Abc Assignment Help

Speech Variations Between Native Australian and Non-Native Australian

Present an Observational Analysis of speak variations among different speakers in  Native Australia and Non-Native Australia

Answer

Observational Analysis of speak variations among different speakers in

Introduction

From time immemorial, human has been using language or speech to communicate their thoughts with each other. From last 2 decade researchers are trying to establish the relation between the society and the language or speech they spoke. In recent years, researchers have found the affect the society have on the speech. According to Gelber, 2012, it has been found that over the time has shown that the language of the speaker in fact reflects their social, regional and ethnic orientation and sometimes the gender too. It has also been observed that speaker’s way of speaking, the words he chooses to convey and the rules he follows during conversing are mostly determined by the society.  In this paper we will analyze out the variations in the speech among the different age group and ethnicity in Australia. We will study the different youth slangs, expressions, tag questions, style of speech, speech acts used within different masses of people. Also what are variations in their phonetics and gender differentiation is used in their speech. This study will analyze the speech variations between the native Australian and non-native Australian. This paper also tries to find the variations in speech of non-native speaker of English and native speaker of English.


Details of the participants used for speech variation observation

For the study regarding speech variations 4 famous personalities are selected. This research is done by carefully studying their interview clips from the YouTube source.


Australian born and raised aged between 18-25
Australian born and raised aged above 65
Non native speaker of English aged between 18-70
Non Australian but native speaker of English aged between 18-70
Name
Maia Mitchell
Geffrey Rush
Jack Ma
Mark Zuckerberg
Age
25 years
68 years
54 Years
34 years
Social Class
Upper Middle
Upper class
Upper class
Upper class
Education
Graduate
BA
BA
Honorary Degree from Harvard
Profession 
Actress
Actor
Business Man
Business Man
Gender
Female
Male
Male
Male

This study helps to analyze the variations exist in the speech patterns within Australian Society and with others mainly whose native language is either English or not. Australian English shares much commonality with the other continent’s English. But over the time it has developed features of itself through all subsystem of language

Observation of speech variations among different speaker



Australian born and raised aged between 18-25
Australian born and raised aged above 65
Non native speaker of English aged between 18-70
Non Australian but native speaker of English aged between 18-70
Vocabulary Choice
Very casual, using too many youth slangs
Casual but minimum slangs
Formal with no youth slangs
Semi Casual with one or two slangs
Style Differences
Use of colloquialism words like going nuts, use of derogatory terms and  no requesting or apologizing
Use of colloquialism words but not much derogatory words 
No use of colloquialism words, sometimes derogatory words are used
Use of colloquialism words but not much derogatory words, full of requesting, apologizing
Gender Differences
Gender Inclusive language
Gender Inclusive language
Gender Inclusive language
Gender Inclusive language
Phonetic Differences
No use of Phonetic words
Use of Phonetic words
No use of Phonetic words
Use of Phonetic words


Over the last decades many studies have done to show the correlation between the society a person is living in and his language. Many theories and hypothesis has been made. 

According to Sapir- Whorf hypothesis, how we observe and perceive the world is influenced by the language. The discussion of society is much like debate of egg and chicken: which means which came first, language or society. Is the perspective of society being because of language or language is evolved and over time altered by the society and its views?

It has been seen that there can be number of relations between language and society. First one says that the structure of society or culture does impacts and influence the linguistic behaviour. Second one says that the language/ linguistic structure influences societal structure. Third one says its bidirectional which means language and society both influence each other. Fourth one is that two are societal structure and linguistic structure both are independent and does not effect the other at all.  Therefore, we must prepare ourselves to consider all the aspects of relations between these two (Collins & Mees, 2013).

However, no matter how much research one can do, there is no enlightening as much as we want.  It is stated that it arises because correlation can be shown between two variables and it would quite be possible that some third factor is also in play and affecting correlation indirectly. There are so many factors work side by side that the impact of one or the relation between two can’t be implied successfully (Sethu, Ambikairajah & Epps, 2008).

For example, there are many youth slangs currently used by youngster in American society such as Cossie for swimming suit, brekkie for breakfast prezzy for presents. These youth slangs are spoken mainly between the youngsters and not as famous with the old generations. These are the words mainly used in Australia but there would be some different youth slang being used for same word in different country. Youth slangs are popular words among youngsters all across globes. But this words are not so common with the older generations. Our study does show the age- grading factor that is the young children or youngster does speak differently from the older ones.

It has also been realized that based on the circumstances, one’s speech also takes the formal or informal tone. Such as formal speech is used in ceremonies, a less formal tone in public lectures, informal speech used in casual conversations and extremely casual and informal tones are used by two inmates. The formality and informality of tone not only depends on circumstances but also on age differences, social differences among participants, particular task like speaking or writing and how two participants are involved emotionally (Shorts, 2012).

In this study it has been found that native speakers control the stylistic varieties than non native ones.  It has been found that native Australians usually use informal or formal varieties depending on age and circumstances. The generations among 18-25 normally use casual and informal tones whereas the older ones use less informal tones.

The world has become globalized, it has been seen that the rise in multilingualism. Earlier people used to be monolingual or bilingual. But as the globalization has increased people have been travelling more and more whether for business, trade, studies and so on. Due to this the need to learn multiple language has increased. The people with different language knowledge don’t normally have same capabilities or understanding of language as the native ones. In fact, the nativelike command and the balance is almost impossible (Hudson & Newport, 2015). It is considered that the command in language can be limit up to some lexical items, formulaic greetings, to the excellent vocabulary, grammar and specialized styles. It all depending on extent the language is needed and the context for its use (Khawaja, Ruiz & Chen, 2007).

It is analysed that languages of different humans have many variations. Even the particular language can have many dialects and people speak, use different dialects of same language. There can be Social dialects and regional dialects. Regional dialects mean people from the same region whereas the social dialects mean people from same specific social class. It seems that people belonging to same regional dialect often have similar dialects, language variations and they pas same to next generation thus preserving the native language (Gumprez, 2009). If there is no outer force than there would be no change in the dialects. Regional dialects are easy to sample. If one talks to the older generation which is untraveled, one can easily interview them and find out about their pronunciation, how they refer to certain objects, how particular sounds are used and how they phrase specific utterances.

It has also found through our study among the group that now the Americanism is getting mixed with Australian English. Many youngsters now use American words for greeting or other purpose like hi is used instead of g’day, vacation is used instead of holiday. While the older generation uses words like mate or buddy, younger generation is using words, bro or dude. It has been found in one of the study that Australians are absorbing the Americanism more than other nations. This is also causing new terms being introduced in young generations like budgie-smuggler which means swimming trunks for men (Cao, 2007).

As per Chambers, Trudgill, Schilling, 2002, language variables also has some variations which can be find through pronunciation of some words like ‘dancing’ is sometimes pronounced as ‘dancin’. However, sometimes variations occur because of nasalization of some the words. Sometimes vowels are nasalized. Sometimes not. Also, sometimes the amount with which nasalization occurs also cause the variability (Seidlhofer, 2015). It is quite easy to correlate language with age and gender but quite difficult to find the relation with race and ethnicity because these are more subjective and less quantifiable (Tamariz & Kirby, 2016).

As per Moore, 2008 one can classify the class on basis of occupation, income or education.  Like occupation can be classified as top most professional like the management from big business empires, executives of mid size businesses, semi- professionals, lecturers, doctors, technicians, small business owners, skilled workers, semi-skilled professionals and unskilled. As per Pintzuk, 2014, Educational classification involves graduation from college, graduate from university, attending of college or university but then drop out without degree, high school, some year of high school and basic level of educations. Our study has shown that most of the Australians speaks the general language in daily use and the ones who don’t are close to using general language whereas the accents of the Americans or other countries vary. The biggest phonetic difference is Americans use rhotic whereas Australians don’t. That is letter ‘r’ is pronounced wherever it occurs in Americans and many other countries whereas in Australia its only been pronounced if it happens to be present before vowel.

It is found that many speakers in Australia uses the HRT contour of intonation which is interrogative kind of English. These high rising intonations non propositional and interactive meaning. These intonations are used more focally on youth, women and working class (Flor & Juan, 2010). When we speak to others we make sentences or in other words utterances. It is believed that the shorter utterances are more understandable than the lengthier ones. Through these utterances in communication we establish many facts like keeping the options open for further relationships, establishment of relation, achieving cooperation. Utterances makes the proposition by statements, questions or other grammatical forms (Trudgil, 2012).

Conclusion

Through this paper one can conclude that there are so many factors which affects the speech of an individual. It is not at all possible to ascertain the role of one factor only on the language of any speaker because at a time many factors play an important role. The speaker’s speech and language are results of so many things and keep changing from time to time. With change of time, age, relocation, the variations in speech also happens. Therefore, it concludes that the speaker’s speech is result of many factors. Ethnicity, Social class, Age, Gender, profession, education, and all these factors affects the accents, tone, formality of language. There are also many kind of dialects within one language which speaker himself is not so aware of. 

Customer Testimonials