oman, Ooredoo provides service of 2.75G. WiMAX, 3G+ and fibre cable network (Ooredoo, 2020). Through their service in 2010, the brand successfully achieved around two million customers in Oman (Ooredoo, 2020). However, the world of telecom industry is now progressing towards the implementation of 5G technology, therefore in order to stay competitive in the market, Ooredoo is required to implement LTE and start their R&D in 5G technology as well. With the implementation of LTE or 4G company can design their subscription packs to include both calling and internet surfing in one package in order to introduce the other 33% of people to the internet in order to gain more market share.

Social Media users and Social Media users through mobile devices in Oman

Figure 4: Social Media users and Social Media users through mobile devices in Oman

(Source: Kemp, 2019)

2.3.3 Promotion

Promotion is part of the marketing dimension. Thus, the solution influences the promotion of Ooredoo also. The brand is rearranging their business in the telecom industry of Oman to gain the market. Furthermore, data also shows that out of 3.78 million internet users 2.5 million people in the country also uses social media actively. Now, out of 2.5 million active social media users, 1.9 million people use their mobile devices to access those websites such as Facebook, Instagram or Twitter. This, as a result, demonstrates the lucrative nature of the internet access focused network design as a result. These 1.9 million active users will become a potential growth opportunity if Ooredoo successfully upgrades their network to LTE and will attract customers to their telecom network if the service is stable and no connectivity issues. 

Mobile network infrastructure in Oman

Figure 5: Mobile network infrastructure in Oman

(Source: Kemp, 2019)

2.3.4 Place:

The main problem of the weak signal is mainly in the village area of Oman. Because those areas lack towers. Previously, the company set up the biggest WIFI zone in Oman and in the grand mall of Muscat (Ooredoo, 2020). But all those are located only in the urban area of the country. Due to the disparity between mobile network infrastructure in urban and rural Oman, the mobile network infrastructure score in the country is 66 out of 100. On the other hand, the overall availability of services is around 62 out of 100. This, as a result, demonstrates a mediocre network infrastructure and service quality in the country by any telecom company. Thus, Ooredoo can utilise this as a potential competitive advantage and improve their service quality in rural Oman in order to grow their market share with robust service offerings.

Through the marketing mix tool, it is vividly clear that the problem and solution has a great impact on the marketing dimension, but most of the impact is positive. So, marketers can expect positive potentiality in this business development.

2.4 Strategy:

For this business development, Ooredoo needs to adopt several business strategies to achieve the ultimate market. The solution has an impact on the adopted strategies also. Because, before making the business strategy, the company needs to analyse the external and internal business factors briefly. That is why in the below, there is a PESTLE analysis of Oman to figure out the relevant factors which can affect the business development of Ooredoo.  

2.4.1 PESTLE:

EnvironmentDescriptionImpact on Ooredoo
Political
  • Challenging political environment
  • Monarchy
  • Orthodox government
  • Political uncertainty in the country can have an adverse effect on Ooredoo's business rejuvenation decisions.
  • However, the government's focus on the growth of businesses in the country is expected to help with the financial and political patronage.
Economical
  • In 2017, the GDP growth rate was 0.3% (Product, 2020)
  • Expected to reach $67.76 billion at the end of 2020 (Tradingeconomics, 2020)
  • Despite the slow growth rate of the country's GDP, Oman has one of the highest per capita GDP globally. This, as a result, demonstrates the high spending capability of the people of Oman. This, as a result, will help Ooredoo to grow in this market if customers find value in their service offerings.
Social
  • The population of Oman in 2020 is 5,106,626 (Worldometers, 2020.)
  • Number of the internet user in Oman in 2019 was 4,011,004 (Internetworldstats, 2020)
  • The growing demand for internet surfing in the country and use of social media through mobile devices demonstrates the lucrative nature of this market.
  • The population also demonstrates the market growth opportunity as well.
Technological
  • Oman provides technology fund for global entrepreneurs and known as Oman Technology Fund or OTF (Cabrera, 2020)
  • Oman is ranked 6th in the MENA region for technological investment (Magnitt, 2019)
  • Technological support from the authorities will help Ooredoo with future growth in this market.
  • The robust technological environment due to the investment in this domain is also beneficial for Ooredoo once they start to incorporate IoT services and enhance existing infrastructure.
Legal
  • Telecommunication regulatory act for the essentiality of internet access and telecom facilities through telecom licences
  • Telecommunication domain in the country governed by the TRA or Telecommunications Regulatory Authority
  • Oman has transparent and pre-imposed telecommunication regulations in the country. It will help the company during the facilitation of new technology by Ooredoo.
Environmental
  • Telecom act 2002 could create problem in facilitating 5g network to protect the environment especially birds
  •  Difficult to establish infrastructure due to huge tax rate
  • Ooredoo adopted smart technology to protect the environment (Ooredoo, 2020).
  • Various other environmental activities like cleaning the beach, supporting sports has also been conducted by Ooredoo (Oman Law Blog, 2020)
  • Ooredoo’s foray into the smart technology incorporation is expected to bring environmental benefit as they are designed to mitigate the environmental impact.
  • Ooredoo is required to focus on the implantation of green power sources such as solar power to power their mobile towers in order to show their adherence to the country's environmental regulations.

Table 2: PESTLE analysis of Oman

Source: Created by author

From the above table of PESTLE analysis, it is clear that the unstable political situation of Oman can create major issues in this business development. As a country in the Middle East, Oman has to face the complicated political situation of the continent. Therefore, terrorists are one of the major threats of this country which can easily stop the business development of Ooredoo. But, as Ooredoo is a privately-owned telecom company of Oman sultanate, so, there is a benefit for the company. The company can overcome political controversies due to this reason. Even though the GDP growth rate is lower than other MENA countries, the existing per capita GDP of the country is high. Thus, as a result, demonstrates a positive environment for Ooredoo as customers possess high spending capability in this market. Also, as Oman is an orthodox country like all other Middle East countries, the internet user of this country is very less compared with the population of the country. This can be considered a threat because the main service of Ooredoo is their internet service. Oman is not a technologically advanced country, but the situation is changing as there is an Oman technology fund for global entrepreneurs to invest in software. But, for the telecom industry of Oman, there is a legal opportunity as Telecommunication regulatory act ensures the importance of internet usage through licences. Lastly, bad environmental conditions will impact the Ooredoo business development indirectly. Because, it is known to all that 4G networks have bad side effects in the environment, so, bad weather conditions in Oman can ruin this business development.

2.4.2 SWOT:

Like PESTLE analysis in the below, there is a SWOT analysis tool to evaluate the internal factors of the company Ooredoo that has influence in this business development.

StrengthsWeakness
  • First to spread out 3G+ in Oman (Ooredoo, 2020)
  • Only operator in Oman to spread out WiMAX
  • Fibre-optic network
  • Largest public Wi-Fi zone in Oman
  • Weak signal 
  • Lack of towers in the rural area
  • Insufficient infrastructure
  • Low penetration of the market
ThreatOpportunity
  • Other competitors like Omantel, Zain (Owler, 2020)
  •  The challenging political environment of Oman
  • Changing technology needs high investment
  • Regional blockade impact by the GCC other countries.
  • Improvement of business
  • Increase of the customer number
  • The increasing economic condition of Oman
  • The opportunity of incorporating home broadband and internet of things.

Table 3: SWOT analysis

Source: Created by author

Ooredoo is currently present in 12 countries and offers LTE services in 8 of those countries. Therefore, Ooredoo will be able to utilise their market insights from those markets to implement high speed and high up-time in their LTE connectivity offerings in the country. Now, in order to mitigate their weak signal issues, they can use their public Wi-Fi zone. As Ooredoo owns the largest Wi-Fi zone in the country, they can implement the VoWi-Fi or Voice Over Wi-Fi technology to mitigate their coverage issues for the time being. Furthermore, the low penetration rate of this market can be improved by upgrading their existing 3G or HSPA+ networks to high-speed LTE network. Oman's growing economic environment will help them to increase their existing market share as more customers will switch to their network as a start to offer reliable and fast network connectivity and robust voice calling.

2.5 Operations management:

Operation management is the most important part of the telecom companies. In operation management, there are several parts in which the telecom companies operate. Likewise, operation management is equally important in the solution of the problems of Ooredoo. Below there are few areas of operation management which impact on the solution of the issues of Ooredoo and they are discussed briefly. 

2.5.1 Supply chain:

Ooredoo needs to have a proper supply network for its business development because without a proper supply chain they will not be able to conduct timely maintenance of their existing mobile networks and offer enough sim cards according to the market demand. The business of the telecom companies mostly depends on their supply chain. Ooredoo needs suppliers to sell their broadband service, 3G and 4G sim cards etc. Customers can gain this service only through the suppliers. As maintenance of mobile networks requires accessibility to replacement hardware, labour, repair kits or equipment, a robust supply chain in the telecommunication industry means the availability of these and it can be ensured through continuous communication between Ooredoo and their suppliers.

2.5.2 Procurement:

Procurement is a process of the telecommunication industry where it can be possible to save the finance of the company by regulating the telecom environment through network development and service improvement. The procurement department is also important for company Ooredoo. In Oman, they have a director for the procurement department named Aws Al Ghazali to develop the network of the Ooredoo in Oman. As the procurement process, Ooredoo will test its 4G service before providing it to their suppliers. Also, the consumers will get a chance to examine the 4G service before making their buying decision. Therefore, the procurement of equipment is an important stage which depends on the external stakeholders such as suppliers and logistics. As a result, it demonstrates the continuous communication between the stakeholders and the company is an important aspect to ensure the functionality of their business operations. In this way, Ooredoo will know the interest of the suppliers of their future services and can bring the service according to the majority of the decision. So, the positive possibility of business development will be increased. In this way, the procurement process will impact the business development of Ooredoo. 

2.5.3 Operational management issue:

As operation management is a vital part for the telecom companies, the issues regarding operation management of Ooredoo will influence the solution highly. It cannot be said that Ooredoo does not have the proper infrastructure in the country because they have the largest Wi-Fi zone in the country, however the marketers of Ooredoo have only concentrated on the urban area of Oman. In these areas, the Internet is one of the necessary parts of the daily life of people and there is no doubt about it, however, the rural segment also possesses potentiality for growth as 15.46% of the population lives in the rural areas. Thus, this significant number of people needs to be focused within the company's operations to drive improvement in customer services in rural areas to gain market share from this significant rural population.

2.6 Project Management:

Like all other sections of Ooredoo, the project management team will be impacted too in this solution of the issue. As a big organisation, Ooredoo has its own project management team to design their projects in Oman. In the implementation of the solutions, the Project management team has the most responsibility. 

2.6.1Project Initiation

At the very first, the team will develop the solution project plan under the guidance of the project manager of Oman. Then, the project management will list down all the required staff for the implementation of high-speed LTE network across Oman and human resources required for the facilitation of emergency network maintenance team to reduce the network downtime in the country. 

2.6.2 Project Planning: 

The project management team of Ooredoo will identify the method that will be used in this project under the precise guidance of the project manager. One of the most important tasks of the project management team is to make a work schedule of the task. First of all, their existing service networks need to be segmented based on their potentiality and value. Then, based on their importance Ooredoo needs to design a prioritization-based work schedule to implement the proposed solutions.

2.6.3 Project Execution

Then, the manager will divide the task among the project management team of Ooredoo Oman according to their skills and knowledge. In this case, project team members of Ooredoo have a duty to contribute their ultimate strength for the success of the project. The project is also responsible here to motivate the employees to give their best in this solution implementation project. There are project sponsors who also invest their money on the project to gain revenue. 

2.6.4 Project Monitoring

During this phase, Ooredoo upper-management and HR managers are required to analyse the performance of their human resources against the perceived project goals or objectives in order to make any changes in order to manage their operations in the desired manner.

Project Closure: This is the final phase of operations management and during this phase, the results will be evaluated by the upper management in order to understand if the desired goals are achieved.

2.7Environment aspects:

The environment became more important these days. Companies have to maintain some guidelines before making any decision related to their business. For the telecom industry, the guidelines are stricter.  Because it is 4G or 5G internet service has a lot of negative impact on the environment. According to environmental scientists, the 4G network uses a high-frequency range of sub-6 GHz (SDxCentral, 2020). More frequency range will give faster networks and all will have a negative impact on nature. One of the major drawbacks of the 5G or 4G network is the impact on the health of the human as well as the health of the animals through its ‘micro radiation’. Also, these networks harm the wildlife of any country, especially the butterflies and bees. 

In this existing situation of Ooredoo, Business Ethics Theory of CSR can be referred to evaluate this situation. According to this theory, the moral duty of business and social obligation of a business is related and necessary. This theory justifies the CSR values of a business in three interrelated ethical grounds. As a result, if this theory is implemented in the CSR activities of Ooredoo, their ethical values need to be based on principles of social justice, fairness and human rights. Thus, the marketers of Ooredoo will give priority to the environment of Oman in their business development. Also, they will ensure that there will be no damage in their business development with the development of their 4G network. As per the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) theory, Ooredoo will make sure first that there will be minimum damage in providing their 4G network. For this purpose, the company will need a brief analysis regarding the environmental matter. From the environmental aspect, the solutions to the problems of Ooredoo have a high influence. 

3. Recommendation Strategies

  • Ooredoo wants to increase the number of customers and its network in the remote areas is poor. The customers are not getting a proper network in the remote areas.  Hence, the company has to install its towers in the village areas in Oman and in other countries to cover a maximum number of people. The towers should be equipped with developed technology so as to provide a speedy network to the customers.
  • The ICT skill and digital literacy program should be held by the pioneers of the company so that the employees of the company can handle the network-related services and they can answer the queries of the customers. This will satisfy the customers to a great extent and the company will gain a competitive advantage in both the domestic and international market. The E-learning programs will also have to be held to teach the old age people to cover them under the preview of the company. 
  • The construction cost of the new tower can be another issue for the Pioneers of Ooredoo. The Chiefs of the company can make tie-ups with different partners like Vodafone and others in Oman and in other countries to mitigate the cost of installation of the tower initially. This will save the cost of the company on the one hand and the service of the company through others' towers will be satisfactory.
  • For weak signal developed technology will do and if necessary, the foreign partnership can help the company. For installation of more tower and big infrastructure financial capital is necessary for which financial management practice will help the company. The financial management practice will also help financial professionals to meet the objectives of the company.
  • After mitigating their problems, as their promotional strategy, Ooredoo should emphasize their strengths like they can develop their 3G+ network, fibre optic network etc. Besides this, their weaknesses also impact on the solution as the company needs to do work on their weakness for the betterment of the business. 
  • Ooredoo should consider their rivalries seriously, the telecom industry of Oman consists of many large telecom brands and no brands want to miss a single chance to gain competitive advantage.
  • The project manager will have to apply proper methodology so that the project produces positive outcomes in the new project of the company. The manager has to execute the research survey so that the needs and requirements of the customers can be known properly for the benefit of the company. The manager of the company has the responsibility also to allocate properly the organisational resources like materials and manpower to produce maximum benefits.
  • The manager of the new project will have to determine the issues in the management and thus the issues should be mitigated

4. Conclusion

The aim of the study has been to make extensive research on the problems and challenges of Ooredoo. It also helped in recommending the ways through which the management of Ooredoo can face the challenges for the success of the company. The research study of Ooredoo has also helped the pioneers of the telecommunication company to formulate effective strategies and gain competitive advantages in the competitive market. The strategies of integrated management could help telecommunication entrepreneurs to follow the same strategies as will be followed by Ooredoo.

From this discussion, it is proved that proper implementation of the solutions can affect profitability to the company. There is huge potentiality of increasing the customer base in Oman for Ooredoo through this business development. The solutions of the issues of Ooredoo will impact the brand itself, the finance, the market of Oman and in the environment too. But most of them have a positive influence. The critical literature review section revealed that the solution will influence the culture, financial department of the company, strategy of the organisation, operations of the company and in many areas. Thus, there is a great chance in front of the company to expand its business by developing its service. Most of the area of Oman still suffers from network problems. Thus, the company can grab the market in this area tactfully to achieve a competitive advantage among the other telecom brands of Oman. As Ooredoo already has a brand image and it's a trustable telecom brand of Oman, customers will check out their new service and, in this way, the company can revive their old market in Oman.

This solution will impact the leadership of the Ooredoo. The leadership team will take care of the proper implementation of the solution. Thus, the leadership team has to deliver their best in this area for the appropriate outcome of this business development. In this way, the solutions will impact the leadership department of Ooredoo. The solution to the issues will help in dominating the financial area of the company positively. The solutions are designed to achieve the desired telecommunication market in Oman. Thus, the solutions to the issues will be helpful to add more revenue to the business of Ooredoo. Initially, the company needs to invest a huge amount to rearrange their business in Oman for development. But, those investments will surely payback if the makers of Ooredoo implement the solutions precisely.



Section 2

1. Literature Review

1.1Internet of Things is the future

According to Bawa et al. (2016), Internet of Things within the business processes of organisations helps in providing a wider range of platforms including websites and mobile apps to the target segment of the customers. According to the management of Ooredoo, the main problem in the company at present is the signalling problem and the company cannot provide a proper signal to its customers. Under the proposed solution, Oman is one of the core business places of the company. According to Banerjee et al. (2018), the interdependency model is helpful to understand and deal with the Internet of Things. Hence, it is suggestible that the modification of the company infrastructure will foster a change in the signalling system leading to good service to the people of Oman. As suggested by Shin and Park (2017), the implementation of the Internet of Things will provide the customers with prompt service and the customers will be satisfied. This will fulfil the objectives of the company by bringing more and more customers under internet connection. Improved service will make the customers loyal and thus they will not switch to other companies. Thus, the company will be able to gain a more competitive advantage in the domestic and another market. From the above reference, it is suggested that the Pioneers of the company have to make a detailed research on the customer needs and after this, they will be able to provide the service as per customers' choice.  

On the other side Leki, (2016), has opined that to be a leader in the respective business areas the business firms should develop their technologies to follow the trends of the market. Developed technologies will help the Chiefs of Ooredoo to develop the signals of the company and also to provide a better network to the customers. Thus, the developed technologies will help the customers to connect Ooredoo’s network with their other devices. This will lead the company to gain a competitive advantage over the other telecommunication players in Oman and another market in Europe, Middle East, North Africa. As per the proposal solution, the target market of the company will be given importance. As suggested by Ho et al. (2016), through the implementation of the Internet of Things within the business processes, the company should give facilities that could be available on a wider range of platforms including websites and mobile apps to the target segment of the customers. The company should develop its service by introducing personalized digital service which can be provided to the customers and customers of all age should be benefitted through the telecommunication service of the company. The good service of the company will gain extra benefit in the sense that more and more positive reference will be created in favour of Ooredoo and thus, the brand name of the company will be enhanced leading to its success. 

1.2 Utility of the solution in cultural and people aspect

With reference to Al-Shawabkeh, (2017), it can be suggested that the knowledge sharing among the employees of the company will benefit much to develop the business and improve its performance in the process. People within an organisation have a great role in the success of the company. If people are efficient and loyal to a company then the organisation develops. There are various departments in Ooredoo and the company has an employee strength of more than 1000. The management of the company has to optimize the skills and competencies of the company to develop its performance. As also suggested by Song and Kwon (2017), the management of the companies should involve tall the employees in its valuable decision making and the sharing of the knowledge of the employees will foster innovation within the company and thus the needs of the customers will be fulfilled in a more effective way. The leaders and managers of the company should train the employees in each department in such a way that they become interested to share their knowledge and thus innovation will come. The staff of all departments thus should share their knowledge. To mention one more important point, it can be said that social media is a very common tool in the present age and the employees in Ooretoo should be motivated to share their knowledge through social media platforms in a very cost-effective way. 

Tandogan (2018) stated that a change can incorporate different types of subsystems within an organisation and innovation is the result of the change. If the Pioneers of Ooredoo want to foster a change in the company then they have to develop the culture of the organisation, because culture shows the employees how to share valuable information with one another and how to cooperate peers in the organisation. Hence, the culture within the employees is to be reformed.  Leadership in this regard will help the higher authority of the company to foster a change in the company. Leaders of the company will have to train the employees of the company with various behavioural styles to reform their behaviour and thus they will be cooperative to their peers. Apart from the internal culture of the company's also suggested by Dawson (2019), the employees will have to be acquainted with the new technology enacted within the workplace to perform better. It will help them to satisfy the customers. In brief, it can be said that employees should be aware of the benefits of the good culture within the organisation. 

1.3 Utility of the solution in the financial aspect of the company

In the view of Goncharenko et al. (2017), business support infrastructure facilities were initiated in the Russian state management in order to foster a change in the development guidelines, for innovative and high-tech products and also to find out the search point of the new areas of growth in the Russain Federation. With the new key performance indicators, values were generated and thus the Russian State Management succeeded through new infrastructure. It has been suggested already that Ooredoo needs to invest in the development of Oman as the company has targeted Oman. The main issue in the company is signalling problem and infrastructure of broadband connection of the company with 4G technology. For the entire 4G network development Ooredoo needs a huge capital to invest and this huge capital needs to be invested in the right place and in the right way so as to avoid organisational waste. According also proposed by Shakirzyanov and Ravzieva (2018), if the money is not put at the right market rightly then there will not be proper utilisation of the money and the company will suffer loss. Hence, from this case study, it can be decided that if the financial capital of Ooredoo can be invested properly in the proper way, then the investment in Oman will be justified. 

Finance management theory will be quite justified for Ooredoo to utilize the financial resources for the growth of the business. As referred by Mbawuni and Anertey, (2014), a number of management accounting practices was applied to the telecommunication industries of Ghana and after application, finding came from the research that most of the management accounting practices were strategic analytic practices and they produced better results than the previous other practices.  Hence, with the management theories and management practices, the people in the finance department of the company will be able to achieve the financial aims of the company. 

1.4 Studies showing solution helping the strategy

Hyginus and Maria (2019) have shown in their study, how the Nigerian telecommunication companies optimized their business performance through their business strategies. Cost leadership, product differentiation and all other parameters of the business were proved correlated with one another and the company focused on the development of their business strategies. The PESTEL analysis suggested here is an excellent one to justify the external factors that affect the business of the company. The Political rules and regulations of Qatar will affect the business of the company. The Pioneers of the company will have to design their business strategies to make the signalling and network of the company more strong. The technological background of the company should be strong enough to make the signalling strong and to make the network of the company fast. As presented by Holgersson and Granstrand (2017), technology will be the most effective tool to provide better service to the customers of the company. Thus, the company should design its network in such a way that the users can connect the network of the company with the other devices that the users use. In this way, the technological strategy will help the company to cover more people with the network of the company. 

On the other side, according to Phadermrod et al. (2019), the SWOT analysis helps in assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the company. Some of the strongest weaknesses of Ooredoo at present is a weak signal, lack of towers, low infrastructure in the market and business strategies will be applied accordingly. For weak signal developed technology will do and if necessary, the foreign partnership can help the company. For installation of more tower and big infrastructure financial capital is necessary for which financial management practice will help the company. The financial management practice will also help financial professionals to meet the objectives of the company.

1.5 Studies showing solution improving the operations aspect of companies

The operating systems of Ooredoo have a major role in the development of the company as operations is one of the major processes of any business unit especially in the telecommunication industry. The Chiefs of Ooredoo have to first make a strong network in Oman and global market through its supply-chain process. The main aim of Ooretoo is to make most of the people online and so the company should sell their 3G and 4G sim to a maximum number of its customers to make them the customers of Ooredoo. The reference of the Vodafone case can be referred here. Ang, (2016) states how Vodafone increased its revenue through its operational and other activities when its revenue was slowing down. As per Song and Kwon(2017), although to raise the revenue some other strategies like leadership are to be followed and the behaviour of the employees is required to be developed. To sell more sim of the company, more suppliers of the company should be increased. The decision of Ooredoo to make a partnership with Brightstar is a prudent step for the company (Lead, 2020). 

Through the procurement team, the 4G sim will be tested before they go the customers and thus, If the managers of the company give the customer list to the suppliers then the core customers will get better services by the company and thus, Finally, operations management issue is a major issue in any business and it is in Vodafone also. The company lacks a tower and hence, it has to increase its number of towers. As opined by Patil and Jotawar(2018), in the journal ‘Analysis of Tubular Telecommunication Tower’ special type of towers should be installed by Ooredoo so as to protect the earthquake another natural calamity effects. The innovative towers of the company will support the customers and will meet their network needs leading to their satisfaction. 

1.6 Studies showing solution helping project management

According to Bočková et al. (2019), project management is one of the business tasks within an organisation and the management of every company has the responsibility to manage the project so as to produce positive outcomes in the company. The project manager will have to apply proper methodology so that the project produces positive outcomes in the new project of the company. The manager has to execute the research survey so that the needs and requirements of the customers can be known properly for the benefit of the company. The manager of the company has the responsibility also to allocate properly the organisational resources like materials and manpower to produce maximum benefits. In this way, the proper utilisation of resources will lead the company to derive profit. As stated by Amadiet al. (2018), the external stakeholders have great importance in a project and hence, the project manager in Ooredoo has to satisfy all the internal and external stakeholders to succeed in the project. The manager of the new project will have to determine the issues in the management and thus the issues should be mitigated. The project management is vast management of tasks and so it is the responsibility of the managers in all the departments to identify the issues and resolve the same.  

As per Hopkin (2018), risk management is the other aspect of a project and hence, the risk manager will have to identify the related risks to the project and discover the ways how to mitigate and eradicate the issues in the management. All type of risks like accidental risks, operational risks, management risks, financial risks, employee turnover risks is to be identified and mitigated by the respective manager in each department manager. On the other side, Valinejad and Rahmani, (2018) have stated that there are some critical risks in the supply chain process of telecommunication industry that threatens the sustainability of the telecommunication companies.  The examples of some Iranian companies have been cited in the journal. Hence, the Chiefs of Ooredoo should consider those critical risks also in the new project of the company. 

1.7 Studies showing solution helping the market and society

As per Shin and Park (2017), the Internet and mobile networks are essential things in people’s daily life. That is why through this business development or the solutions of Ooredoo’s issue, it will impact the telecom industry positively. The solution will impact positively on the market and society. As Ooredoo is one of the largest telecom companies of Oman, the business development of the company will be beneficial for the telecom market of Oman. Telecom industry is a huge part of Oman and the contribution of the Telecom industry in Oman GDP is pretty good. That is why if the marketers of Ooredoo need business development by the implementation of solutions to the issues of the company. It will add benefit to the telecom industry of Oman. According to Mahmoud et al. (2016), market orientation depends on business performance highly. Successful business development increases the profitability of the organisation as well as improves the market of the industry. Then good communication is the first preference of today's society. So, for this business development of Ooredoo, society will get the utmost benefit of communication. In many of the village area, of Oman communication system is not appropriate. Signal loss, low signal strength etc. are the main problems that people face in few areas of Oman. That is why the overall improvement of the network will help the people in many ways. According to Bawaet al. (2016), the Internet of Things has the power to build smart cities. Through the Internet of Things, people of modern society can get rid of many problems. In the area of education, people use the internet widely. To gather knowledge about any matter of the world, the Internet of Things is unbeatable. Also, it is used in the office work to maintain the task of the organisation precisely. It is even helpful to increase the pace of work and help the organisations to reduce their irrelevant wages. 

1.8 Studies showing the impact of the solution on environment aspect

According to Song and Kwon (2017), the environment is one of the most important things to consider these days as this is the era of Globalisation. Thus, organisations should make their business decisions without harming nature. It is the telecom industry who damages the environment most. The more technology is developed, the more the environment is suffered. Ooredoo has decided to implement 4G network service in the village area of Oman to provide the customers with the utmost facility of the Internet. But, indeed, the organisation can not avoid the harmful effect of 4G or 5G in the environment of man. By providing the ultimate benefit of the Internet of Things, the organisation wants to grab the market of the Telecom industry of Oman. But on the other side, Oman cannot avoid the harmful side effects of 4G technology.  Several studies proved that 4G or 5G networks are tremendously injurious for nature. According to Christiantoet al. (2019), 4G or 5G technologies are harmful to human health as well as for the environment too. The harmful effect of 4G or 5G signal is derived from the frequency of this system. The frequency range of 4G is sub-6 GHz. The more frequency range companies will introduce the more it will harm mother nature. Even the ‘micro radiation’ of 5G also damages nature. Even from those damage to the environment, the human race will also suffer. Therefore, it will impact the lives of the people of Oman also. Another study of Russell (2018), shows that even 5G is equally harmful to nature. These networks are very powerful to ruin the wildlife area. This network can kill butterflies, bees and other pollinators. These networks have the power to consume energy from nature. Cell phone networks work on the RFR or Radiofrequency radiation. This RFR produces electromagnetic spectrum which is extremely harmful to both humans and the environment. These studies clearly show that the decision of the Ooredoo can be proved as a backfire for the environment of Oman. According to the authors, it is almost impossible to save the environment from the harmful effects of 4G or 5G networks.

1.9 Summary

The Internet of Things is widely used in household works. People of modern society prefer online shopping rather than physical shopping. In short, it can be said, the Internet of Things has become an integrated part of the businesses. Thus, the business development of the company by mitigating its issue will help the society of Oman in many ways. Overall, this business development will improve their lifestyle.