|Subject Code and Title||STAT6000: Statistics for Public Health|
|Assessment||Assessment 2: Assignment – Identifying and Interpreting Statistics in Research Articles|
|Learning Outcomes||This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:|
1. Understand key concepts in statistics and the way in which both descriptive and inferential statistics are used to measure, describe and predict health and illness and the effects of interventions.
This assessment requires you to read two articles and answer a series of questions in no more than 2000 words.
Most public health and wider health science journals report some form of statistics. The ability to understand and extract meaning from journal articles, and the ability to critically evaluate the statistics reported in research papers are fundamental skills in public health.
Read the Lam et. al. (2014) research article and answer the following questions:
Read the Wong et. al. (2014) paper and answer the following questions:
Paper 1: Alcohol and Other Drugs use at school leavers' celebrations.
As the data are given in the paper by Lam, T., Liang, W., Chikrihzhs, T., & Allsop, S. (2014) about Alcohol and other drugs use at school leavers' celebration accords two hypotheses which are one, Alcohol and other drugs use at school leavers' celebrations and another is it's opposite in which some of the students are still in the crowd of the students who do not consume or take any kind of alcohol and drugs in such events. Taking alcohol and drugs in the school leavers' celebration is not a new thing in Australia, it is a very common problem among the leading countries all over the world. This phenomena of consuming alcohol and drugs are happening from a very long time and with modernization and urbanization, it is increasing at a very high pace all over the world, and especially in Australia. This phenomenon has become very common in schooling nowadays. On the other side of this theory and hypothesis, some students do not engage to consume alcohol and drugs in this age of time. Some students never attempt and consume drugs and alcohol in their schooling life, these students may consume these at higher age of different level of time but they do not take these things and participate in such events. These both theory has many dependent and independent factors. The independent variables include the culture of the country. The students participate and tend to attend these parties also as holiday plans. These riskier behaviors are partially attributed to the 'holiday effect', it is a phenomenon in which the students or any individual tends to engage in risky behaviors which he/she does not attempt at their homes. The dependent variables include the peer pressure, which is a very common thing among the students and the hypes and promotions which are done prior or before the event which makes the students get excited to attend these parties and events (Lam, Liang, Chikritzhs, & Allsop, 2013).
The survey was conducted by two-part surveys and means to collect the core data to analyze the situation and the problems which the students suffer. These surveys were conducted while the event was going on, and at the end of the event and also before the events. The prior surveys were started 2 months prior the event to ensure that the data collected over the period of time should be collected precisely and to make measurements and to also count the intensity of these phenomena's and results for the consumption of alcohol and drugs at these kind of events, and also to make aware of the students about the consequences which occurs after the consumption and taking of drugs and alcohol at such events. The modes of the surveys were face to face at the entry and exits point of the event and also the place where the event was taking place, Rottnest Island, Australia. The first paper survey was conducted two months before the events which asked the volunteers that are they intended to attend these school leavers' event and parties or not. This survey paper was available on both online and face to face basis. This survey was for about 15 minutes. These surveys have many advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of these surveys include many aspects and ratios. This survey showed a clear image of what age group and how many students are intended and interested in showing up in a school leavers' party. These surveys helped in collecting various important data and were very resourceful for research. The disadvantages include the cost of engaging the students in these surveys were very high, also there were some same and repeated volunteers which attended both prior and post-surveys of the event (Lam, Liang, Chikritzhs, & Allsop, 2013).
The demographic characteristics also play a vital role in the research of consuming alcohol and drugs at the school leavers' party. These surveys were conducted on Rottenest Island, which is located 20 km off the coast of Perth, Australia, which is also a very famous place for such events. The second survey was disseminated on the first day of celebration on five of the ferries which were traveling to Rottenest Island. This also gets the concern of the demography characteristics of the event. The ratios of males over females who attend the school leavers' event are more or less equal to each other. This post-celebration survey was completed with 405 people who traveled to the destination from which 50% were females, in which 94% of the females were under or equal to the age of 17 years and the remaining 6% were 18 years of age or above. The legal age for consuming alcohol in Australia is 18 years (Lam, 2011).
The total number of people participated in these surveys were 1466, from which the first survey was conducted from 541 people who tended to attend the school leavers' party. The next two surveys were conducted by the rest of the people from and post the event. The post-celebration survey was conducted from a sum of 405 volunteers. 37% of the people were surveyed with a pre-celebration survey, 28% of people were conducted surveys of post celebrations. A series of ranks and tests were conducted and performed to compare the Adolescent use of drugs and alcohol between an average day at the school leavers' party and the last event which they attended with their friends and group. These surveys were used to analyze the consumption rate of alcohol and drugs in such events. These data were so helpful for the research of studying the adverse effects and the consequences faced by the volunteers after the consumption of alcohol and drugs at school leavers' party, and also studying the results after taking the protective strategies for these adverse effects (Kraus, & Nociar, 2016).
The consumption of alcohol and drugs at such events like school leavers' celebration does creates some adverse effects among the young age students which includes many things like, hangovers, blackouts, vomiting, unprotected sex, physically aggression, heated argument etc.., in the whole surveys days of the event and post-event unprotected sex is one of the most common effects which occurred after the consumption of drugs and alcohol at the event. There were 13% of the population which were surveyed by the research team engaged into the unprotected sex column, out of which some of the volunteers regretted their sexual encounters and some were not happy about their sexual situation at that point of time. Out of these 13% population, 15.38% of people were not happy about their sexual situation, and 21.33% of the people regretted their sexual encounters.
The results of this research show that the consumption of Alcohol and Drugs in the school leavers' celebrations does create a negative and adverse effect on the young people of the country which suffers problems like vomiting, blackouts, and unprotected sexual encounters. This report shows the growth and the increasing rate of alcohol and drugs consumptions in the youth. Across the county, the average consumption of alcohol and drugs in young people is lower than this report (Moss, Goldstein, Chen, & Yi, 2015).
These reports and surveys are based on the rising tide of diabetes (type 2) Mellitus in the Chinese population. The survey to collect the data for research was based on a survey done on the household population of China. In total, the survey was conducted from a sum of 121,895 household population of China. The basic aim of this research was to study the rising tide of diabetes mellitus in the Chinese household and all the factors related to the disease. From the past few years, the disease of diabetes is rising day-by-day across the globe, so this research can be started all over the globe. The patients of diabetes are rising all over the world, whether the country is a developed country or an undeveloped country. Alternative research can be done on this topic as this research is done on a part of the population in Chinese household and even there are many factors which are not considered in this research report (Bergen-Cico, 2015).
This research is done on a sum of 121,895, from which people were taken from different age groups, sex, income levels, etc. This research was conducted in the city of Hong-Kong, which is one of the fastest-growing economic city in entire Asia. In the city of Hong-Kong, this disease, diabetes mellitus is detected in early ages among the young individuals with high-risk factors as heightened awareness about the disease and earlier diagnosis and more effective community-based health education programs. This diseases also occur from the lifestyle of the people living in the city. The lifestyle of Hong-Kong is very urbanized and western, because of this the chances of suffering from this disease increases (Yu, et al. 2016).
This research is based on the surveys conducted by this research team itself, there were no other data used in this research except the data collected on their own. These surveys were conducted in the year 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The survey assesses the rising trend of self-reporting of the disease diabetes within the population of Hong-Kong. A value of 121,895 people as part of this survey in the year 2001, 2002, 2005, and 2008 respectively. This research was done concerning age, sex, household incomes, etc. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the independent factors associated with diabetes (Zheng, Ley, & Hu, 2018).
In this research, the sum of 33609, 29561, 29802, and 28923 interviews were conducted successfully in 2001, 2002, 2005, and 2008 respectively. A sum of 103,367 people out of total 121,895 people was from the age group of 15 years or more, and the average age from this group was 38.2 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes among male adults was 2.80, 2.87, 3.32 and 4.66% in the years 2001, 2002, 2005, and 2008 respectively, on the other hand, the prevalence rate in females were 3.25, 3.37, 3.77 and 4.31% in the years 2001, 2002, 2005, and 2008 respectively. This adjusted prevalence is both the sex groups depicted an extreme rise with the increasing age. There was noted a progressive rising trend of self-reporting diabetes across the year from 2001 to 2008 in the age group equal to and below 75 age of years (Qiu, et al. 2016).
The greatest risk of suffering this disease is to the people who are living in urban cities and poor people. It is concluded that the people who are living in the developed cities like Hong-Kong are more likely to suffer from this disease because of the lifestyle of these cities, the people who live in countryside and villages are more likely to not suffer this disease according to this report. This report also suggests that poor people are more likely to suffer this disease (Wen, et al. 2019)
This study is conducted on a mass people of Hong-Kong city with the context of Age, Household income and Sex. This research is done and prepared based on data collected on their own. To collect the data for the research, there was training provided to the volunteers for conducting successful interviews with a very standard set of questionnaire which was identical across the different period of the part of the research. The population-based random sampling method facilitated generalizability of the finding and the statistical adjustment made to the prevalence figures minimized the effect of demographic changes in different years.