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STAT6000 Identifying and Interpreting Statistics: Research Articles Review Assessment 2 Answer


ASSESSMENT BRIEF
Subject Code and TitleSTAT6000: Statistics for Public Health
AssessmentAssessment 2: Assignment – Identifying and Interpreting Statistics in Research Articles
Individual/GroupIndividual
Length2000
Learning OutcomesThis assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
1. Understand key concepts in statistics and the way in which both descriptive and inferential statistics are used to measure, describe and predict health and illness and the effects of interventions.
  1. Apply key terms and concepts of statistics, including; sampling, hypothesis testing, validity and reliability, statistical significance and effect size.
  2. Interpret the results of commonly used statistical tests
presented in published literature.
SubmissionDue Sunday following the end of Module 4 at 11:55pm AEST/AEDT*
Weighting30%
Total Marks100 marks

Instructions:

This assessment requires you to read two articles and answer a series of questions in no more than 2000 words.

Most public health and wider health science journals report some form of statistics. The ability to understand and extract meaning from journal articles, and the ability to critically evaluate the statistics reported in research papers are fundamental skills in public health.

Read the Lam et. al. (2014) research article and answer the following questions:

  1. This paper presents two hypotheses. State the null and alternative hypothesis for each one, and describe the independent and dependent variables for each hypothesis.
  2. What kind of sampling method did they use, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of recruiting participants in this way?
  3. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper.
  4. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this study, and why?
  5. What is the odds ratio for engaging in unprotected sex (compared with those who engaged in safety strategies with the greatest frequency)? Interpret this by explaining what the odds ratio is telling us, including any variables that were controlled for in the model.
  6. How representative do you think the sample is of the national population of schoolies? Explain why.

Read the Wong et. al. (2014) paper and answer the following questions:

  1. Describe the aims of the study. Can either aim be restated in terms of null and alternative hypotheses? Describe these where possible.
  2. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper.
  3. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this paper, and why?
  4. What did the researchers find when they adjusted the prevalence rates of diabetes for age and sex?
  5. Interpret the odds ratios for self-reported diabetes diagnosis to explain who is at the greatest risk of diabetes.
  6. What impact do the limitations described by the researchers have on the extent to which the results can be trusted, and why?

Answer

article review

Paper I: Alcohol and Other Drugs use at school leavers' Events

Q1  

According to the study conducted by Lam, Liang, Chikrihzhs & Allsop (2014), the data revealed about the consumption of alcohol and other drugs during the events hosted at the schools, especially at the time of farewell. The students while passing out of the schools attend an age, where the individuals start drinking and consuming other drugs. The author stated that the pupils exhibit two different kinds of behavior during the school leaving ceremonies. According to the first hypothesis, it is seen that large number of school pupils are taking drugs and drinking liquors. However, the second hypothesis claimed that a section of students do not indulge in any such practices. These kids do not consume or drink any kind of alcoholic beverages or drugs. The scholar stated in the phenomena of drinking alcoholic beverages in such school leaving celebrations in not an uncommon tendency in the parts of Australia. Surprisingly, the developed countries around the world also follow similar kind of trend and support the school-going students in taking up if drugs or consuming liquor. With the evolution of industrialization, the society evidenced gradual change towards modernization and urbanization, which had tremendous impact on the lifestyle. Urbanization and modernization promoted more about high-class lifestyle that is being copied by the society at every strata. One of the adverse effect of such practice is increase in tendency of drinking and taking drugs has been considered to be stylish by the modern society.

On the contrary, there is certain section of the individuals do not consume alcoholic beverages or inject drugs, at least in their school leaving days or in parties. The scholar opined that such pupils might succumb to take alcohols in the later part of their life. According to the study Lam, Liang, Chikritzhs & Allsop (2014) highlighted the dynamics that affects the schoolchildren psychologically to consume alcohol. These factors include both dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables include peer pressure at that tender age. Moreover, the promotional events before and after the parties and events make the students excited about such stuffs. The independent variables generally include the holiday plans and the culture of the nation. The culture prevailing in the country has significant impact on the young minds. Additionally, during the school picnics or holidays the youngsters are able to experiment the dares that the individuals are normally unable to do at their homes. 

Q2 

Lam, Liang, Chikritzhs & Allsop (2014) conducted a survey to understand the nature and other specifications of the issue. Coulter, Marzell, Saltz, Stall & Mair (2016) pointed out that survey allows to collect data from a huge number of respondents which in turn allows the researchers to conduct high level statistical analysis due to the quantitative nature of the study. The current paper analyzed has used the survey method to collect the data required. The investigation was divided into two parts to collect data about the alcohol drinkers in school leaving parties. The main aim of the surveys was to gather accurate information about the students consuming liquor and further evaluate the challenge to suggest some recommendations to cope with the situation. The survey conducted by the scholar collected data before the party and while the event was going on. The second part of the study gathered information after the school-leaving event was over. The volunteers were asked questions two months before the event was scheduled about the intentions of attending the party. The author collected data over a span of time to make sure that the facts are accurate and measure the tendency of drinking and taking narcotics among the youngsters in the parties and school-leaving functions.

Lam, Liang, Chikritzhs & Allsop (2014) additionally attempted increasing awareness about the consequences and disadvantages of alcoholic beverages and drugs to the students during the parties. The scholar conducted the surveys using face-to-face interviews at the gates of the party. The event was hosted at Rottnest Island located in Australia. The assessment conducted 2 months before the party used both online and offline mode of interview. The duration of the interviews and assessment were restricted to 15 minutes. The first survey mainly queried for the students who were interested to attend the party. The survey revealed the accurate age group of the pupils’ intending to attend the school leaving party. Furthermore, it gave actual picture of the number of students attending the school-leaving party. The data collected through the assessment helped the scholar to evaluate the problem and acted as a resource for future analysis. However, the major challenge faced during the investigation was the rising cost for engaging the students for the assessment. Moreover, quite a number of times same pupils volunteered for the analysis.

Q3 

Lam (2011) propounded that the demographic variables are significant part of the study. Demographic profile reveals the age and gender ratio of the event attendees. The investigation to collect data about drug users and alcoholic beverage drinkers at school-leaving events was carried on Rottnest Island, which is in Australia, situated around 20 kilometer off to the shoreline of Perth. The locale is famous for hosting parties and functions throughout the year. According to the survey, five ferries were used by the young schoolchildren to commute to Rottnest Island. Consequently, the second assessment was done on the five ferries. The data collected by Lam, Liang, Chikritzhs & Allsop (2014) revealed that ratio of males and females attending the event was almost same. The scholar reviewed 405 individuals, who travelled and attended the school-leaving event. 50 percent of the interviewees were females and to the dismay of the author 94 percent of the girls were below or just attended the age of 17 years and 6 percent of the females were 18 years or more. The Australian government has legalized 18 years as the age for drinking. 

Q4

The author conducted the study with 1466 students, out of which 541 pupils participated prior to the party. The second assessment was conducted on 925 students during and after the event was hosted. The volunteers questioned after the celebration included 405 persons. Toumbourou, Gregg, Shortt, Hutchinson & Slaviero (2013) remarked that collecting data based on diverse population with diverse experience increases the richness of the data. This is followed in the current paper. It is reported that 37 percent of the interviewees included the first survey carried out before the event, whereas 28 percent of the respondents belonged to the after party group. To comprehend the adolescent usage of narcotics and alcohol various series of tests were carried and ranks were allotted. the data collected was utilized by the scholar to evaluate the consumption rate and study the consequences of the of consumption of alcoholic beverages at the party. 

Q5

The incidents of excessive drug abuse and alcohol consumption at the school-leaving function is creating lots of nuisance in the lives of the students and adversely affecting their health condition. The consumers are facing hangovers, blackouts, irritated, short-tempered, getting into arguments easily, physically violent, vomiting and indulging in unprotected sexual encounters. During the study, the most prevalent tendency of the students after consuming alcohol or drugs was to indulge themselves in unprotected sexual adventures. The facts revealed that 13 percent of the interviewees were involved in unprotected sexual encounters. However, some of the claimants stated that the individuals were not happy with their sexual incidents and few others replied that the persons regretted their decision of sexual encounter at that age. The statistics highlighted that 15.38 percent of the individuals lamented over their sexual accidents and 21.33 percent of the volunteers grieved over occurrence of such activity. 

Q6 

Moss, Goldstein, Chen & Yi (2015) reported that the analysis of the data collected in this study highlighted that consumption of alcoholic products and drugs in the school-leaving parties and functions adversely affect the youngsters of Australia. The tendency is negatively influencing the future of the country and the individuals are suffering from health issues such as blackouts, vomiting, dizziness and unprotected sexual intercourse after consumption of narcotics. The study further exposed that the number of alcohol and drug consumers are increasing tremendously at an alarming rate throughout Australia. The data stated in the report illustrates much lesser number of victims than the actual figure. 


Paper: II- Rising Tide of Diabetes Mellitus in China

Q1 

The study was carried out to understand the rising incidences of diabetes mellitus type II in the parts of China. The investigation involved the Chinese citizens for the study and conducted research in the household of the country. 121895 citizens were assessed for the research in China. The primary goal of the researcher was to comprehend the trend of diabetes mellitus and factors responsible for the disease (Wong, Leung, Tsang, Lo & Griffiths, 2013). Bergen-Cico (2015) claims that the incidents of disease increased tremendously in last few years in the entire world, irrespective of the fact that the nation is developed, under-developed or developing. The author further stated that the study has lots of scope as in this paper it is restricted to Chines population. Moreover, various factors responsible for Diabetes mellitus are not considered and requires huge amount of investigation.

Q2 

The study was conducted on 121,895 people of China. For the investigation the author considered citizens of all age groups, gender, education level, income, and from different sections of the society. The scholar conducted the assessment in the city of Hong-Kong. It is one of the most developed and fast paced metropolitan in Asia. The lifestyle and income levels of the metropolis is quite high standard and citizens are well educated (Chan & Leung, 2015). However, the investigator observed that diabetes mellitus is diagnosed at quite an early age of its citizens. The lifestyle of Hong-Kong is more inclined towards western world and urbanized, which accelerates the chances of occurrence of the disease (Quan et al. 2017). Nonetheless, the author mentions that the individuals are highly aware about the situation and the city exhibit effective community based health programs. 

Q3 

The researcher for the study collected the data and no secondary source was used for gathering information. The data was collected in 2001, 2002, and 2005 and in 2008. The investigation aimed at gathering information about the patients who reported about diabetes mellitus themselves. The scholar carried out the study in Hong-Kong, thereby spotting the cases of self-report in the city only. During these 4 years, 121895 citizens were considered for the further research. The independent variables affecting the rise in diabetes mellitus were studied by using binary logistic regression analysis. Binary logistic regression is a statistical analysis method that allows to analyse quantitative data properly (Wong, Leung, Tsang, Lo & Griffiths, 2013). 

Q4 

The researcher did 33609 interviews in the year 2001. In 2002, 2005 and 2008 the scholar dis 29561, 29802 and 28923 interviews in the city of Hong-Kong respectively. A total of one lakh three thousand three hundred and sixty seven individuals out of 121895 belonged to the group of fifteen years of age or above. 38.2 years is the average age of the patients reporting diabetes mellitus. The report revealed that in 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2008 the age-adjusted onset of the disease in the males were 2.80, 2.87, 3.32 and 4.66 percent respectively. Similarly, the index of rise in females was 3.25, 3.37, 3.77 and 4.31 percent in the consecutive years. Increasing ratio of number of people suffering from any disease implies increase in the occurrence of a disease. For the current paper, the ratios of both males and females show progressive increase in the occurrence of diabetes in Hong-Kong.

Q5 

Wen, et al. (2019) indicated that the urban people faces higher chances of suffering from diabetes mellitus, which can be owed to the lifestyle and food habits of the citizen. The individuals residing in the metropolis like Hong-Kong have greater chances of developing the disease rather than the rural and village fellow citizens. Nonetheless, the article also advocated that the poor individuals are likely to develop diabetes mellitus if residing in the city. 

Q6  

The research was carried out in the city of Hong-Kong, where different individuals belonging to various households, income groups, gender and age was questioned. The volunteers who were uniformly trained collected the data about the study, to maintain standardization while gathering information. Moreover, the interviewers utilized same set of questionnaire for collecting information about the disease and its causing factors. Radom sampling method was used for the study to collect data from the population. Nonetheless, the researcher made few statistical changes to reduce the effect of change in demographic factors over period of years. 

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