SOC10236 Applied Ethics and Sustainability
Assignment 1 Part A -
Consequential ethical analysis
You should follow the ‘Assignment Planning’ activities in the SOC10236 Study Guide and all relevant online discussions concerning this assessment to perform well in this assignment.
You are required to select one of the five topics listed below and clearly define one focused and specific ethical question relevant to your chosen topic which you will analyse in both assignments 1 and 2.
The five topics are
(3 marks- Marking Criteria: Apply guidelines, Clarity of language)
Note: This is a critical stage of your assignment and it is not easy. If you don’t clearly define the ethical problem/question then you cannot perform a focused ethical analysis. It is strongly recommended that you rigorously apply the guidelines provided in the Topic 1 assessment planning activity to form your ethical question.
Assignment 1 Part B - Non-consequential ethical analysis
This assignment is a continuation of Assignment 1 Part A and you must analyse the same ethical question which you defined in Part A.
Restate your ethical question from Assignment 1 Part A on page 1 of Assignment 1 Part B. You can modify the precise wording of your ethical question drawing on feedback provided in Assignment 1 Part A.
Assignment 2 Personal footprint, product and organisational sustainability analysis
1. Go to http://www.wwf.org.au/get-involved/change-the-way-you-live/ecological-footprint-calculator and calculate your personal ecological footprint. Copy your footprint results (i.e. ‘Results By Land Type and By Consumption Category’) into your assignment document.(1 mark- Marking Criteria: Follow instructions)
2. With reference to your results perform the following tasks
3. By utilising your footprint analysis (results and questions), identify four major causes of the unsustainable aspects of your personal lifestyle.
4. Identify one potential solution to your unsustainable lifestyle in each of the categories of ‘City’, ‘Energy’, ‘Food’ and ‘Population’. (Note: your Ecological Footprint results provide some ideas in each of these categories).
5. Select one product that you consume and identify the business organisation which manufactures this product.
6. Identify the main energy and raw material inputs needed to manufacture this product and the stage in the production process each energy and materials component is consumed.
7. Identify the main causes of unsustainability over the product’s lifecycle (production, distribution and/or consumption and disposal stages).
8. By applying the principle of the ‘waste=food model’ or the ‘waste management hierarchy’ provide one recommendation to reduce the volume of waste or pollutants discharged in the production, distribution or consumption of this product.
9. By applying the principle of the cradle to cradle design protocol, suggest one key improvement to the design of this product and explain how your idea will reduce the unsustainability of the product.
10. Identify this organisation’s key stakeholder groups and their specific expectations of the organisation. (4 marks- Marking Criteria: Understand concepts, Depth of research)
11. Describe one major CSR issue which confronts this organisation.
12. Select one stakeholder group and make a recommendation as to how this organisation could improve their social impact on this group of stakeholders.
13. Explain how your recommendation will improve this stakeholder group’s wellbeing.(1 mark- Marking Criteria: Understand concepts)
14. Are you able to change your own consumption of this product to reduce your contribution to the problem and causes of unsustainability? Explain why or why not.
Note that Wikipedia (and equivalent websites) are not acceptable as references in this unit. Please use the Harvard referencing system, or similar widely accepted system such as APA, but varied for quoted text – see Assignment Submission Instruction 3 later in this document.
Assignments are due on the dates specified above. An additional 3 days are available to all students where needed to confirm their submissions meet the required authenticity tests. There is no need to apply for extensions of 3 days or less. Extensions for longer than 3 days are made using the standard Southern Cross University application for ‘Special Consideration - Extension of Assessment’ to be submitted via the Special Consideration eForm found in My Enrolment.
Assignment authenticity tests
Your assignment is considered successfully submitted when you pass the first two of the following three assignment authenticity tests. The third test is implemented by marking staff, during the marking process, and no feedback is provided unless there is an irregularity with your submission.
AUTHENTICITY TEST 1
Turnitin text match of less than 10%.
The Turnitin Originality Report must show a text match of less than 10%. Note that any text match sourced to the Assignment Cover Sheet or Bibliography is excluded when calculating your text match % for the purposes of this authenticity test.
If your text match is 10% or more, rewrite your assignment carefully following the Assignment submission instructions (see below). Resubmit your assignment and confirm your revised text match is below 10%.
AUTHENTICITY TEST 2
Word document edit time and date document created.
Each submitted assignment is to be completed from start to finish entirely on one word document; that is do not change documents once you begin writing this assignment. This will ensure your document properties track the total time spent preparing and editing your assignment. The editing time and date started are required information when you make your final submission.
In your word document -
i) Click on FILE
ii) view document Properties and record the Total Editing Time
iii) view Related Dates and record the date the document was Created.
The Total Editing Time must be more than 1 hour.
AUTHENTICITY TEST 3
Writing style comparison
Marking staff perform comparisons of writing style and standard with your previously submitted assessments to confirm consistency, authenticity and originality.
Personal footprint, product and organizational analysis
This assignment deals with the personal footprint, product, and organizational sustainability. This project involves self-opinion of about one's product in the market and judging its adjacent components from the same perspective.
An ecological footprint is the number of consumptions of natural resources by a human. 5.1 gha of environmental footprint states that the amount of waste produced and waste assimilated by an individual on the planet (Roberti, & Massari, 2016).
Seven tones of carbon footprint is emitted into the atmosphere as a result of an activity of the individual on the earth (Bailis, et al., 2015). It states that 5.1 gha of biologically productive land is required to produce food, shelter, mobility, goods, and services which is to be consumed. It involves a small area of land for building, fishing, and grazing but it also covers a large area of cropland followed by forests products (Kanemoto,, Moran, & Hertwich, 2016).
Unsustainability is the exact opposite of sustainable development. It directs towards the efforts and use of resources for modern advancement without considering future generations. The four major causes of the unsustainable aspects of personal life are excessive adherence to nonvegan items, use of wooden furniture, too much utilization of cultivated products and consumption of goods and services (Gidden & Sutton 2017).
Too much inclination in dairy products and poultry leads to the overgrazing thereby resulting in soil erosion. More investment to avail the wooden products have also resulted in the exploitation of forest resources. Excessive capital flow for gaining nutrition and goods and services have also resulted in the depletion of sustainable development in this context.
For better and to elevate the quality of life one needs to eliminate the unsustainable practices in one's regular life. In the city there is excessive consumption of fossil and fuels to run industry and transport so renewable sources of energy should be used and alternative transport system should be encouraged. In terms of power, one should make efficient use of energy and incorporate low energy consuming gadgets ( Keairns, Darton & Irabien, 2016).. As far as food is concerned, it should be kept in mind that food waste in farmland or at home should be avoided as proper food production can quench the hunger of the people starving. Food waste is also associated with water waste as the water is needed to produce the food and food gets waste, water used goes in vain. The last threat of sustainable development is population. Too much community means high demand for food, water, energy, space, and others. So population growth can be controlled by making awareness campaigns and promoting the use of cheap and accessible contraceptives.
Milk is the product which is consumed and the company which produces it is A2 Milk Company. This is a public company which was founded in the year 2000 with its headquarters in Sydney and Australia. It provides protein free milk which is marketed under the name of a2 and a2 milk brands. It also offers other milk or dairy products (Spreer, 2017).
The raw materials which are needed to produce the consumed product are the cow’s milk of varying quality and with varying water containing capacity. As far as energy is concerned it also requires electricity and fuels for various stages in the production like pasteurizing, examining quality and others. As a raw material vitamin- d concentrate can also be added (Balding,, Gardoni & Guarino, 2017).
In scenes of production there involves collecting in which milks are collected via vacuum devices to a refrigerated tank. This tank is taken to the processing units by a truck. The liquid is then transferred to tanks for separation (Depping, et al., 2017). It involves separation of excessive fat and other debris by clarifier run by electricity. The milk is then provided with external vitamins and transferred for pasteurization. After pasteurization, the fluid is sent for packaging either into bottles or cartons and transported in the market. For ensuring hygiene, all the processing units are being washed with great care.
In this industry also there are some issues which are related to the unsustainability over the products cycle. As production is concerned in this industry, so too much demand for cows food leads to overgrazing thereby reducing the lands to produce needed food for the cows. For proper distribution of dairy products their needs good transport system which requires lots of energy sources (Jeswani, & Azapagic, 2016). Due to excessive use of energy resources in urban areas, sometimes proper energy resource is not allocated in rural areas where this firm exists. So there arises the problem of the distribution of a ready product (Aydiner, et al., 2016)For the generation of this quality product there involves some time. Due to heavy consumption the level of demand increases. As a result, the company fails to extend the processed product in the market at a suitable time. Disposal stage refers to the disposal of waste created during production. Sometimes the disposal area is filled and their needs time to search for new disposal area. This can create a problem of sustainability for the company.
Waste management is the process of gathering, transforming and recycling the products to depose in the natural environment in a friendly manner. In the waste management hierarchy, there is a complete solution to reduce waste. In this technique, the most effective is energy recovery in which the unrecyclable products are transformed into the various forms of energy like heat, light, and others ( Stefanović, et al., 2016). This can help to save non-renewable sources of energy. And it can only be achieved by combustion, gasification and another process.
C2C or regenerative design is a bionic approach which states that industry must preserve a natural ecosystem along with maintaining a safe, productive or performing technical metabolism for the high-quality utilization and proper circulation of physical and functional elements. The residues of the concentrated vitamins should not be wasted (Ellis, & Howes , 2017) They can be farther processed and used in the farmlands to raise healthy crops which can be used to feed the cow’s to get the right quantity and good quality of milk from them. It will be a big step toward sustainability (Clowse, et al., 2017).
The companies' key stakeholders are its investors, directors, employees, shareholders, and government. The investors might expect good, fair and legitimate trade practice so that it can get it returns with right interests O’Brien et al., 2018).. The directors expect cold and smooth running of the company so that the company can gain both the profit and the popularity. The employees would desire that the company runs for a long time so that they get job security. They also wish for increased wages, incentives and rewards for their work. The shareholders aspire that the company should run its business correctly so that they can earn their timely profits. The government urges that the company should maintain good business relation and practice and also abide by the industrial law. They also expect that the company should pay taxes at the right time.
CSR is a responsibility that upheld a vision in the business culture of business answerability to a great variety of stakeholders including the shareholders, investors, employee's government and others. One of the CSR which this company is going through is heavy pressure of the financers (Katayama & Lee2018). The financers are transforming the way they calculate companies’ performance and making decisions based on the criteria that comprise ethical tensions.
One of the stakeholder groups in this company is the employees. Since the attitude of employee reveals the moral of the company so the company must mend some of its policies for the satisfaction of the employees (Andriof, & Waddock 2017). Employers should treat the employee with respect and develop excellent communication. They should give an alternative working schedule and also praise the employees for their works. Employers must encourage and accommodate heterogeneity along with good cooperation with the employees (Costa, & Pesci, (2016). The company should also make increment in their salary with the growing profits in its business.
Employees are the tools or arms in the production sector. And in an organization, the most important stakeholders are these employees who engage their hours of strong effort for the success of the organization. The employees will work more efficiently and sincerely if they earn respect from their upper lines (Payne & Calton, 2017). If excellent communication is developed, the employees can share their problems regarding their work. This will help them to check their faults in their work. If the alternative schedule is provided, they can sort their issues quickly and can engage with full dedication in their work (Colvin,, Witt & Lacey, 2016). If the workers perform well in their duties, they must be appreciated because it will encourage them to work better. If the workers are provided with a good salary and rewards, they get more inspired to work better.
Being an educated fellow and learning about sustainability, has created awareness in me to consume less of this product. This will help in sustainable development for future generations.
This project presents the ecological footprint, various causes, and effects of unsustainability. It also gives an account of a company and relates its product with the sustainability factors accompanied by waste management, C2C protocol, CSR issue, and the stakeholder’s issue.